STUDENT ID: R1710D3611630
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Article Review

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Shen, D., Cho, M. H., Tsai, C.L., Marra, R. Unpacking online learning experiences: Online learning self-
efficacy and learning satisfaction. Internet and Higher Education 19 (2013) 10-17. The purpose of the
article is to identify dimensions of online learning self-efficacy. Shen et al. (2013). Several test and
researches were carried out and the statistics are provided just to boost our understanding and
knowledge on how to self-efficacy has an impact on how well we perform using the online platform.
Different dimensions were reviewed and it gets interesting or realistic for used of a better word, as
we move from one to another. According to the article, many empirical researches were carried out
in the aid of understanding self-efficacy and it’s performance level using the online platform. Along
with the decision presented, demographic variables were also the divulged into as these also showed
to be the key component to online learning self-efficacy. The article simplified the different variables
and also provides in depth insights on the pros and cons of online learning self-efficacy.

To bring across the importance, while listing factors that may have a negative impact of self-efficacy
is the main purpose of this article and even thought more empirical than theoretical researches were
carried out. I express great satisfaction in the number of tests that were conducted and they were
actually done by student’s main focus. The different dimensions of online learning self-efficacy
mentioned in my introduction; to complete an online course, to interact socially with classmates, to
handle tools in Course Management System (CMS). To interact with instructors and to interact with
classmates for academic purposes are the Five Headings under which the test were conducted. When
tested amongst the different variables; prior online learning experience, gender and academic status.
The statistics showed that the male gender had a lower level of self-efficacy in most of the dimensions
listed and that raised a level of concern. While we must individually take ownership of our learning,
we must also learn to develop a “no man is an island” (Donne, 1600) or an “each one teach one”
(author unknown) mentality. Not only will it help to develop us as an individual, it will also aid in
enhancing our self-efficacy to interact with classmates both socially and academically, which is where
we see Two of the dimensions coming out. I made mention earlier that there were major concerns
raised regarding the level of self-efficacy expressed from the male gender, based on the on the lower
level of self-efficacy observed, the authors urged the instructors to give more attention to that specific
sex. It was also derived that the number of online courses taken, played a role in boosting the level of
self-efficacy to complete an online course. As it relates to academic status, the article indicated that
no noticeable amount of differences were found between graduates and undergraduates in self-
efficacy hence the reason it was chosen as a dimension. For students like myself, who have little or no
knowledge of nor experience with the online learning platform, I firmly believe that constant
monitoring, guidance and evaluation is necessary to aid the reduction of the dropout rate for students
in the online learning environment (Ali & Leeds, 2009) and to assist in the development of students
level of self-efficacy overall including interacting with instructors, ensuring that they can handle tools
in a CMS and effectively complete an online course. Once more I strongly express that I am for this
article and all the points expressed, the solutions are simple.

STUDENT ID: R1710D3611630
MOBILE: +260 979 577 397
EMAIL: [email protected]

People’s judgement of their capabilities to organize and execute of action required to attain
designated types of performances (Bandura, 1986, p. 391), is self-efficacy. We must be mindful of
others and know that in every experience there are room for errors and growth, let us use both to
strengthen our self-efficacy to; interact with classmates both socially and academically, interact with
instructors, complete our online course and effectively handle tools in Course Management System.
This article was written based on tests done on students and empirical researches were carried out.
No scientific work was done but based on statistic included, none was really necessary.
Bandura, A. (1986).

Name: Yosra Khoffi

Case study: Nivea
Question 1:
Nowadays, customers have easiest ways to shop and compare products on websites such as or They now can express satisfaction and influence friends and surroundings by sharing their experience (websites as Therefore, they can change the brand, or the company whenever they want.
To gain the trust of the consumers, companies must accept that customers are now in charge. Creating a customer-led marketing culture is the best way to succeed in your business. Consumer led means that the company should develop a new product or service to the market according to the need of the consumer. It is not about producing and then willing to find customers and satisfy them. Thus, a company must understand study the target market through a market research before starting anything.
Question 2:
NIVEA’s brand is best known for providing quality skin care (Clean, fresh, natural and pure) as well as trust and reliability. Besides, Nivea’s products have a reasonable price while maintaining a high quality.

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As it is said in the case study, Nivea is a synonym of care and protection for the skin. That means it is a universal caretaker of skin since it expanded all over the world.
Their source of brand equity comes from their recognizable logo (which is simple) and packaging as well as their colour (blue).

Consumers continue to purchase and trust this product based upon its uniqueness (caretaker of skin). Nivea’s brand has also a strong association to the concept of family’s experience starting from infancy (Nivea baby) to male gender (Nivea Men) including intimate care for all the family.

The brand image and source of equity doesn’t vary across product class.

It maintained a unique image of protection and care. All products have a high quality with a reasonable price. They don’t seek to solve a problem. In fact, they are just willing to share a good experience with their consumers.

NIVEA’s brand hierarchy would be as follows:

Question 3:
Set a positive perception and extend brand equity
Higher share of market for Nivea
It can increase profit because of the promotion of new products
Gain recognition
Establish brand loyalty and trust
Facilities regarding retail stores
Efficient brand marketing and management (specific segments and differentiation)
If it is unsuccessful, it will affect the main brand and even others sub brands and reduce their impact Cannibalization
It can also disorient the image of the company to a profit seeking instead of customer oriented.

Confusion between the main brand and the sub-brand for the consumer.

Increase competition
Nivea has a wide product line (15 products under its name (Nivea)). It is always willing to innovate its product and fulfil its customer’s needs. As I mention in the previous question, it has a strong brand equity for a unique brand. All the products send the same message and image to the customer.

Therefore, running an umbrella brand would be more suitable for its situation since it will provide competitive advantages.

Nivea began advertising in 1912. Advertising has covered through these years an informative and guiding role such as ‘blue bible’. It is also more about the image and the message than about the words and the content. “Pictures travel, words don’t” as said Norbert Krapp, Nivea’s vice president of skin care. They use the image of the brand (Colour and logo) at European beaches each summer, promoting bus in Russia and posting advertisement covering the outside of the Kremlin. Nivea was there in the most important events of its consumers such as Christmas (Blue Santa Claus giving Crème in Germany), sports tour, school education program and even concerts.

It should continue to enhance its quality and resonate with costumers since it will reinforce the brand history (100 years) as well as the strong awareness of the brand. I believe they shouldn’t change it because it provides a huge support for the sub-branding strategy.

Question 4:
Awareness to the brand as well as faster access to the market
Enhance consumer recognition and brand association
Nivea can make profit in different departments
Easier for retail distribution
Lack of clarity
Negative effect on the parent’s brand image in case of failure: Damage the brand equity
Restriction towards the positioning of new products
Requires coordination and continuity between the products
Difficulty of retail distribution
The use of the ‘Blue bible’ which includes details, information and guidelines for product of the brand and its sub-brands has helped to make it clear in the consumer’s mind. According to Norbert Krapp: “The best (branding step) we did in recent years”. It goes also with the global website of Nivea.
The fact that each sub brand has its president and each country has its local agency affiliate empowered the brand.
Workshops for body and soul (Germany, UK and USA) as well as partnering with hospitals and sponsoring young mothers in maternity wards allows the customer to be more aware of the brand extension. “House of Nivea” (in Hamburg, Germany) is another way to manage its extension. Nivea continued also to innovate its products and develop ad executions.

What Nivea might miss as an opportunity is to grow its market segment by including more products for men.

I believe that foot care can be added to Nivea Body. However, I don’t think that developing perfume would be a good idea for the brand because it will spread too thin from the mere brand and it will engender confusion for consumers. It will be over-extendable because there is no correlation and real connection with the brand equity.

Question 5:
Nowadays, men take care of themselves more than in the past. Since the target market represent an effective segmentation (As it is measurable, substantial, accessible, differentiable and actionable), I believe that Nivea should go for a men’s grooming category.
Thus, I don’t think that pursuing a men’s grooming category will risk alienate its core customer base. On the contrary, I believe it will enhance the concept of family experience (adding men to the list of child, women and teenagers or young consumers).

Question 6:
Marketing Mix refers to the 4 controllable elements (the 4Ps) of a product which are Product, Price, Place and promotion. In order to build an effective mix, we need to understand what the customer wants, the valuable price, where to sell it and how (through a market research)?
The product is the first step to take into consideration since it represents the centre of marketing mix. It is developed through a market research and once understanding what customers want.
Secondly, we have to fix a price which is related to the cost and the quality of the product. We should also be aware of our competitor’s price. High price will make our customers distant and low price will make the company lose money. Price is key because any product need it to enter the market.

Place is where the customer can access to the product. Should it be on internet or in shops? It has to be in an appropriate point of sale that meets its characteristics.

Finally, Promotion is about choosing the perfect time and place to deliver your product to the market target. It is a key because it will establish the awareness of the product.

Question 7:
All the elements of the marketing mix have an interaction with one another. They are all important to maintain the balance for marketing the product. If the product is not enough desirable for market, they won’t purchase it. Without a suitable and valuable price that meets customer’s expectations, the purchase won’t take place. Without adequate promotion, no one will know about the product.
In other words, we cannot put a luxury product at affordable price and selling it in supermarkets. We cannot also sell a low quality bag at high price and in a very attractive area of the shop. This is the main reason why the 4 factors should cooperate and be connected.
Moreover, the 4 elements of the marketing mix have an impact on marketing strategy since they affect positioning (based on your price), targeting and segmentation decisions (Both based on the product).

A company should emphasize on each element to have a balance and satisfy the customer which will allow its growth and development.

Question 8:
Young consumers wanted more specialised face care that fit their age. They want to avoid medical products and focus more on a healthy lifestyle that can afford them a pure and fresh skin. As it is said in the case study, this gives Nivea a competitive advantage.
The product has been revised (Changing of the formula, changing in the description of the product and its packaging, changes related to environment such as recycling and waste) and recreated to the special needs of young consumers.
Nivea concentrate more on the high volume of market purchases while providing products at a low price (Using methods as loss leader or BOGOF). It encouraged customers to buy more and more. This has generated a lot of benefit to the company. Nivea Young pricing represents 7% of Nivea visage sales.

According to researches, the majority of purchases was made by mums, buying for their daughters. Young women don’t have usually the time to take care of their skin even if they want to. It is usually mums who think about that. In my case, it is usually my mother who buy for me skin products. Therefore, Nivea didn’t just put its products into large high street shops but also at retail outlets and in supermarkets (where mothers can buy it while doing their grocery shopping). It used a central distribution point.

Along with this for enhancing the awareness of the brand, Nivea has launched an online magazine called FYI. Nivea took into consideration the power of social network sites for young people. They could not pay attention when people come in the street to ask them about Nivea but they will definitely take enough time to considerate what the magazine is about and how can they benefit from it on internet. The magazine aims to be friendly with its customers. Thus, Nivea used traditional methods (samples) as well as modern methods (Hit40UK and TMF) including active pages in Myspace, Facebook and Bebo.

I believe that these additional advantages gave the opportunity to develop more the business.

Name : Arzoo Tauqeer
MSC-IR 4th semester
Subject: Media and politics
Submitted to: Ma’am Rabail hamzaTopic of Article: The Role of Media in Political Process
The media plays a vital role of any liberal democracy shaping the perception of the people. Media acts as watch dog, as guardian of the public interest, it can promote democracy by using such techniques such as educating voters, protecting human rights, ensuring that government being transparent and accountable. The importance of free press cannot be under estimated because government is unable to control all the information regarding its own actions then it could most certainly lose its accountability and even having unacceptable level of influence over its public action. The basic aim of a free media is to scrutinize the government consciously so that people should be kept updated with accurate and impartial information to take any action accordingly. The media more often referred as the fourth branch of the government because of its oversight function and power they exercise.

The media at the same time can play anti-democratic roles as well such as they can sow fear, division and violence. Instead of promoting democracy, they can be a reason in democratic decay.

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The media comprised of Radio, TV, satellite, Newspaper and the internet services, by this unprecedented growth it helped to bring political information to large masses. It is very hard to remove political influence and enforce neutral position, as media and liberal democracies are facing specific problems. The media not only report the news but also represent the views of different segments of society. Some of the organization take one side of the political spectrum by providing biased information using propaganda techniques, here the source creates the confusion and mistrust among the audiences.

Democracy cannot take effective impression if the poor people and powerless are kept out of the public sphere and remain unaware of their rights. For bringing justice to society or keeping the people aware of their rights, the media being effective player provide the information to the poor people so that they take part in public life.

The main issue in liberal democracies is the emergence of media empires. These empires distort the information or divert the mind of their audiences by propagating events into another dimension. Some of the individuals concentrate various assets of media and use them actively to influence political opinion, by sending powerful political message on behalf or against a political establishment through their respective media empires. This resultant into damaging perception of general public as they are exposed to media empire due to high popularity. The individuals have the ability to provoke people or interest groups into mobilizing by introducing the a certain issue by displaying horrific images from the battlefield or controversial things to gather massive response.

The media from its various diversion could possibly distort the quality of information and that could distort the decision of the people. If the positive issues are reported in negative manner then some voters will vote against the right person contrary of their interest.

According to vertical and horizontal functions media actually have an effect on how well democracy can work. Countries with high degree of media shows high levels of political participation and less corruption. It is clear that media performance is related to at least some aspects of the functioning of a democratic regime. The owners of media empires have adapted swiftly new technology and expanding to various broadcast media such as private and satellite TV. Media empire continue to dominate much of the main stream broad cast networks in the liberal democracy by eliminating the heavy-handed regulation ,government intervention or censorship.

Name: Kolten Saunders
Course CSIS 325
Date 11/20/2018
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc530515612 h 32.Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc530515613 h 42.1What is the research is attempting to solve? PAGEREF _Toc530515614 h 42.2The implications of the Biblical worldview on problem PAGEREF _Toc530515615 h 43.Literature review PAGEREF _Toc530515616 h 53.1Goals for data protection PAGEREF _Toc530515617 h 53.2Data protection mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515618 h 53.2.1Encryption mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515619 h 63.2.2Access mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515620 h 63.2.3Data integrity mechanisms PAGEREF _Toc530515621 h 63.3Role of the system administrator PAGEREF _Toc530515622 h 63.4General ethical principles and responsibilities PAGEREF _Toc530515623 h 73.5Privacy ethics in Biblical perceptive PAGEREF _Toc530515624 h 74.Implications of the research paper PAGEREF _Toc530515625 h 84.1Relevant to a Biblical worldview PAGEREF _Toc530515626 h 84.2Relevant to industry and managers PAGEREF _Toc530515627 h 85.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc530515628 h 96.References PAGEREF _Toc530515629 h 9
IntroductionOne of the most persistent cybercrime problems for all computer systems is to prevent unauthorized access to information. Many cybercrime activities revolve around obtaining sensitive information and using it for malicious purposes. Unauthorized access incidents compromise data availability, confidentiality, and integrity. Database systems that are not adequately protected are the primary targets by many cybercriminals because they hold vital information that can help them accomplish their wicked objectives (Ashibani & Mahmoud, 2017). Data protection is a broad topic that covers many areas including legal and ethical issues regarding access rights to information. Besides, it covers policy issues at the national or corporate levels as well as issues at system levels relating to the management of various security features.
Database users have a duty of ensuring that they protect data from getting into the hands of unauthorized people. They can take mandatory and discretionary security mechanisms of database protection. Discretionary mechanisms revolve around limiting privileges that people have on certain data while mandatory mechanisms involve sorting users into several classes and enforcing the appropriate policy. Regardless of the security mechanism adopted, integration of biblical worldview in the management and storage of data can play a huge step in reducing unauthorized access cases. Data security issues such as confidentiality and integrity are well addressed in the Bible. Incorporation of practices, procedures, and standards that are ethically and biblically correct can, therefore, help curb unauthorized to databases. This research paper provides an insight into how data protection issues are relevant to a biblical worldview, industry, and managers by examining the existing literature. It examines the legal, ethical and system level issues that surround the storage, security, and management of database systems. Furthermore, it explores how biblical, ethical and legal principles that can guide organizations and governments in developing ethically sound data protection laws and regulation.

Problem statementWhat is the research is attempting to solve?The research attempts to solve conflicts that have emerged due to the introduction of new data protection and regulations by examining legal, biblical and ethical principles regarding privacy and confidentiality. Recently, cases of unauthorized access incidents have increased rapidly with most of them targeting databases. The rise in the number of hacktivist groups and the emergence of new technological tools have contributed to the increase (Carter, 2017). Governmental and nongovernmental organizations have come up with policies at nationals and at incorporate level with the aim of enhancing data security. The European Union, for example, has come with General data and protection regulation (GDPR) to define the manner in which companies within the EU region should handle personal data (Mostert et al., 2017). Some of the organizations have increased to the amount of money that they allocate in the prevention of cyber crimes.
The new data protection regulations give consumers the power to control how organizations use their data. They have given consumers new data privacy rights such as the right to access their data, right to data portability and the right to object the manner in which an organization handles their data (Wachter et al., 2017). Companies, on the other hand, are required to comply with these laws or face harsh penalties. These regulations have broad sweeping implications on the way companies handle their operations such as marketing and sales services. According to KK, many of the companies are not ready for the data protection regulations (Weston,2017). The conflict between governments and companies regarding data protection regulations show that there is a lack of proper legal and ethical principles t help develop laws and regulations that are acceptable to people and companies.

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The implications of the Biblical worldview on the problem
There exist many cases of privacy dilemmas in the bible which are very relevant to the current data privacy dilemmas. Today information that collected for legitimate purposes may fall in wrong hands leading to detrimental consequences. The privacy concepts in the Bible can be extended to data protection policies. Bible ethics might, therefore, help establish privacy principles that can resolve the conflict between companies and governments regarding data protection regulations. The physical invasions of privacy in the Bible can be compared with the modern violation of data privacy rights. The biblical ethics of privacy can, therefore, inform the contemporary privacy ethics in the current world.
Literature reviewGoals for data protection
Companies and individuals invest a lot of resources in securing their information systems. According to Mariu?a, (2014), the main goals for data protection is to enhance data integrity, availability and confidentiality. Confidentiality is achieved by controlling how people access to personal documents, files whether in transit or storage. On the other hand, integrity is a matter of who has the right to modify certain files and documents. Availability refers to how data in information systems can be accessed when needed. The data may be safe it is not useful unless it is easily accessible when needed.

Data protection mechanismsComputer security is a broad topic that covers many imperfections. They are many security vulnerabilities in computer systems that might be exploited by malicious people. Security must, therefore, be maintained at all levels including database systems, network, operating systems. Databases are the primary targets for hackers since they contain vital information that is well structured. There are two types of security mechanisms of data protection: mandatory and discretionally security mechanisms. In discretional mechanisms, Mandatory security mechanism involves sorting of data and users into some groups and applying appropriate policies while in discretional mechanisms, users are granted privileges to access data in a particular manner. Mariu?a (2014), explores three categories of database security mechanisms that which are used to enhance data security.

Encryption mechanismsThis is a method is to enhance data confidentiality by ensuring that information is accessed y legitimate users only. It is a codification process in which the keys are used to identify the right users of data. The method can also be used to verify whether the information comes from the right sender of information through the use of a digital signature.
Access mechanismsThis is a method that is used by organizations in limiting the people who have access the data in a database. Users of a database are authorized before logging into a database system. An organization has control policies that define elements of access such as usernames, passwords, access rights, time to access a resource. According to Mariu?a (2014), people violate the set policies and misuse their access rights. Some are negligent and share their login credentials without minding the consequences.

Data integrity mechanismsIntegrity mechanisms are used to ensure that unintended persons do not modify data. Cryptographic is one of the mechanisms that are used to enhance data integrity.

Role of the system administrator
According to Ashibani & Mahmoud (2017), system administrators play a crucial role in data protection. They have privileged accounts which give them abilities to control other accounts as the like the whole database. They can create accounts, assign security levels, grant privileges, and revoke privileges. Owing to this privilege, they are the biggest risk to any cooperate data. Sometimes, system administrators share passwords, and other administrate devices especially when responding to a crisis. Sharing passwords or privileges accounts increases security vulnerabilities to malicious or unplanned changes.

General ethical principles and responsibilities
According to Lukács (2016), people should be aware that their actions affect others and they should, therefore, act responsibly and that their efforts are in constant support for public good. One of the principles of good ethics is respect for privacy and confidentiality. This principle applies to all professionals. The advancements in science and technology have enabled people to collect, monitor, and share personal data quickly. Organizations and individual’s ought to aware of the forms of privacy and their duties and responsibilities when handling personal information. They should make sure that they don’t violate privacy rights and the information is used for legitimate ends. To promote the proper use of data, government and organization need to have policies allow people to know the kind of data collected and how it is used to give informed consent. Companies should only collect the necessary personal data that is needed by the systems (, 2018). Good communication of retention and disposal periods to the data subjects is also paramount. It is also ethical to use personal data for the intended purposes and get the persons to consent in case there are intentions of using it in any other way. According to (2018), professionals are entrusted with confidential information such as research data, prepublications among others. They have a duty maintaining the confidentiality of such data in cases where there is a proof that keeping it is a violation of the law.

Privacy ethics in Biblical perceptive
The issue of privacy and confidentiality is well addressed in the Bible. They several instances in the Bible where the invasion of privacy. This instance can be equated the current invasion of personal data in information systems. In the Bible, Noah was drunk and exposed himself naked. His son was cursed since for invading and exposing his nakedness. This case shows that privacy is valued in the Bible. The issue of confidentiality has received mixed reactions in the Bible. According to Glass & Cahn (2017), the Bible talk of discretion in distinguishing between the information that is kept private and the one that should be exposed to the public. The case of Samson in the Bible shows how lack of confidentiality can be detrimental.

Implications of the research paperRelevant to a Biblical worldviewThe research shows that the issue privacy and confidentiality has received a mixed reaction in Bible as well as in the contemporary world. Biblical concepts emphasize the importance of protecting another people privacy and invasion of privacy is condemned. The physical intrusions of privacy in the Bible can be equated with the invasion of personal information in information systems. Based on the research, there are many mechanisms that people have come up with in order to enhance information security. However, their success depends on how people they are supported by professionals who are entrusted with this data. System administrator ought to maintain the confidentiality of personal information.
Relevant to industry and managersBoth ethical and biblical concepts point to the importance of privacy and confidentiality. Companies should accept policies that promote data protection since it is an extension of privacy. People entrust companies with their data, and they should strive to maintain its confidentiality. They might be forced to change their service delivery process to accommodate data protection principles. Proper enforcement of mandatory and discretional security mechanisms is one of the ways that can help them enhance data security. Manager and other stakeholders in an organization observe privacy rights when handling personal data.
ConclusionThe paper has provided a good insight into how data protection issues are relevant to the biblical worldview as well as to the contemporary world. The goals any data protection mechanism is to enhance data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Companies rely on mandatory and discretionally security mechanisms in improving database security which is the primary target by hacktivist groups. This involves the use of access, integrity and encryption mechanisms. Despite this mechanism, data protection is still a major issue of concern among governmental and nongovernmental organizations. News policies such as GDPR have been created with the aim of addressing issues privacy of personal information. The policies give people the power to control how companies handle their data. Some companies are not ready to accept the policies. Based on the biblical perspective people have the right to privacy and invasion of privacy is considered wrong.

On the other hand, confidentiality receives mixed reactions. Ethically, professionals have a responsibility of protecting privacy and confidentiality of information which they are entrusted with. Based on ethical and Biblical views on privacy. Companies should new government laws and policies since they promote privacy and confidentiality . However, both ethical and biblical views concur with the fact that individual rights to privacy may be violated on matters of national interest such as security.

ReferencesAshibani, Y., & Mahmoud, Q. H. (2017). Cyber-physical systems security: Analysis, challenges and solutions. Computers & Security, 68, 81-97.

Carter, W. A. (2017). Forces Shaping the Cyber Threat Landscape for Financial Institutions.

Glass, B., & Cahn, E. S. (2017). Privacy Ethics in Biblical Literature. Journal of Religion and Business Ethics, 3(2), 6. (2018). What does the Bible say about confidentiality? online Available at: Accessed 19 Nov. 2018.

Lukács, A. (2016). What is Privacy? The History and Definition of Privacy.

Mostert, M., Bredenoord, A. L., Van Der Slootb, B., & Van Delden, J. J. (2017). From privacy to data protection in the EU: Implications for big data health research. european Journal of health law, 25(1), 43-55.

Mariu?a, ?. (2014). Principles of security and integrity of databases. Procedia Economics and Finance, (15), 401-405. (2018). Information Technology and Moral Values (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). online Available at: Accessed 19 Nov. 2018.

Wachter, S., Mittelstadt, B., & Floridi, L. (2017). Why a right to explanation of automated decision-making does not exist in the general data protection regulation. International Data Privacy Law, 7(2), 76-99.

Weston, M. (2017). The Right to Be Forgotten: Analyzing Conflicts Between Free Expression and Privacy Rights.

ID.NO: 650426


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1.1 Introduction
The greater Horn of Africa has experienced decades old conflicts which have been regionalized with multiple and varied outcomes to different nations. The ongoing conflicts in Somali and South Sudan are typical examples justifying a trend which has characterized both intra and inter- state relations. These conflicts have produced millions of refugees to the neighboring countries. With the proliferation of armed militia groups and militarization of the regional countries many civilians have found themselves in-between fighting sides causing mass deaths, displacing thousands apart from causing untold sufferings. Refugees are the humanitarian cost of the conflict and most have sought refuge in neighboring countries. (Hassan, 2010)
This Horn region has not been spared of international terrorism which is premised in these conflict zones and perpetrated by armed terror groups who are believed to work in cohorts with refugees in their host countries. International terrorism has gained prominence in this region since the doctrine of Somali and has spread exponentially to other countries in the region causing disastrous socio-economic and political altercations. The presence of refugees in some countries in this region specifically Kenya and Uganda has been linked to insecurity and terrorist activities which this research paper seeks to evaluate. (Abdi, 2010)
1.2 Background Information
According to the convention governing the specific aspects of refugees problems in Africa expanded in 1951, a refugees is any person owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality and is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality. Insecurity is the state of being insecure or facing instability. Since early 1990’s the issue of refugees has evolved beyond a humanitarian issue and has raised intricate security issues and challenges. Issues of refugees has had long lasting effects on national security of states. Refugees have become a security concern in both developed and developing states of the world. (Campbell, 2006)
This has made states develop growing concerns on the actions to take on refugees within their boundaries who are a protected group under international law. In Africa, the knot between refugees and insecurity is based on two assumptions; that insecurity largely results from elements outside a state’s boundaries and that such elements being militaristic in nature, require a militarized response to solve. This link between refugees and insecurity in Africa has been compounded by two main issues; definition and understanding of a refugee, as well as definition and understanding of Security in the African context. In Africa, the term security is largely state- centric hence it’s likely to be influenced by the political context of individual states. (Campbell, 2006)
Intra- state civil strife in the Horn of Africa has largely been caused by power wrangles, bad governance and economic corruption. The ease of acquiring small arms and border disputes have also been other factors attributed to the influx of refugees in the Horn of Africa. There has been an increase in the number of terror groups operating in the Horn of Africa and this has made many run away from terror propagated in these states especially in Somalia. Currently the greater Horn of Africa has 1.7 million refugees residing within its member states. After the current crisis in South Sudan almost half a million people crossed over to Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia as refugees. Kenya and Uganda accommodate many refugees that have become a threat to security. (Montclos et al, 2000)
Kenyan government has been faced with a dilemma of adhering to its national obligation of protecting refugees against its national obligation of controlling its own security and borders. With the rise of terrorism in the Horn region, Kenyan government has often accused the refugee camps of hosting criminal and terror elements especially from Somalia. Uganda on the other hand is concern of the possibility of refugees fleeing fighting in South Sudan to be in the possession of light and small arms they would use to cause insecurity acts in Uganda. Kenya and Uganda government have made serious claims on the contribution of refuges to insecurity in their states. These phenomena is what this paper seeks to study. (Campbell, 2006)

1.3 Statement of the Problem
With the rising cases of political intolerance and prosecution, natural disasters and intra-state strife continuing to exist in the world, more so in the developing world, there has been continuous existence of refugees. While many refugees have found a welcoming “home” away from home in their receiving states, their stay in the host countries has at times caused concerns among their host. Security concerns of states finds a connection to refugee existence in the greater Horn of Africa in a more recent phenomenon coming to light in the last two or three decades. (Abdi, 2010)
The link between state insecurity and refugees in the greater horn of Africa has been compounded with the rise of terrorism perpetuated by groups like Al- shabaab of Somalia and the newly formed Islamic state that is fast spreading to Somalia. The balance between adherence to international obligations and the need to protect their states and boundaries has become a delicate issue for states around the greater Horn of Africa. Several studies carried out have focused on insecurity in nation states. With focus centrally put on how insecurity can be prevented if not eliminated, limited research has been directed towards evaluating the link between refugees and insecurity in the Horn of Africa. (Hassan, 2010)
1.4 Overall objective
To evaluate the impact made by refugees in regional insecurity using Kenya and Uganda as case studies.
1.4.1 Research Objectives
i. To assess the socio-economic and political impact of hosting regional refugees in Kenya and Uganda.
ii. To establish the effect of hosting refugees on regional security and stability
iii. To evaluate the challenges confronting regional countries hosting refugees in responding to insecurity or terrorism in the region.
1.4.2 Research Questions
i. What is the impact of regional refugees to Kenya and Uganda socio-economic and political landscape?
ii. What is the effect of refugees to regional security and stability?
iii. Which challenges confront regional countries hosting refugees in fighting regional insecurity or terrorism?

1.5 Significance of Study
The state, being the main actor in International Relations, highly features security in its national interest. State security is the ability of a state to secure its borders from foreign invasion and secure the protection of its citizens. A nation is secure to the extent to which it is not in danger of having to sacrifice core values if it wishes to avoid war and is able to challenge to maintain them by victory in such a wave. The significance of studying the topic in question is because security in both Kenya and Uganda has been on threat due to presence of refugees in both states. (Lippman, 2011)
1.6 Justification of the Study
The link between state insecurity and refugees is still a recent development that has not been studied. Developing states have claimed that refugees have contributed to instability and insecurity taking place within their borders however not enough research has conclusively come to this conclusion. Kenya and Uganda have hosted refugees for more than a century and there have been minimal widespread allegations by these states of refugees within their boundaries being threats to state security. However in the recent days, both states have accused refugees of sheltering criminals and terror agents within their ranks. Hence his study is important in understanding the relationship between refugees and insecurity as well as terror generally in the greater Horn of Africa region and particularly in Uganda and Kenya. (Aukot, 2015)
This study is critical in evoking consciousness among readers of the human rights situation of refugees. The study will create a general public awareness of the situation of refugees in Uganda and Kenya. By classifying refuges as a source of insecurity, the government of Kenya and Uganda are likely to justify any action they take against the refugees. For that reason the public will act as a watchdog of the human rights of the refugees to ensure the government adheres to human rights of refugees in any action it takes against them as guided by international conventions and protocols. It will also form a foundation for future researchers who may be interested in studying issues relating to the topic under study. (Aukot, 2015)
1.7 Theoretical Framework
The study will be guided by four theories, namely; the liberal Universalism Theory, Rational Choice Theory, Grounded Theory and Terrorism. These theories recognize the pervasive influence of influx of refugees because they holds the unit of analysis as an individual contemplating state security where the influx of refugees, capable of producing extraordinary political outputs with relatively few inputs as well. (Daveed, 2016)
Liberal Universalism Theory is founded on the basis that all human interest are equal and should therefore be assigned equal consideration. It’s premised on the understanding that all human beings have a moral authority to pursue this interests including his safety and well-being. According to this theory, all states should give equal considerations for the facilitation of the interest of each human being regardless of their identifying characters. In applying the theory to refugees’ rights and protection, the theory portrays concepts of both free human beings and fleeing refugees’ rights. It supports the concept of moral equality of all people on earth. (Campbell, 2006)
Theoretically, a refugee camp within the borders of Kenya and Uganda must follow the laws and customs of both states. In practice, however, refugees establish informal justice systems, largely based on Islamic law. State security can be a logical choice but is it a rational choice? And more tangibly, what meanings can be derived from the action itself with respect to law enforcement, policymaking and ultimately prevention. Terrorism is planned, coordinated and conducted in a logical and “systematic” way. Inversely, it is not random, spontaneous or illogical. By declaring the phenomenon systematic and therefore a rational action and by default terrorists as rational actors, scholars seek to predict terrorists’ preferences and explain why they perpetrate terrorism. But is it better to theorize about how terrorists think or go directly to the source and ask them? The two respective methodologies in these approaches are Rational Choice Theory and Grounded Theory. (Verdirame & Guglielmo, 1998)
Refugees operate under the principles of constrained utility maximization by optimizing the highest possible level of utility, under given restrictions, when the highest overall level of utility cannot be reached. When refugees perpetrate an act of state security, they do indeed want to achieve a specific goal, but are often quite satisfied with coming close. For example, one of the stated goals of the September 11th attack was “bleeding America to the point of bankruptcy.”(Daveed 2011). Under the constrained utility maximization philosophy, al-Qaeda surely wanted more people killed and higher damage incurred, but its message for all intents and purposes was delivered. Proponents cite the “unprecedented nature of the situation” is often what justifies using its approach to studying terrorism. (Daveed, 2011)
2.1 Introduction
This chapter aims at addressing the research question which is the effect of hosting refugees and their contribution to regional insecurity referring to the case of Uganda and Kenya. To answer this question, the study will utilize secondary data and examine findings of past related studies, reports and publications on the subject.
2.2 Refugees and Insecurity: The case of Kenya
Without a stable government since the fall of Siad Barre in the early 1990’s, Somalia has become a heaven of Islamic fundamentalists. Fundamentalists were organized and hence were quick to fill the vacuum left by the Islamic courts giving them a comparative advantage over other small factions that lacked resources or recognized ideologies. Many youth were attracted to join the Al- Shabaab fundamentalists due to a myriad of reasons including desperation, religious affiliation and idleness. Today, Al-Shabaab wars have led to thousands of Somali residents fleeing into Kenya as refugees. With these, criminal elements have also crossed over into Kenya and some have set up Al-Shabaab recruitment bases at the camps. They target Kenyan youth for recruitment and use political Islam as a weapon to target non-Muslim populations. (Lodge, 1984)
Security of Northern Kenya has worsened with the influx of refugees. Humanitarian Network Practice notes that travel to that area is now restricted and any organizations visiting the area must be accorded a government pass and police escort. The report takes notes of Islamist militias and armed bandits roaming in the precincts of the camp and the Northern region as a whole. UN mission to the camp operates under stipulated restrictions, always travelling in convoys and escorted by armed police. Humanitarian Network Practice report notes that with the 2010 incursion of Somali and South Sudanese refugees and into the camp. The Northern region has become one of the most dangerous places to operate in, in Africa. (Lodge, 1984)
Lately the report notes, Al-Shabaab faction in the refugee camps have begun targeting refugee officials whom they accuse of cooperating with the police in giving information. Report notes that escalation of insecurity cases among refugee camps in Kenya has prompted humanitarian agencies to scale back on their operations. This has seen many humanitarian officers withdraw from camps, causing a negative effect on security of refugees and host communities. Conflict in the republic of South Sudan has also negatively affected the security of the region and Kenya in general. It has seen thousands of Sudanese flee into Kenya and Uganda as refugees. (Loescher, 2012)
Government of South Sudan has been accused of using local warriors to carry out attacks on Sudanese refugees in Kakuma refugee camp, as well as Turkana people in Kenya. This has led to cases of banditry and theft of animals along the border of Kenya and South Sudan. Flow of refugees from South Sudan has also seen criminal elements fleeing the fighting cross into Kenya with small arms and Light weapons. Since the escalation of South Sudan crisis, refugee numbers flowing into Kenya’s Kakuma camp have more than tripled and with these posing economic and security dilemmas on Kenya. Kenya has been forced to discuss the South Sudan problem in almost every regional block gathering and it hasn’t gone well with the South Sudan who feels Kenya is exerting undue pressure on her and sometimes taking sides on the conflict. (Lohrmann, 2000)
2.3 Refugees and Insecurity: The case of Uganda
Rwandese civil war in 1959 which was closely followed by Burundian unrest of 1960 saw a big number of refugees stream into Uganda. By the close of 2010 Uganda’s neighbors Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and Kenya had all experienced civil wars and unrest resulting in an influx of refugees in Uganda. This was because of Uganda’s open door policy to refugees which does not restrain refugees to camps but admits them into special settlements where they can farm and fend for themselves. Uganda’s accommodation to refugees from the entire Horn of Africa has not come without challenges to its security and stability. (Mushemeza, 2007)
In the early 1980’s tension arose between Uganda and Rwanda due to Rwanda Refugees in Uganda. The government of Uganda accused Rwandan refugees of sympathizing, assisting and joining the National Resistance Movement. Uganda accused Kigali of using Rwandan refugees inside Uganda for destabilizing Ugandan government and consequently expelled Rwandan refugees from Uganda. In early 1990’s tension arose between Uganda and Sudan over the latter’s behavior over Sudanese refugees hosted in Uganda. Sudan accused Ugandan government of destabilizing the country through the support of Sudan’s People Liberation Army who moved to Uganda as refugees. (Mushemeza, 2007)
Today, the government of Uganda has raised numerous concerns both at the IGAD and AU level on the rise of terror activities resulting from Somali refugees it hosts. Al- Shabaab claims its punishing Nigeria for its interference in Somali’s affairs as Uganda is part of the AMISOM forces in Somalia. On its part however, Ugandan government has accused Somali refugees of harboring terror elements within their midst as well as providing information about Uganda to terrorist elements from Somali who then target and kill Uganda’s citizens. This has made Uganda increasingly selective on the admittance of refugees through its borders and granting of asylum on asylum seekers. (Mwagiru, 1999)
The government of Uganda has claimed a link between refugees from the Horn of Africa hosted in its territory and the rise of acts crime especially in the host communities around refugee camps. Ever increasing land conflicts have been reported between locals and refugees. Uganda has fallen victim to terrorists from Somalia in July 2010 when Al-Shabaab elements protesting over the involvement of the Ugandan military in Somalia, penetrated into Uganda and caused terror attacks in Kampala. This attack led to government crackdown on Somali refugees in Uganda and many were forcefully repatriated. (Mwagiru, 1999)

This section deals with the research method that was used in carrying out the research study. The study utilized secondary data inclusive of findings, reports, publications and books. Primary data inclusive of interviews will also be used.
3.1 Classification of Secondary Data
The study used both quantitative and qualitative secondary data. Quantitative data was used to inform the phenomenon under study with past data and re- assess past data sets of figures with the phenomenon under study. Qualitative data was used to inform the current study with thematic and narrative data as well as compare it with past research findings.
3.2 Sources of Secondary data
The study used internal and external sources of secondary data. The internal sources of secondary were obtained from the USIU Africa library, online Publications and Research reports by USIU academic staff, students and affiliated researchers. The external sources of secondary data used were acquired from various reports of organizations and entities like the World Bank, Magazines, Newspapers and Blogs. They were both online and textbook publications.
3.3 Sources of Primary data
The primary data used for this research would be interviews since this is a sensitive topic and also because it is inexpensive. One on one interviews will be of preference to this research. This would be advantageous because I will be able to have total control of the process and also it will be easier to analyze the data I have personally collected.
3.4 Research Design
Data collected will be analyzed and themed in respect to the objectives of the study.
They will be categorized, synthesized and discussed to form various chapters and
sections of the study. Consistency and completeness will be put into consideration in order to ensure validity and reliability.
3.5 Data Presentation
Having studied the issues outlined, considering various qualitative and quantitative secondary data sources, the findings were presented in descriptive narrative form. Sub-themes were built around the findings which fed into building large themes and the findings presented in narration.
3.6 Limitations of Study
In the case of primary data, when conducting interviews one may consume a lot of time and also sometimes the response received may be inaccurate because of inherent bias by the respondents. On the other hand, when using secondary data, some of the limitations includes: Official statistics may reflect biases of those in power hence limiting what you can find out and also official statistics the way they are measured may change over time making historical comparisons difficult.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
I will ensure quality and integrity of my research as well as seeking informed consent. I will also respect the confidentiality and anonymity of my research respondents. I will ensure that my participants will participate in my study voluntarily and I will avoid causing any harm to my participants.

Campbell, Elizabeth H. (2006). “Urban Refugees in Nairobi: Problems of Protection, Mechanisms of Survival, and Possibilities for Integration.” Journal of Refugee Studies vol 19:pg 396-413.
Daveed Gartenstein-Ross. “Don’t Get Cocky, America.” Foreign Policy. May 2, 2011.
De Montclos, M. A. P., & Kagwanja, P. M. (2000) ‘Refugee camps or cities? The socio-economic dynamics of the Dadaab and Kakuma camps in Northern Kenya’ Journal of refugee studies 13(2):205-222.
Jack, R. F., & Norman, E. W. (2000). How to design and evaluate research in education. (4th ed.). U.S.A: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. pg. 19
Jacobsen, K. (2002) ‘Can refugees benefit the state? Refugee resources and African state building’, The Journal of Modern African Studies 40(4):577-596.
Javier Jordán and Robert Wesley. “The Madrid Attacks: Results of Investigations Two Years Later.” Terrorism Monitor. Volume 4, Issue 5. March 2006.
John Rogge, “The Challenges of Changing Dimensions among the South’s Refugees: Illustrations from Somalia,” International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol.5, No.I (1993), 25.
UNHCR (1951) Convention Relating to the Status of the Refugees, Resolution 2198, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
UNHCR (1967) Protocol Relating to the Status of the Refugees, Resolution 2198, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly

Name :Reem Emad ElsragyID; OPCF12-019 Oman medical collage
4th year pharmaceutical management
Topic : Applications of marketing research
APPLICATIONS OF MARKETING RESEARCH is the product which is going to be marked should be researched to meet several goals for example, design of innovative product or old product that already happens to have strength market approved research, and line extension . The APPLICATIONS OF MARKETING RESEARCH is divided to
Strategic 2. Tactical
The strategic include segmentation forecasting for sales forecasting, segmentation studies, target markets for a given or known product is known , and positioning strategies identification.

Tactical the applications that is applied product testing, pricing research, advertising research, promotional research , distribution and logistics related research studies.

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Application of marketing
1-Pricing Research
The pricing is provided by strong pricing research. Research of pricing help to choose the product which haves the best features configuration in the right market positioning opportunities. quantitative and qualitative methods are used
2-Product Research
Used for product that are newly design and market validation research, or by assessing old product that has been in the market for a will the to check the optimal strange and line extension potential. 
Marketing size
Product category attitude and usages trend
Marketing opportunity research
Ideal generation
Create refined concept
Concept testing research
Brand equality
3-Concept Testing
Advertising concepts, new product concepts, and affordable, pricing, brand concepts, brand names, and positioning strategy concepts is checked first then concentrate on developing than screening. developing which require for exploratory market research, both tangible attribute clusters, and emotional appeals are taken in concern when creating concepts
4-Positioning Research
market creative branding and positioning research can be defined and enter with a strong positioning strategy. At the beginning it is needs to make market positioning concept , potential markets, and current
5-Marketing Due Diligence
it is used to remove the least attractive prospects and to enable early planning of post-merger integration. And to reduce some major risks such as losing customers through duplication or defections.
6-Customer Satisfaction Research
Qualitative research shows how the customers make the purchase and repeat purchase decisions.

7-Brand Equity Research
It study the effect of both depth and breadth of the brand power in the target markets. Both standard and custom-tailored brand equity survey measurements are used in this research
8-Advertising Research
specific advertising goals and the stage of ad development, or campaign based on these the advertising design is done. Advertising research techniques include ad recall surveys and message
9-Market Segmentation
It is important for maintaining focus and delivers needed of the costumer for marketing information. where there is new products and markets categories that keep on emerging every day and the traditional market segments decreasing
10-Sales Analysis
It is the initial step in product and brand analysis. marketing analysis data taking out effort searches for meaning and insight among the stacks of sales data and marketing data. this is an importance tool for targeting the best customers, find which advertising and promotion methods are most efficient and effective.

Methods of Types of Marketing Research
Initially this is done to have information, idea and understanding the problem before the research is done. Most of the exploratory is qualitative than quantitative .as well as conclusive evidence and subsequent research are not needed
Diagnosing a Situation: when companies have got problems and they are unable and unclearly know how to define it .
Screening Alternatives: there is many options, but the company is unable to take them all due to finance restrictions
Uncovering New Ideas: due to the new product the costumer is unable to choose what they need
It is done when there is some comprehension of the problem. The objectives are defined, and the research questions are formulated. Usually some consumer profiling and market segmentation are required.

It is also known as causal research
It illustrated the relationship between the cause and effect. exploratory and descriptive research are needed in this research due to that, a lot of information is going to be gathered on the topic.


MATRIC NO : EIA1610161
Explain the effect of an expansionary fiscal policy in the classical model when it is done through the following method;
Expansionary fiscal policy involves the government seeking to increase the aggregate demand (AD) through higher government spending and lower tax. Usually, it is financed by increasing the government borrowing and selling bonds to the private sector.

An increase in government borrowing.

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Initially, the market equilibrium is at point E where supply of loanable funds (SS) equal to demand of loanable funds (DD). At that point, the interest rate at ro and saving (S0) equal to investment (I0).
As borrowing increases, the government have to pay more interest rate payments to those who hold bonds. If government borrows from the supply of loanable funds (SS) which is available from workers, it increases the demand for such funds and forces interest rates up where the demand for loanable funds (DD) shift to the right from I0 to I+(G-T). At the higher interest rate which is r1, people will consume less so consumption (C) declines while return on saving (S) increases and the supply of loanable funds (SS) increases from S0 = I0 to S1 = I + (G-T). At interest rate (r1), supply of loanable funds (SS) is increases to the point F. The higher the interest rate (r) , the lower the borrowing by firms for investment purposes. The government borrowing ‘crowds out’ private borrowing where at r1 private investment decreases from I0 to I1.
An increase in government spending (G) where the government borrowing is increase matches the decreased in private consumption (C) and investment (I).

An increase in money supply.

Initially, the labor market equilibrium is when labor supply (Ns) is equal to labor demand (Nd) at point E. At that point, employment at N0, output at Y0 and price at P0.
When money supply (Ms) is increases, it will shift the aggregate demand (AD) to the right from AD0 to AD1. At point Y0. Money supply (Ms) does not have effect on Y because output is fixed.

When the agregate demand (AD) is increase, aggregate demand (AD) is greater than aggregate supply (AS). So, there is excess demand of goods. When people demanded for goods is high, while the output is fixed at Y0, the price (P) will increase from P0 to P1 due to high demand of goods. Money supply has no effect at total output because output is fixed.

The reduction on the marginal tax rate.

By increasing the disposable income of households, a tax cut would stimulate consumption. If however, the government sold bonds to the public to replace the revenue lost by the tax cut, the same crowding out process would foow, as in the case of a bond financedincreasein government spending. The quilibrium interest rate would rise, investment would fall,and there would al,so be an interest rate induced rise in saving (S), meaning that consumption would fall back toward the pre tax cut level. In the case of tax cut , as with an increase in spending, aggregate demand would not be affected.

If revenue lost because of the tax cut were replaced by printing new money, then as with an increase in government spending money creation would increase AD and the tax cutwoud cause the price leve to rise. Increase in money supply that affected the price eve.

Supply side
A reduction in the marginal tax rate increases the real wage (W/P. The labor supply (NS) curve shifts to the right from NS0 to NS1. . Equilibrium moves from point E to F. Employment and output increase, moving from E to F on the production function. This increases in output is represented by the shifts to the right in the vertical agreagate supply curve in c.

In the classical model, such a change would have an incentive effect on labor supply (NS). The change would effect the supply side and affect the output and employment.

Labor market increase labor supply, at any value of real wage (W/P) and shift the labor supply to the right from NS0 to NS1. Equilibrium employment increase from NOto N1. Increase in employment will increase in labor supply and also increase in output.



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DUE DATE; 22 October 2018

The International Criminal Court (ICC) expects to advance equity, as well as peace. It has been generally reprimanded for doing not one or the other, yet it needs to battle with some extreme basic and political troubles: it has constrained assets, it faces institutional confinements, it is controlled by states, and it is censured for a supposed selectivity in the manner in which it administers equity. In any case, the ICC could contribute fundamentally to the advancement of global equity and peace, and majorly affect the counteractive action of wrongdoing, since its indictments speak to an unmistakable risk to exceedingly put people who perpetrate genuine violations. While this article focuses on crafted by the ICC in Africa, the main mainland where it has issued arraignments against suspected offenders, it likewise takes a gander at its endeavors on different landmasses. It contends that, in the bigger universal setting, the commitment of the ICC to global equity and peace relies upon its institutional power and the help it gets from states, all alone fair work, and in transit it is seen by potential lawbreakers and unfortunate casualties in the world.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) was made in 2002. The point of the ICC is to put a conclusion to exemption for culprits of the most genuine violations of worry to the worldwide network, and to add to the aversion of such wrongdoings. The ICC can arraign any individual anyplace on the planet, yet for associated culprits who are natives with a state which has not endorsed the ICC Statute, a United Nations Security Council (UNSC) goals is important.

In spite of the moral and human rights motivation of the ICC, and its aspiration to rebuff offenders and avoid wrongdoings, it isn’t constantly bought in to by global associations, states and individuals. Starting
. As of 2013, a majority of states in the world have ratified the Rome Statute that established the institution. The ICC has jurisdiction with respect to a particular range of crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and in 2017 it may be able to investigate the crime of aggression committed by one state in another state. (Médard, C. 2008)
The ICC Preamble declares that these are serious crimes which threaten the peace, security and well-being of the world. However, the terms ‘peace’ and ‘justice’ are not defined in the ICC Preamble, and this leads to different interpretations, as peace and justice for some can mean conditions of war and injustice for others.

Mau eviction case.
The Environment and Land Court in Narok County had declined to stop the Mau Forest evictions in a case filed by Kericho Governor Paul Chepkwony.The Governor says the eviction is politically motivated as the attempt in 2005 was stopped by the court, and now the ‘cartels’ are back and want to forcefully take the pieces from their rightful owners.
The government has been accused of carrying out ‘brutal’ Mau evictions by torching houses, intimidating people and forcing children to sleep in the cold. A section of leaders blamed Narok county commissioner George Natembeya over the evictions from the Mau Forest.Bomet Central MP Ronald Tonui and a section of MCAs from Narok accused the county commissioner of “being too harsh and inconsiderate” to people and property. They said evictees, including young children, are sleeping out in the cold after their houses were torched (Klopp, J. M., & Sang, J. K. 2011)
The Nation also learnt yesterday that the emotive debate over the Mau Forest evictions would head to The Hague-based International Criminal Court (ICC). A source who sought anonymity revealed that the evictees’ lawyers had written to the ICC over the violation of Article 7 of the Rome Statute.
Victim concern
Families were separated and some children left stranded, not knowing the whereabouts of their parents. Grace Rono has four children with her, but she does not know who their parents are. She says she has been with the children for a week and has been trying to locate their parents in vain. (Baldyga, T. J., Miller 2010)
When the eviction started people were beaten and families were separated. I have been staying with them since as they don’t know their parents’ whereabouts. This government (Narc) does not respect the rule of law. It is unfortunate schools have been closed with children denied their universal right to education. It a tragedy Kenya is being ranked with failed States. (Getz, K. A. 2013)
Victim participation can be one of the major contributors to the effectiveness, credibility, and fairness of the ICC; and this is a major imperative in relation to Africa from where the vast majority of ICC cases have come from.. The injured individual support framework at the ICC is administered by Article 68(3) of the Rome Statute, which states: “Where the individual interests of the unfortunate casualties are influenced, the Court will allow their perspectives and worries to be displayed and considered at phases of the procedures resolved to be proper by the Court… “Given the vagueness of this Article, it has been left to the jurisprudence of the Court to determine just how victims can participate in proceedings.
The International Criminal Court says it has received a petition from a Kenyan lawyer who wants the Kenyan government investigated for crimes against humanity allegedly committed in during eviction of families from Mau Forest. But the court is categorical that the next step will largely remain open as experts in the Office of the Prosecutor assess whether recent evictions fall within its jurisdiction in the first place.

It is a Global Court for the frail – Around the globe, casualties of annihilation, violations against mankind and atrocities are requesting equity and review. By making the ICC and Rome Statute arrangement of worldwide equity genuinely GLOBAL, people associated with carrying out these generally disliked wrongdoings can be considered responsible in official courtrooms around the globe.

It is a Court of final resort – The ICC prosecutes people for atrocities, violations against mankind and destruction. Yet, just if governments don’t do as such first.

It gives us a way to worldwide peace – Grave violations undermine the peace, security and prosperity of the world.

It is an image of expectation – Throughout history, a large number of kids, ladies and men have been casualties of inconceivable outrages. In the twentieth century alone, an expected 200 million individuals kicked the bucket because of contention, slaughters and abuse. That is around 1 in each 27 passings.

It is free and unbiased – One of the fundamental accomplishments and mainstays of the Rome Statute is the autonomy of the ICC, including the examiner and judges, from governments and from the United Nations Security Council. The ICC Rome Statute conveys with it shields against politically inspired examinations and indictment.

the court’s basic leadership process is customary law, which implies that judges, and not a jury, choose the destiny of the blamed dependent on lawful priority and information of the law. In spite of the fact that this is in opposition to the United States legitimate framework, it unquestionably has its advantages. The custom-based law hone certainly guarantees that the privileges of the person, and additionally the discernable quality of the court are taken care of by experts. This is imperative with a worldwide gathering as a result of the immense contrasts between many legal frameworks. A common law court at the worldwide level is just not viable. By conceding the destiny of inductees to the judges, an arrangement of governing rules has additionally been incorporated into the Rome Statute and is in this way used by the court. The interests framework for the ICC makes a climate of decency and equity that ensures all people, from the respondents to the people in question, of their supposed wrongdoings. Lee, B. J. (2009
In the ICC an appeal can not only be granted for guilty verdict, but also an acquittal. This additional appeal gives the prosecutor a second chance to submit additional evidence that may change the determination of the judgment. In creating a system in which the court can interpret international criminal law, it has correctly identified the issue that needs to be addressed in order for the court to blossom and reach its full potential. It will need to create a system in which precedence can be established and therefore common law is correctly carried out.

As much the case is still in the Kenyan courts the following demerits will face the petition on its jurisdiction of the court.
The case being already heard in the Kenyan courts the ICC will have no obligations but to have the case take its way until, there is loophole to join. The case may be away from ICC operations.
The accused despite being Kenyan civilians given land as squatters it is hard for ICC to interfere settlement of people in need of free land, despite a rough eviction with sovereign Kenya government decision’s to secure the may forest…
Over many years justice delivery, despite the Governor may need quick action the ICC takes a lengthy time to ensure sufficient evidence.
legitimacy, is another problem at ICC, as the court selects and picks certain cases the picked sections may be not at the Governors interest as he has his own issues that he feels they should be addressed.

The mau civilians given the land by the government to settle in for a while they have no obligations but to move and ensure the government buffer zones are free from unnecessary

Arsanjani, M. H. (2009). The International criminal court and national amnesty laws. In Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting (Vol. 93, pp. 65-68).
Baldyga, T. J., Miller, S. N., Driese, K. L., ; Gichaba, C. M. (2008). Assessing land cover change in Kenya’s Mau Forest region using remotely sensed data. African Journal of Ecology, 46(1), 46-54.
Boone, C. (2012). Land conflict and distributive politics in Kenya. African Studies Review, 55(1), 75-103.
Getz, K. A. (2013). International codes of conduct: An analysis of ethical reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(7), 567-577.

Klopp, J. M. (2000). Pilfering the public: the problem of land grabbing in contemporary Kenya. Africa Today, 7-26

Klopp, J. M., & Sang, J. K. (2011). Maps, power, and the destruction of the Mau Forest in Kenya. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 125-134.
Lee, B. J. (2009). The International Criminal Court. Fla. Coastal LJ, 2, 197.
Médard, C. (2008). Key issues in disentangling the Kenyan crisis: evictions, autochthony and land privatization.
Paust, J. (2010). The reach of ICC jurisdiction over nationals.
The nation newsroom, Wayne one 2017, onset of may chaos and eviction of illegal inhabitants.


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