STUDENT ID: R1710D3611630
MOBILE: +260 979 577 397
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Article Review

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Shen, D., Cho, M. H., Tsai, C.L., Marra, R. Unpacking online learning experiences: Online learning self-
efficacy and learning satisfaction. Internet and Higher Education 19 (2013) 10-17. The purpose of the
article is to identify dimensions of online learning self-efficacy. Shen et al. (2013). Several test and
researches were carried out and the statistics are provided just to boost our understanding and
knowledge on how to self-efficacy has an impact on how well we perform using the online platform.
Different dimensions were reviewed and it gets interesting or realistic for used of a better word, as
we move from one to another. According to the article, many empirical researches were carried out
in the aid of understanding self-efficacy and it’s performance level using the online platform. Along
with the decision presented, demographic variables were also the divulged into as these also showed
to be the key component to online learning self-efficacy. The article simplified the different variables
and also provides in depth insights on the pros and cons of online learning self-efficacy.

To bring across the importance, while listing factors that may have a negative impact of self-efficacy
is the main purpose of this article and even thought more empirical than theoretical researches were
carried out. I express great satisfaction in the number of tests that were conducted and they were
actually done by student’s main focus. The different dimensions of online learning self-efficacy
mentioned in my introduction; to complete an online course, to interact socially with classmates, to
handle tools in Course Management System (CMS). To interact with instructors and to interact with
classmates for academic purposes are the Five Headings under which the test were conducted. When
tested amongst the different variables; prior online learning experience, gender and academic status.
The statistics showed that the male gender had a lower level of self-efficacy in most of the dimensions
listed and that raised a level of concern. While we must individually take ownership of our learning,
we must also learn to develop a “no man is an island” (Donne, 1600) or an “each one teach one”
(author unknown) mentality. Not only will it help to develop us as an individual, it will also aid in
enhancing our self-efficacy to interact with classmates both socially and academically, which is where
we see Two of the dimensions coming out. I made mention earlier that there were major concerns
raised regarding the level of self-efficacy expressed from the male gender, based on the on the lower
level of self-efficacy observed, the authors urged the instructors to give more attention to that specific
sex. It was also derived that the number of online courses taken, played a role in boosting the level of
self-efficacy to complete an online course. As it relates to academic status, the article indicated that
no noticeable amount of differences were found between graduates and undergraduates in self-
efficacy hence the reason it was chosen as a dimension. For students like myself, who have little or no
knowledge of nor experience with the online learning platform, I firmly believe that constant
monitoring, guidance and evaluation is necessary to aid the reduction of the dropout rate for students
in the online learning environment (Ali & Leeds, 2009) and to assist in the development of students
level of self-efficacy overall including interacting with instructors, ensuring that they can handle tools
in a CMS and effectively complete an online course. Once more I strongly express that I am for this
article and all the points expressed, the solutions are simple.

STUDENT ID: R1710D3611630
MOBILE: +260 979 577 397
EMAIL: [email protected]

People’s judgement of their capabilities to organize and execute of action required to attain
designated types of performances (Bandura, 1986, p. 391), is self-efficacy. We must be mindful of
others and know that in every experience there are room for errors and growth, let us use both to
strengthen our self-efficacy to; interact with classmates both socially and academically, interact with
instructors, complete our online course and effectively handle tools in Course Management System.
This article was written based on tests done on students and empirical researches were carried out.
No scientific work was done but based on statistic included, none was really necessary.
Bandura, A. (1986).

Name: Yosra Khoffi

Case study: Nivea
Question 1:
Nowadays, customers have easiest ways to shop and compare products on websites such as or They now can express satisfaction and influence friends and surroundings by sharing their experience (websites as Therefore, they can change the brand, or the company whenever they want.
To gain the trust of the consumers, companies must accept that customers are now in charge. Creating a customer-led marketing culture is the best way to succeed in your business. Consumer led means that the company should develop a new product or service to the market according to the need of the consumer. It is not about producing and then willing to find customers and satisfy them. Thus, a company must understand study the target market through a market research before starting anything.
Question 2:
NIVEA’s brand is best known for providing quality skin care (Clean, fresh, natural and pure) as well as trust and reliability. Besides, Nivea’s products have a reasonable price while maintaining a high quality.

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As it is said in the case study, Nivea is a synonym of care and protection for the skin. That means it is a universal caretaker of skin since it expanded all over the world.
Their source of brand equity comes from their recognizable logo (which is simple) and packaging as well as their colour (blue).

Consumers continue to purchase and trust this product based upon its uniqueness (caretaker of skin). Nivea’s brand has also a strong association to the concept of family’s experience starting from infancy (Nivea baby) to male gender (Nivea Men) including intimate care for all the family.

The brand image and source of equity doesn’t vary across product class.

It maintained a unique image of protection and care. All products have a high quality with a reasonable price. They don’t seek to solve a problem. In fact, they are just willing to share a good experience with their consumers.

NIVEA’s brand hierarchy would be as follows:

Question 3:
Set a positive perception and extend brand equity
Higher share of market for Nivea
It can increase profit because of the promotion of new products
Gain recognition
Establish brand loyalty and trust
Facilities regarding retail stores
Efficient brand marketing and management (specific segments and differentiation)
If it is unsuccessful, it will affect the main brand and even others sub brands and reduce their impact Cannibalization
It can also disorient the image of the company to a profit seeking instead of customer oriented.

Confusion between the main brand and the sub-brand for the consumer.

Increase competition
Nivea has a wide product line (15 products under its name (Nivea)). It is always willing to innovate its product and fulfil its customer’s needs. As I mention in the previous question, it has a strong brand equity for a unique brand. All the products send the same message and image to the customer.

Therefore, running an umbrella brand would be more suitable for its situation since it will provide competitive advantages.

Nivea began advertising in 1912. Advertising has covered through these years an informative and guiding role such as ‘blue bible’. It is also more about the image and the message than about the words and the content. “Pictures travel, words don’t” as said Norbert Krapp, Nivea’s vice president of skin care. They use the image of the brand (Colour and logo) at European beaches each summer, promoting bus in Russia and posting advertisement covering the outside of the Kremlin. Nivea was there in the most important events of its consumers such as Christmas (Blue Santa Claus giving Crème in Germany), sports tour, school education program and even concerts.

It should continue to enhance its quality and resonate with costumers since it will reinforce the brand history (100 years) as well as the strong awareness of the brand. I believe they shouldn’t change it because it provides a huge support for the sub-branding strategy.

Question 4:
Awareness to the brand as well as faster access to the market
Enhance consumer recognition and brand association
Nivea can make profit in different departments
Easier for retail distribution
Lack of clarity
Negative effect on the parent’s brand image in case of failure: Damage the brand equity
Restriction towards the positioning of new products
Requires coordination and continuity between the products
Difficulty of retail distribution
The use of the ‘Blue bible’ which includes details, information and guidelines for product of the brand and its sub-brands has helped to make it clear in the consumer’s mind. According to Norbert Krapp: “The best (branding step) we did in recent years”. It goes also with the global website of Nivea.
The fact that each sub brand has its president and each country has its local agency affiliate empowered the brand.
Workshops for body and soul (Germany, UK and USA) as well as partnering with hospitals and sponsoring young mothers in maternity wards allows the customer to be more aware of the brand extension. “House of Nivea” (in Hamburg, Germany) is another way to manage its extension. Nivea continued also to innovate its products and develop ad executions.

What Nivea might miss as an opportunity is to grow its market segment by including more products for men.

I believe that foot care can be added to Nivea Body. However, I don’t think that developing perfume would be a good idea for the brand because it will spread too thin from the mere brand and it will engender confusion for consumers. It will be over-extendable because there is no correlation and real connection with the brand equity.

Question 5:
Nowadays, men take care of themselves more than in the past. Since the target market represent an effective segmentation (As it is measurable, substantial, accessible, differentiable and actionable), I believe that Nivea should go for a men’s grooming category.
Thus, I don’t think that pursuing a men’s grooming category will risk alienate its core customer base. On the contrary, I believe it will enhance the concept of family experience (adding men to the list of child, women and teenagers or young consumers).

Question 6:
Marketing Mix refers to the 4 controllable elements (the 4Ps) of a product which are Product, Price, Place and promotion. In order to build an effective mix, we need to understand what the customer wants, the valuable price, where to sell it and how (through a market research)?
The product is the first step to take into consideration since it represents the centre of marketing mix. It is developed through a market research and once understanding what customers want.
Secondly, we have to fix a price which is related to the cost and the quality of the product. We should also be aware of our competitor’s price. High price will make our customers distant and low price will make the company lose money. Price is key because any product need it to enter the market.

Place is where the customer can access to the product. Should it be on internet or in shops? It has to be in an appropriate point of sale that meets its characteristics.

Finally, Promotion is about choosing the perfect time and place to deliver your product to the market target. It is a key because it will establish the awareness of the product.

Question 7:
All the elements of the marketing mix have an interaction with one another. They are all important to maintain the balance for marketing the product. If the product is not enough desirable for market, they won’t purchase it. Without a suitable and valuable price that meets customer’s expectations, the purchase won’t take place. Without adequate promotion, no one will know about the product.
In other words, we cannot put a luxury product at affordable price and selling it in supermarkets. We cannot also sell a low quality bag at high price and in a very attractive area of the shop. This is the main reason why the 4 factors should cooperate and be connected.
Moreover, the 4 elements of the marketing mix have an impact on marketing strategy since they affect positioning (based on your price), targeting and segmentation decisions (Both based on the product).

A company should emphasize on each element to have a balance and satisfy the customer which will allow its growth and development.

Question 8:
Young consumers wanted more specialised face care that fit their age. They want to avoid medical products and focus more on a healthy lifestyle that can afford them a pure and fresh skin. As it is said in the case study, this gives Nivea a competitive advantage.
The product has been revised (Changing of the formula, changing in the description of the product and its packaging, changes related to environment such as recycling and waste) and recreated to the special needs of young consumers.
Nivea concentrate more on the high volume of market purchases while providing products at a low price (Using methods as loss leader or BOGOF). It encouraged customers to buy more and more. This has generated a lot of benefit to the company. Nivea Young pricing represents 7% of Nivea visage sales.

According to researches, the majority of purchases was made by mums, buying for their daughters. Young women don’t have usually the time to take care of their skin even if they want to. It is usually mums who think about that. In my case, it is usually my mother who buy for me skin products. Therefore, Nivea didn’t just put its products into large high street shops but also at retail outlets and in supermarkets (where mothers can buy it while doing their grocery shopping). It used a central distribution point.

Along with this for enhancing the awareness of the brand, Nivea has launched an online magazine called FYI. Nivea took into consideration the power of social network sites for young people. They could not pay attention when people come in the street to ask them about Nivea but they will definitely take enough time to considerate what the magazine is about and how can they benefit from it on internet. The magazine aims to be friendly with its customers. Thus, Nivea used traditional methods (samples) as well as modern methods (Hit40UK and TMF) including active pages in Myspace, Facebook and Bebo.

I believe that these additional advantages gave the opportunity to develop more the business.

Name : Arzoo Tauqeer
MSC-IR 4th semester
Subject: Media and politics
Submitted to: Ma’am Rabail hamzaTopic of Article: The Role of Media in Political Process
The media plays a vital role of any liberal democracy shaping the perception of the people. Media acts as watch dog, as guardian of the public interest, it can promote democracy by using such techniques such as educating voters, protecting human rights, ensuring that government being transparent and accountable. The importance of free press cannot be under estimated because government is unable to control all the information regarding its own actions then it could most certainly lose its accountability and even having unacceptable level of influence over its public action. The basic aim of a free media is to scrutinize the government consciously so that people should be kept updated with accurate and impartial information to take any action accordingly. The media more often referred as the fourth branch of the government because of its oversight function and power they exercise.

The media at the same time can play anti-democratic roles as well such as they can sow fear, division and violence. Instead of promoting democracy, they can be a reason in democratic decay.

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The media comprised of Radio, TV, satellite, Newspaper and the internet services, by this unprecedented growth it helped to bring political information to large masses. It is very hard to remove political influence and enforce neutral position, as media and liberal democracies are facing specific problems. The media not only report the news but also represent the views of different segments of society. Some of the organization take one side of the political spectrum by providing biased information using propaganda techniques, here the source creates the confusion and mistrust among the audiences.

Democracy cannot take effective impression if the poor people and powerless are kept out of the public sphere and remain unaware of their rights. For bringing justice to society or keeping the people aware of their rights, the media being effective player provide the information to the poor people so that they take part in public life.

The main issue in liberal democracies is the emergence of media empires. These empires distort the information or divert the mind of their audiences by propagating events into another dimension. Some of the individuals concentrate various assets of media and use them actively to influence political opinion, by sending powerful political message on behalf or against a political establishment through their respective media empires. This resultant into damaging perception of general public as they are exposed to media empire due to high popularity. The individuals have the ability to provoke people or interest groups into mobilizing by introducing the a certain issue by displaying horrific images from the battlefield or controversial things to gather massive response.

The media from its various diversion could possibly distort the quality of information and that could distort the decision of the people. If the positive issues are reported in negative manner then some voters will vote against the right person contrary of their interest.

According to vertical and horizontal functions media actually have an effect on how well democracy can work. Countries with high degree of media shows high levels of political participation and less corruption. It is clear that media performance is related to at least some aspects of the functioning of a democratic regime. The owners of media empires have adapted swiftly new technology and expanding to various broadcast media such as private and satellite TV. Media empire continue to dominate much of the main stream broad cast networks in the liberal democracy by eliminating the heavy-handed regulation ,government intervention or censorship.

Name: Kolten Saunders
Course CSIS 325
Date 11/20/2018
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc530515612 h 32.Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc530515613 h 42.1What is the research is attempting to solve? PAGEREF _Toc530515614 h 42.2The implications of the Biblical worldview on problem PAGEREF _Toc530515615 h 43.Literature review PAGEREF _Toc530515616 h 53.1Goals for data protection PAGEREF _Toc530515617 h 53.2Data protection mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515618 h 53.2.1Encryption mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515619 h 63.2.2Access mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515620 h 63.2.3Data integrity mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515621 h 63.3Role of the system administrator PAGEREF _Toc530515622 h 63.4General ethical principles and responsibilities PAGEREF _Toc530515623 h 73.5Privacy ethics in Biblical perceptive PAGEREF _Toc530515624 h 74.Implications of the research paper PAGEREF _Toc530515625 h 84.1Relevant to a Biblical worldview PAGEREF _Toc530515626 h 84.2Relevant to industry and managers PAGEREF _Toc530515627 h 85.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc530515628 h 96.References PAGEREF _Toc530515629 h 9
IntroductionOne of the most persistent cybercrime problems for all computer systems is to prevent unauthorized access to information. Many cybercrime activities revolve around obtaining sensitive information and using it for malicious purposes. Unauthorized access incidents compromise data availability, confidentiality, and integrity. Database systems that are not adequately protected are the primary targets by many cybercriminals because they hold vital information that can help them accomplish their wicked objectives (Ashibani & Mahmoud, 2017). Data protection is a broad topic that covers many areas including legal and ethical issues regarding access rights to information. Besides, it covers policy issues at the national or corporate levels as well as issues at system levels relating to the management of various security features.
Database users have a duty of ensuring that they protect data from getting into the hands of unauthorized people. They can take mandatory and discretionary security mechanisms of database protection. Discretionary mechanisms revolve around limiting privileges that people have on certain data while mandatory mechanisms involve sorting users into several classes and enforcing the appropriate policy. Regardless of the security mechanism adopted, integration of biblical worldview in the management and storage of data can play a huge step in reducing unauthorized access cases. Data security issues such as confidentiality and integrity are well addressed in the Bible. Incorporation of practices, procedures, and standards that are ethically and biblically correct can, therefore, help curb unauthorized to databases. This research paper provides an insight into how data protection issues are relevant to a biblical worldview, industry, and managers by examining the existing literature. It examines the legal, ethical and system level issues that surround the storage, security, and management of database systems. Furthermore, it explores how biblical, ethical and legal principles that can guide organizations and governments in developing ethically sound data protection laws and regulation.

Problem statementWhat is the research is attempting to solve?The research attempts to solve conflicts that have emerged due to the introduction of new data protection and regulations by examining legal, biblical and ethical principles regarding privacy and confidentiality. Recently, cases of unauthorized access incidents have increased rapidly with most of them targeting databases. The rise in the number of hacktivist groups and the emergence of new technological tools have contributed to the increase (Carter, 2017). Governmental and nongovernmental organizations have come up with policies at nationals and at incorporate level with the aim of enhancing data security. The European Union, for example, has come with General data and protection regulation (GDPR) to define the manner in which companies within the EU region should handle personal data (Mostert et al., 2017). Some of the organizations have increased to the amount of money that they allocate in the prevention of cyber crimes.
The new data protection regulations give consumers the power to control how organizations use their data. They have given consumers new data privacy rights such as the right to access their data, right to data portability and the right to object the manner in which an organization handles their data (Wachter et al., 2017). Companies, on the other hand, are required to comply with these laws or face harsh penalties. These regulations have broad sweeping implications on the way companies handle their operations such as marketing and sales services. According to KK, many of the companies are not ready for the data protection regulations (Weston,2017). The conflict between governments and companies regarding data protection regulations show that there is a lack of proper legal and ethical principles t help develop laws and regulations that are acceptable to people and companies.

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The implications of the Biblical worldview on the problem
There exist many cases of privacy dilemmas in the bible which are very relevant to the current data privacy dilemmas. Today information that collected for legitimate purposes may fall in wrong hands leading to detrimental consequences. The privacy concepts in the Bible can be extended to data protection policies. Bible ethics might, therefore, help establish privacy principles that can resolve the conflict between companies and governments regarding data protection regulations. The physical invasions of privacy in the Bible can be compared with the modern violation of data privacy rights. The biblical ethics of privacy can, therefore, inform the contemporary privacy ethics in the current world.
Literature reviewGoals for data protection
Companies and individuals invest a lot of resources in securing their information systems. According to Mariu?a, (2014), the main goals for data protection is to enhance data integrity, availability and confidentiality. Confidentiality is achieved by controlling how people access to personal documents, files whether in transit or storage. On the other hand, integrity is a matter of who has the right to modify certain files and documents. Availability refers to how data in information systems can be accessed when needed. The data may be safe it is not useful unless it is easily accessible when needed.

Data protection mechanismsComputer security is a broad topic that covers many imperfections. They are many security vulnerabilities in computer systems that might be exploited by malicious people. Security must, therefore, be maintained at all levels including database systems, network, operating systems. Databases are the primary targets for hackers since they contain vital information that is well structured. There are two types of security mechanisms of data protection: mandatory and discretionally security mechanisms. In discretional mechanisms, Mandatory security mechanism involves sorting of data and users into some groups and applying appropriate policies while in discretional mechanisms, users are granted privileges to access data in a particular manner. Mariu?a (2014), explores three categories of database security mechanisms that which are used to enhance data security.

Encryption mechanismsThis is a method is to enhance data confidentiality by ensuring that information is accessed y legitimate users only. It is a codification process in which the keys are used to identify the right users of data. The method can also be used to verify whether the information comes from the right sender of information through the use of a digital signature.
Access mechanismsThis is a method that is used by organizations in limiting the people who have access the data in a database. Users of a database are authorized before logging into a database system. An organization has control policies that define elements of access such as usernames, passwords, access rights, time to access a resource. According to Mariu?a (2014), people violate the set policies and misuse their access rights. Some are negligent and share their login credentials without minding the consequences.

Data integrity mechanismsIntegrity mechanisms are used to ensure that unintended persons do not modify data. Cryptographic is one of the mechanisms that are used to enhance data integrity.

Role of the system administrator
According to Ashibani & Mahmoud (2017), system administrators play a crucial role in data protection. They have privileged accounts which give them abilities to control other accounts as the like the whole database. They can create accounts, assign security levels, grant privileges, and revoke privileges. Owing to this privilege, they are the biggest risk to any cooperate data. Sometimes, system administrators share passwords, and other administrate devices especially when responding to a crisis. Sharing passwords or privileges accounts increases security vulnerabilities to malicious or unplanned changes.

General ethical principles and responsibilities
According to Lukács (2016), people should be aware that their actions affect others and they should, therefore, act responsibly and that their efforts are in constant support for public good. One of the principles of good ethics is respect for privacy and confidentiality. This principle applies to all professionals. The advancements in science and technology have enabled people to collect, monitor, and share personal data quickly. Organizations and individual’s ought to aware of the forms of privacy and their duties and responsibilities when handling personal information. They should make sure that they don’t violate privacy rights and the information is used for legitimate ends. To promote the proper use of data, government and organization need to have policies allow people to know the kind of data collected and how it is used to give informed consent. Companies should only collect the necessary personal data that is needed by the systems (, 2018). Good communication of retention and disposal periods to the data subjects is also paramount. It is also ethical to use personal data for the intended purposes and get the persons to consent in case there are intentions of using it in any other way. According to (2018), professionals are entrusted with confidential information such as research data, prepublications among others. They have a duty maintaining the confidentiality of such data in cases where there is a proof that keeping it is a violation of the law.

Privacy ethics in Biblical perceptive
The issue of privacy and confidentiality is well addressed in the Bible. They several instances in the Bible where the invasion of privacy. This instance can be equated the current invasion of personal data in information systems. In the Bible, Noah was drunk and exposed himself naked. His son was cursed since for invading and exposing his nakedness. This case shows that privacy is valued in the Bible. The issue of confidentiality has received mixed reactions in the Bible. According to Glass & Cahn (2017), the Bible talk of discretion in distinguishing between the information that is kept private and the one that should be exposed to the public. The case of Samson in the Bible shows how lack of confidentiality can be detrimental.

Implications of the research paperRelevant to a Biblical worldviewThe research shows that the issue privacy and confidentiality has received a mixed reaction in Bible as well as in the contemporary world. Biblical concepts emphasize the importance of protecting another people privacy and invasion of privacy is condemned. The physical intrusions of privacy in the Bible can be equated with the invasion of personal information in information systems. Based on the research, there are many mechanisms that people have come up with in order to enhance information security. However, their success depends on how people they are supported by professionals who are entrusted with this data. System administrator ought to maintain the confidentiality of personal information.
Relevant to industry and managersBoth ethical and biblical concepts point to the importance of privacy and confidentiality. Companies should accept policies that promote data protection since it is an extension of privacy. People entrust companies with their data, and they should strive to maintain its confidentiality. They might be forced to change their service delivery process to accommodate data protection principles. Proper enforcement of mandatory and discretional security mechanisms is one of the ways that can help them enhance data security. Manager and other stakeholders in an organization observe privacy rights when handling personal data.
ConclusionThe paper has provided a good insight into how data protection issues are relevant to the biblical worldview as well as to the contemporary world. The goals any data protection mechanism is to enhance data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Companies rely on mandatory and discretionally security mechanisms in improving database security which is the primary target by hacktivist groups. This involves the use of access, integrity and encryption mechanisms. Despite this mechanism, data protection is still a major issue of concern among governmental and nongovernmental organizations. News policies such as GDPR have been created with the aim of addressing issues privacy of personal information. The policies give people the power to control how companies handle their data. Some companies are not ready to accept the policies. Based on the biblical perspective people have the right to privacy and invasion of privacy is considered wrong.

On the other hand, confidentiality receives mixed reactions. Ethically, professionals have a responsibility of protecting privacy and confidentiality of information which they are entrusted with. Based on ethical and Biblical views on privacy. Companies should new government laws and policies since they promote privacy and confidentiality . However, both ethical and biblical views concur with the fact that individual rights to privacy may be violated on matters of national interest such as security.

ReferencesAshibani, Y., & Mahmoud, Q. H. (2017). Cyber-physical systems security: Analysis, challenges and solutions. Computers & Security, 68, 81-97.

Carter, W. A. (2017). Forces Shaping the Cyber Threat Landscape for Financial Institutions.

Glass, B., & Cahn, E. S. (2017). Privacy Ethics in Biblical Literature. Journal of Religion and Business Ethics, 3(2), 6. (2018). What does the Bible say about confidentiality? online Available at: Accessed 19 Nov. 2018.

Lukács, A. (2016). What is Privacy? The History and Definition of Privacy.

Mostert, M., Bredenoord, A. L., Van Der Slootb, B., & Van Delden, J. J. (2017). From privacy to data protection in the EU: Implications for big data health research. european Journal of health law, 25(1), 43-55.

Mariu?a, ?. (2014). Principles of security and integrity of databases. Procedia Economics and Finance, (15), 401-405. (2018). Information Technology and Moral Values (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). online Available at: Accessed 19 Nov. 2018.

Wachter, S., Mittelstadt, B., & Floridi, L. (2017). Why a right to explanation of automated decision-making does not exist in the general data protection regulation. International Data Privacy Law, 7(2), 76-99.

Weston, M. (2017). The Right to Be Forgotten: Analyzing Conflicts Between Free Expression and Privacy Rights.


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