Name :Reem Emad ElsragyID; OPCF12-019 Oman medical collage
4th year pharmaceutical management
Topic : Applications of marketing research
APPLICATIONS OF MARKETING RESEARCH is the product which is going to be marked should be researched to meet several goals for example, design of innovative product or old product that already happens to have approved strength market research, and line extension . The APPLICATIONS OF MARKETING RESEARCH is divided to
Strategic 2. Tactical
The strategic include segmentation forecasting for sales forecasting, segmentation studies, target markets for a new or old product is known , and positioning strategies identification.

Tactical the applications which the product is applied for product testing, pricing, advertising and promotional research, as well as distribution and logistics related research studies.

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Application of marketing
1-Pricing Research
The pricing is provided by strong pricing research. Research of pricing help to choose the product which haves the best features configuration in the right market positioning opportunities. quantitative method is used as well as qualitative.
2-Product Research
Used for product that are newly design and market validation research, or by assessing old product that has been in the market for a while. optimal strange and line extension potential are checked annually . 
Marketing size
Product category attitude and usages trend
Marketing opportunity research
Ideal generation
Create refined concept
Concept testing research
Brand equality
3-Concept Testing
Advertising concepts, new product concepts, and affordable, pricing, brand concepts, brand names, and positioning strategy concepts is checked first then concentrate on developing than screening. developing which require for exploratory market research, both tangible attribute clusters, and emotional appeals are taken in concern when creating concepts
4-Positioning Research
market creative branding and positioning research can be defined and enter with a strong positioning strategy. At the beginning it is needs to make market positioning concept , potential markets, and current
5-Marketing Due Diligence
it is used to remove the least attractive prospects and to enable early planning of post-merger integration. And to reduce some major risks such as losing customers through duplication or defections.
6-Customer Satisfaction Research
Qualitative research shows how the customers make the purchase and repeat purchase decisions.

7-Brand Equity Research
It study the effect of both depth and breadth of the brand power in the target markets. Both standard and custom-tailored brand equity survey measurements are used in this research
8-Advertising Research
specific advertising goals and the stage of ad development, or campaign based on these the advertising design is done. Advertising research techniques include ad recall surveys and message
9-Market Segmentation
It is important for maintaining focus and delivers needed of the costumer for marketing information. where there is new products and markets categories that keep on emerging every day and the traditional market segments decreasing
10-Sales Analysis
It is the initial step in product and brand analysis. marketing analysis data taking out effort searches for meaning and insight among the stacks of sales data and marketing data. this is an importance tool for targeting the best customers, find which advertising and promotion methods are most efficient and effective.

Methods of Types of Marketing Research
Initially this is done to have information, idea and understanding the problem before the research is done. Most of the exploratory is qualitative than quantitative .as well as conclusive evidence and subsequent research are not needed
Diagnosing a Situation: when companies have got problems and they are unable and unclearly know how to define it .
Screening Alternatives: there is many options, but the company is unable to take them all due to finance restrictions
Uncovering New Ideas: due to the new product the costumer is unable to choose what they need
It is done when there is some comprehension of the problem. The objectives are decided , and the research questions are formulated. Usually the consumer profiling and market segmentation are required.

It is also known as causal research
It illustrated the relationship between the cause and effect. exploratory and descriptive research are required in this research due to that, a lot of information is going to be gathered on the topic.


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Are Entrepreneurs Born or Made?
TOC o “1-3” h z u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc510163806 h 3Are entrepreneurs born or made PAGEREF _Toc510163807 h 3Advantages of entrepreneurship development programs PAGEREF _Toc510163808 h 6Disadvantages of entrepreneurship development programs PAGEREF _Toc510163809 h 7Chris Kirubi (Kenyan entrepreneur) PAGEREF _Toc510163810 h 8
INTRODUCTIONEntrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs.

In simple terms an Entrepreneur is someone who designs, launches, and runs a new business or “an owner or manager of a business enterprise who makes money through risk and initiative”
Are entrepreneurs born or madeEntrepreneurs are not born. Entrepreneurs are like competitors, they do not need common inborn body and muscles. A competitor’s kid may grow up a competitor, yet it would not occur in a business person’s family. Numerous organizations bankrupted ordinary, including some Entrepreneur’s family. Be that as it may, entrepreneurs are naturally made, and they claim some uncommon characteristics and furthermore require a few trainings and encounters as competitors. Numerous individuals from Entrepreneur’s families begin their own business and progress toward becoming entrepreneurs ordinary. There are numerous cases of entrepreneurs who began their organizations as a green hand, rather than acquiring from their families. In this way we couldn’t state that entrepreneurs are conceived, in any case, the entrepreneurs gained numerous characteristics that made them achievement.

The principle nature of entrepreneurship is advancement, which isn’t acquired normally. Development is another item, another innovation, another source, and another market . Apple, make its prosperity by advancement. As we as a whole know, Apple will discharge his new item or development of its current items consistently, and the huge accomplishment of iphone, ipad and imac make Steven Jobs the most understood renowned business visionary. It is the same with Microsoft. Microsoft discharges its new items consistently. We as a whole have seen that consistently we will refresh our framework to the new window. The fame of the framework demonstrates the achievement of Microsoft, and makes Bill Gates the renowned business person.
All things considered, the feeling of advancement isn’t developed common, it originates from circumstances. At the point when there is issue, there are openings. Quite a long while prior, there are no virtual products in the PC, and Bill Gates made his entrepreneurship from making the primary programming, window. The issue discovering quality is the quality that everybody were conceived with, and the open door is simply originating from those issues.

The second nature of entrepreneurship is understanding, which is precisely removed from posteriority. Around 60 percent of the entrepreneurial pioneers are “progressed”, and the main positioning element of accomplishment is the experience as the worker. Individuals can learn wordings and abilities for business evoked as their dialect, and the systems of maintaining a business turn into his or her restrictive reflex, which will make their future working business viably and proficiently. From the past experience, the business visionary can without much of a stretch handle the key of an issue and anticipating the improvement of his or her business. The standards of business are basic, making a business arrangement, ordinating your clients, working and building up the business. From your past experience, you will have the diagram of your business, and additionally, you have as of now have your clients when you begin. In this way with your work understanding, you are really bouncing the initial two stages, which are making a business arrangement and ordinating clients, and specifically alternate way into the third step – working and building up the business.
The third nature of entrepreneurship is learning, which isn’t characteristic yet gained from instruction. ” And if encounter is the best training, the classroom isn’t a long ways behind. Advanced education was positioned the main factor by right around 33% of respondents, simply behind representative experience” . Entrepreneurs are looking with different of difficulties from back, task, association, and laws. Working the business requires you comprehend money related proclamations. Budgetary explanations, comprising of wage proclamation, income articulation and monetary record, is an apparatus for entrepreneurs to track their tasks. The information of money related articulation isn’t gained normally, it is gotten from examine. The comprehension of monetary articulation, as well as the money related proportion examination are required as a business person. Keeping in mind the end goal to participate with government, the business person has to know the directions, for example, charges and diversifying. The absence of back information might be lethal. The knowledge will drive the entrepreneurs make the right decision for their business and operate better.

The fourth nature of an entrepreneur is a decent feeling of managing individuals, correspondence. Individuals are not conceived with great correspondence since we as a whole begin from learning dialects, however they can begin learning relational abilities at an early age. Imparting great means the entrepreneurs will get their potential clients and increased more clients from a spectacular client benefit. Sales representatives will presumably end up fruitful entrepreneurs since they will touch the clients specifically and know their necessities. We learn relational abilities through the connections and the general public of others. It is an association among st individuals, and the fruitful entrepreneurs will know the general population’s upsides and downsides through correspondence, along these lines will decide their future way of the business.

Aside from advancement, experience, learning, and correspondence, characteristics, for example, collaboration and initiative, honesty, and enthusiasm are likewise imperative. Collaboration and administration is a basic capacity that was picked up from life, not conceived. It required the business person address complex issues by using qualities of various gathering individuals and make a cooperative energy that expands development and effective results. The group bigly affects the business, so the business visionary need to sort out his group well. It is the business visionary and pioneer’s undertaking to convey and tune in, make inquiries and outline, verbalize an objective, and fabricate individuals certainty. These errands like correspondence are not conceived, nonetheless, they are prepared through assignments and gathering ventures. That is the reason the business colleges are instructing and preparing understudies the above abilities. Notwithstanding it, honesty, which prompts a legit business, is likewise an individual aptitude that were exceedingly impacted from the living condition, not conceived. The business would not exist long in the event that it deceived its clients. The entrepreneurs need to persuade the customers to purchase their item or contribute their organizations through the strategy for uprightness, with the goal that they will pick up benefit and get financing for their business. Enthusiasm, like aspiration in entrepreneurship, influences your work and business to encounter overhaul into entrepreneurship level . Everybody have energy, and enthusiasm influences entrepreneurs to begin and develop their organizations. Energy is an individual quality that was gained for a fact. It is a sort of certainty of your business you land with. Just when the business visionary focuses on his or her objective, will he or she have enthusiasm in the business. Hence, Teamwork and Leadership, uprightness and energy are not made, but rather obtained after conceived.

Advantages of entrepreneurship development programs1. It gives an incredible measure of flexibility. In the event that you are working for a manager and an organization, you have to meet every one of their necessities and just have next to no flexibility at work. Then again, on the off chance that you begin your own business, you will have the capacity to make your own requests and set your own particular calendar. You direct all that you do, giving you a level of flexibility that you won’t see when you are utilized.
2. It can be energizing. Entrepreneurship can be exceptionally energizing, with numerous entrepreneurs considering their endeavours profoundly charming. Consistently will be loaded with new chances to challenge your assurance, aptitudes and capacities.
3. It enables you to set your own profit. Obviously, you will be the one setting your own particular wage and influencing ventures when you to claim the business. The work that you do would be for something you possess, which can be an enormous preferred standpoint contrasted with when you are filling in as a worker for a specific organization.

4. It offers adaptability. As a business person, you can plan your work hours around different responsibilities, including quality time you would go through with your family.

Disadvantages of entrepreneurship development programs1. It expects you to devote a colossal measure of time. One major test in beginning your own business is the measure of time you need to devote to it. Keep in mind that entrepreneurship isn’t simple, and for it to be fruitful, you need to take a level of time duty that numerous individuals are simply not willing to make. What’s more, regardless of whether you can appreciate adaptability in your work routine when your wander becomes effective, you will in any case need to devote a generous measure of time to developing the business.
2. It can be hard to contend with different organizations. It is essential for a business visionary to remain focused. This implies you need to separate your business from others in your specialty keeping in mind the end goal to manufacture a strong client base and, at long last, end up beneficial.
3. It doesn’t ensure 100% achievement. Entrepreneurship would influence your fantasies to work out, which does not frequently occur with customary business, but rather you have to make a few penances to get it going. You should realize that this kind of wander does not ensure 100% achievement.

4. It accompanies capricious work routines. One noteworthy downside of being a business visionary is that more work and longer hours will be required from you than being a worker. While you need to end up your own particular manager, you should first know the measure of exertion, time and speculation to make your wander effective. Despite the fact that there is a great deal of prizes originating from it, it additionally has certain drawbacks.

Chris Kirubi (Kenyan entrepreneur)Not at all like a few of us who had a genuinely simple adolescence, Chris Kirubi experienced childhood in a poor home, he lost his folks at an early age and he needed to begin work right on time with a specific end goal to meet the every day needs of his family. This experience establish a framework for him to wind up the fruitful business visionary he is today. Be that as it may, building his business realm did not come without what’s coming to its of difficulties and disappointments en route. His biggest disappointment was the point at which he endeavored to wander into the work of art industry. Chris felt that as long as he delivered quality paint, his item would offer.
At the time, the paint business was commanded by a couple of people who were likewise the real merchants and contractual workers. They were undermined by Kirubi’s new item and keeping in mind the end goal to smother his item, no enormous contractual worker would purchase his paint and there was nobody willing to stock his item. The few who took his paint assumed it on praise with the guarantee to pay back however they never extremely paid him. After some time, Kirubi went into immense obligation and he was compelled to close down the organization.
Today, he is one of the wealthiest entrepreneurs in Kenya. He is the chief at Centum Investments, possesses Capital FM and numerous others. He runs a few organizations crosswise over Africa.

All in all, there is numerous individuals move toward becoming entrepreneurs. Well known entrepreneurs like Jobs Steve, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffet made their business gigantic. These popular effective entrepreneurs are not competitors who were conceived with inalienable body and muscles, yet they are nurturally made and prepared through the act of their business. Entrepreneurs had a similar back characteristics. A decent feeling of development will survive a business from an emergency and make it the pioneer of its field, and the entrepreneurs discover openings from issues and make the advancements. Rich experience, positioning number one of the factor of entrepreneurship, will make the entrepreneurs effectively conquer some business emergency and estimate its improvement. Balanced information in the field, similar to the utilization of money related articulations, knowing the administration directions is basic for the entrepreneurs to work their business. Great relational abilities, picked up for a fact of managing individuals, will get the business pioneer potential clients and picked up an enormous benefit from it. Notwithstanding all the above, collaboration and authority, trustworthiness, and enthusiasm are additionally keys to entrepreneurship which are obtained through preparing and practice. In addition, these characteristics are gained, not conceived. One can accomplish a decent feeling of entrepreneurship by tempered himself through training and could pick up the characteristics in the hardening. Just by one’s push to secure and temper the characteristics, will he or she turn into a business person.References

Entrepreneurs are Born or Made ? Analysis & Opinions.

Name: Esther Naa Bortiokor Bortey.

ID: 10619580
Practical Number: 2
Date: Tuesday, 27th February 2018.

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Title: Examination of Living Microorganisms Using the Compound Light Microscope.

Microorganisms are so called because they are so small that they cannot be ordinarily seen using unaided eye. The optical instrument that magnifies the image of these organisms that enables us to view their morphological features is a microscope. Microscopes therefore allow for magnification and visualization of cells and cellular components that cannot be seen with the naked eye. The word microscope is derived from the Latin word micro (small) and the Greek word skopos (to look at) (Totora et al, 2010). Antony Van Leeuwenhoek is often considered as the father of microscopy, although compound microscopes were actually invented much before. According to Totora (2010), the microscope Van Leeuwenhoek made was a single lens like that of a magnifying glass with a magnification of 300X and Joseph Jackson Lister was the one who developed a microscope which was greatly advanced in 1830.
Willey et al (2008), elaborates on the fact that microscopes can be classified in different ways, but one easiest way is by the way they produce their images. Some use light, others use a beam of electrons or sound waves. Also, some produce highly detailed two dimensional images and others produce a low powered magnification of three dimensional image. The types of microscopes are the optical microscopes, electron microscopes and the others.
The optical microscopes are also called the light microscopes, they are microscopes that use visible light from a light source to examine specimens through the use of lenses and the types of optical microscopes are the compound light microscope, darkfield microscope, phase-contrast microscope, differential interface contrast(DIC) microscope, fluorescence microscope and confocal microscopes.

The electron microscopes simply scans with electrons producing very detailed images, this is because the wavelength of light is greater than that of the electrons and hence allows for more details when scanning. Scanning electron microscopes and transmission electron microscopes are the two types of electron microscopes.

Apart from these two types, the others are less common and mostly used by research scientists, they include the scanning probe microscope which scans the sample with a physical probe and generates an image with a computer, and the scanning acoustic microscope employs the use of sound waves to measure the sample, finally the x-ray microscope which uses electromagnetic radiation in the form of x-rays to produce images of tiny objects. ,Additionally, the scanning acoustic microscope is used to find craks and voids, detect counterfeit materials, test for failure and reliability and perform quality control on physical materials and the x-ray is also used on biological research and metallurgy (Murray et al, 2013).

With a compound light microscope, we can examine very small specimens as well as some of their fine detail hence mostly used for lab works. Slides are prepared and placed on the stage of the microscope for examination. Atlas (1946) says that the slides can be prepared by either the wet mount technique or the hanging drop technique to observe living organisms. In a wet mount the specimen is usually suspended in a drop of liquid mostly water located between slide and cover slip and for the hanging drop, a cavity slide is placed over a drop of the water sample on a cover slip and inverted so that the drop is suspended (Jawetz et al, 2013). The wet mount was used for this practical in order to observe the natural shape, size and arrangement of bacteria and yeast cells in living conditions.
1. To demonstrate the correct use of the compound light microscope.
2. To observe wet mount slides of yeast and bacteria cells, and draw diagrams of them.

3. To observe the motility of bacteria and yeast cells.

Samples Apparatus
Yeast Specimen Slide
Bacteria Specimen Cover slip
A wet mount was prepared from bacteria and or yeast cells and placed on the compound light microscope. The stage clip was used to hold the prepared slide of yeast in position onto the stage and adjust the stage so that the sample comes in line with the source of light. The revolving turret was turned so that the lowest power objective which is 4X is in position and then adjusted the eyepieces on the microscope to suit personal measurements in order to see sample clear with both eyes. Then looked at the objective lens and stage from the side and turn the course adjustment knob so the stage moves upwards. The stage was moved up without letting the objective lens touch the coverslip. When it has gotten close enough, the fine adjustment knob was used to bring the image into focus. The objective lens was changed to 40X to obtain a better image as well as the adjustment of the light’s intensity for clearer images. Diagrams were obtained for the sample of yeast cells and the process was repeated for the sample of bacteria cells but this time the objective lens was readjusted to 100X.

Figure 1, the yeast cells under the microscopes were observed to be transparent organisms and they were spherical and round in shape with some being small and others quite large in size.The yeast cells were observed to be motile. No filaments were observed. Fungi, according to Murray et al. ( 2013) are unicellular forms of fungi and are larger than bacteria even though they are bacteria-like structures. An example of yeast cell is the Candida albicans.

Bacteria have three typical morphologies: the cocci (spherical bacteria), the bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) and the spiral or curved shaped bacteria, such as the spirillum, the spirochetes and the Vibrio sp. (Moore, 2016). Figure 2 shows that the bacteria cells observed looked spherical and at the same spiral. Moore elaborates that bacteria with this type of morphology are coccobacillus.

Additionally, both cell samples were observed to be motile. Totora (2010) states that the structures used for motility are the flagella and the pili also known as fimbrae. Flagella are filamentous appendages that propels the organism and made up of filaments, hooks and a basal body. The pili are short generally and present in large numbers.
Motile organisms move from one place to the other indicating true motility and not Brownian movement. Talora (2008) describes Brownian movement to be movement caused by the molecule in the liquid striking an object and causing the object to shake or bounce at almost the same place maintaining their relative positions.

Answers To Questions
5. Diaphragm.

6. The role of fine adjustment is to move the Objective lens with finer movements. The object under observation is brought to the focus by adjusting the distance between the Objective lens and the object. While using higher magnifications, it is this distance is very critical and slight variation makes the image out of focus. Hence, it is very difficult to adjust the distance or in other words ‘focus the image’ using course focus. The fine adjustment option moves the Objective lens to very less distances per turn of the knob allowing the user to bring the object into the focus.

8.  The Iodine or alcohol kills them and allows you to look at them and any internal structures they might have.

6. The drop should be hanging in order to view the true true motility of the microbesfrom one plce to the other.
Microscopes are the instruments used to observe and examine microorganisms since they cannot be viewed with the naked eye. The compound light microscope aids in examining the morphology of the yeast and bacterial cells as well as their motility. Observations show that microorganisms come in different sizes and shapes. The flagella and pili are the structures used for movement.
Atlas, M.R. (1946). Principles of Microbiology. Great Britain: Morby.
Jawetz , Melnick and Adelberg. (2013). Medical Microbiology, 26th Ed
Moore, K. (2016). Oriented Microbiology.Murray P. R. , Rosenthalk K.S. , Pfaller M.A. (2013). Medical Microbiology, 7th Ed. Phidadelphia: Sanders Elsevler Inc. Pg. 4.

Totora, G .J. , Funke, B. R. and Case, C.L. (2010) Microbiology: An Introduction, 10th Ed.

Talora, K. P., (2008). Foundation in Microbioology. McGraw- Hill, United States.

Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton C. J. (2008) Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology, 7th Ed. New York, McGraw-Hill: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Pp. 87-135


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