Name: Geun Ho LeeMr. SheridanTSEA (1)May 12, 2011 Tolerating Brain Drain in the Philippines: Should the Philippines? Midwife Chae Reviso came back in the Philippines, her motherland, after eight yearsworking tax-free and living rent-free in Saudi Arabia to live again with her husband.However, barely a year later, Mrs. Reviso is preparing to leave again as she finds too fewwork opportunities in her homeland. Although she came back because she felt that she owedher husband some time, she is not satisfied with the situation in her homeland as she claimsin frustration, “I cannot afford to build a house on my salary in the Philippines” (Macaraig). For decades, the problem of brain drain in the Philippines has been an on-going issue.Recently, it has gotten worse as the number of the top skilled and educated workers leavingthe country continues to rise (Alburo and Danilo). The increasing number of overseasFilipino workers (OFWs) benefits the Philippines economically as the remittances sent backhome encourage others to get educated and work abroad (Hennessey). Thus, some are contentwith the government’s inactive stance on the brain drain. Despite the economic and socialbenefits the Philippines gains from the export of its citizens, the Filipino government shouldtake more aggressive actions to minimize this, because the net effect of the brain drain isnegative, causing economic troubles, impeding the development of the nation, and causingsocial problems. The economic problems in the Philippines caused by brain drain are much greaterthan the benefits. One main economic problem experienced is that the local Filipinopopulation becomes too dependent on the remittances sent back home by the OFWs.According to the World Bank’s 2005 Global Economic Prospects report, there is evidence to
2. suggest that remittances retard local development by crowding out entrepreneurial initiative(Hennessey). This is a serious problem since the economy cannot grow or continue to existwithout entrepreneurs starting up and venturing businesses. Simply put, lack of entrepreneursputs a halt on an economy. Also, exporting skilled and educated workers makes the countryto be dependent on the economies of importing nations. For instance, the OFWs in developednations have been significantly affected by the collapse of technology stocks as thetechnology firms closed down and thereby open job positions for technology-specializedworkers intensely decreased. Thus, the thousands of technology-specialized OFWs are nolonger in demand (Alburo and Danilo). A problem arises from this because these newlyunemployed workers come back to their homeland and increase the unemployment rate athome. Again this problem caused by brain drain works against the economic growth of thePhilippines. Moreover, the most significant problem due to brain drain is that while theeconomy of the Philippines expands, it fails to acquire the attributes of a developed economy.For instance, while the educated leave the country for mental labor, the others in theworkforce are at home, working in factories or doing very basic mental labor (Alburo andDanilo). This description of the economy of the Philippines reveals that unlike the economiesof developed countries where the majority of the workforce is involved in metal labor, theFilipino economy is still driven by physical labor. Since factual data suggest that a developedeconomy is unlikely physical-labor driven one, it can be deduced that the Filipino economywill see its growth halted by this factor in the coming future. In contrast, considering some of the economic benefits of brain drain on thePhilippines, the government should not act against it. By exporting workers to other countries,the unemployment rate in the Philippines decreases. It has been statistically proven that abouta total of nine million Filipinos work overseas, which is about 10% of the total population(Macaraig) and 23% of the workforce (Llorito). This means that the remaining 67% of the
3. labor force in the Philippines can compete for jobs at home whereas the full 40 millionFilipino workforce would have to compete for the same number of jobs if it were not for thebrain drain. Moreover, the remittances sent back to the Philippines by the OFWs contributes ahuge sum to the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP). OFW dollar remittances haverecently averaged about US$7 billion per year (Llorito) and peaked at more than $11.6 billionin 2005 (Hennessey). The foreign remittances account for about 13% of the Filipino GDP(Llorito) and the specialized workers account for about 340,000, which is about 3.78% of theOFWs and about 0.85% of the Filipino workforce (Alburo and Danilo). These data show thathaving brain drain certainly helps out with the economic growth of the nation since only 0.85%of the 40 million labor force working in the foreign countries makes up roughly about 10% ofthe Philippines’ total GDP. In addition, brain drain solves the problem of providing jobs forboth the past and current generation workers. According to a study done by InternationalMigration Programme, many of the Filipino migrant workers were already in the labor forceand had come from the past decade’s professionals (Alburo and Danilo). This means that asthe previous generation’s professional workers move out of the country to work abroad, thenew professionals can find jobs at home more easily, hence effectively increasing theemployment rate. However, the brain drain is impeding the development of the Philippines. Thequestion to ponder is, “how to develop when the best and the brightest routinely set out insearch of more developed and comfortable nations?” (Hennessey) This questions how thePhilippines is supposed to develop if its brightest citizens, who can change the nation, moveout of the country. Also, the Philippines lacks incentives to offer to the brightest to keep themfrom leaving. With no solutions in sight, business groups and the government hold little hopeof keeping the nation’s top talent at home (Macaraig). This means that with the decreasingnumber of accessible skilled local workers, businesses and the government are hesitant to

Name: Gaopalelwe Lekabe
Student No. 25526413
Module code: AEXM 324
Lecturer: Dr ModirwaAssignment No.1
Date: 07 September 2018
The factors to be considered when forming a group.

Social group
The interest on members of the group
the projects
objectives of the group
integrating with the people in the group
meeting needs or goals lying outside group
The interest to members of the group eventually expand out of nearness or closeness and frequent interaction. We must gain remember that closeness create potential in the interest, factors come into existence when building up a relationship. Similarity is one of the most important aspect that appears in group formation.

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The assignment of the group is evident on its activities. Every group is expected to reach its goals and accomplish the needs of the group, the main ideal of joining the social group. The task of a group is experienced in its activities. One can join the agricultural cooperative because they are passionate in agriculture. People join and remain in groups when the rewards for doing so outweigh the costs, thus yielding profits.
The other factor for group formation is the hunger to interact with the members of the group. The satisfaction of need for affiliation is getting people involved as to meet the for obtaining them via objectives and activities of the group. Regardless of what we affiliate for the main reason is for everyone to be empowered in the social group and also changes in the behavior of an individual
Group membership may help us meet needs that lie outside the group – thus, group membership may be a stepping stone to achieve an external goal, rather than a source of direct satisfaction. A college professor may regularly attend meetings of a professional association to enhance the probability of promotion. A member for political office may host of community organizations to advice his or her luck for election. Attraction of the group is also detected by the attributes of that particular group.
Characteristics of groups that make it more attractive to potential members and which contribute to group formation:
1. Respect is one of the most vital attributes that a group should have in order to attract members.

2. Members who are in higher positions and have authority with respect are usually attracted to be in the group.

3. working together within the group brings out the best than individual, there are rewards which are obtain from working as a team and also results in the growth of the group.

4. The level of positive interaction among members have an effect on the attractiveness since it increases the range of personal and social needs to be met.

5. The size of the group have an impact on attraction. Smaller groups unlike big groups it is easier for members to interact easy because they share similarities and for obtaining individual needs thus how it tend to be more attractive.

6. A good relationship with another groups will add to the group honor and make
it more attractive.

7. Groups which are passionate in what they do to achieve are to be attractive, members who work together in reaching a success.

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Paper based on Leaders eat last by Simon Sinek
Leaders eat last is a book for leaders in the modern world especially considering the fact that the world is divided into two: leaders and followers. Simon Sinek speaks about the true meaning of leadership and alludes to the fact that many leaders of today never really understand the impact their leadership have on those they lead. Sinek observes the modern struggles between followers and leaders to bring to the fore the nature of leading in the modern world.
One of the outstanding messages Sinek speaks about is the need to cultivate a circle of safety (Sinek, 41). In Sinek’s world the circle of safety involves employees working together and helping each other out rather than fighting and competing against each other to impress management. The circle of safety helps people built trust in each other knowing that in case of any outside danger someone is always there for us. What’s more, the circle will enable people exchange information freely which eventually propels the organization towards success.
In order to cultivate one’s circle of safety, Sinek proposes various habits that need to be developed. First, empathy helps the leader to recognize and share about how people that one is leading feel. Every employee deserves to have a leader that is not only concerned about results but is also empathetic to the things they go through every day. Secondly, he proposes treating employees with respect and dignity. Sinek affirms that when leaders treat employees with dignity and respect the benefits are unlimited.
Leadership is biology. Sinek explains how four chemicals including oxytocin, endorphin, dopamine and serotonin affect people. Each one of these chemicals has a role to play in shaping a person. Endorphin is responsible for masking pain, dopamine for achieving goals, serotonin for leadership and oxytocin for love. Sinek calls endorphin and dopamine selfish as they help people get things done. Serotonin and oxytocin are the selfless chemicals that help people in strengthening social bonds as well as in fostering networks and collaborations.
Selfish chemicals make us achieve our personal goals and make us happy whenever these goals are achieved. These chemicals are addictive and other than making us push others to the limits to accomplish our goals, they also make us happy at the expense of others. These chemicals are good but can be very dangerous when abused. Leaders are advised to avoid using these chemicals because they make them blind to people’s problems.
Selfless chemicals create trust, contribution and the feeling of belonging. Using these chemical in daily interactions inspires synergy which leads to better cooperation and collaboration. Many leaders want tangible results which is fine. However, they do so by ordering people around and posting memos and warning all over the office. Sinek observes that doing so is bad style of leadership because it involves only the selfish chemicals. Leaders must get away from the comfort of personalized offices and computers and connect with employees. They must come out and show them that they are there and that they care. Leaders must stand with the rest of employees not as cheerleaders when things are right but in every time regardless.
Sinek also discusses on the importance and means of becoming long-term leaders. He alludes to the fact that although short-term successes are good, they cannot measure up to the collective effect they have over the long-term. He further alludes to short-sightedness in leading where leaders only focus all their attention and energy on what happens today and perhaps tomorrow. Truth is leaders must look far ahead and setup strategies that will create a positive picture of a long-term contribution.
Many CEOs make decisions that only help them achieve what they need to achieve in the short periods they serve. They do this to protect their image and advance their interests. Sinek observes that advancing personal objectives over ta short term at the expense of the company’s long-term health is selfish. Leading should be long-term and hence leaders should focus on setting up strategies that ensure long-term health of the organizations and people they lead even when benefits will start coming long after they have left.
Essentially, Leaders eat last communicates the message that the buck stops with the leader. In literal meaning, it means leaders should think about the followers first before they think about their personal interests. In a perfect world, the only difference between leaders and followers is that the former work more than the latter. In this world, too, leaders do most of the work and only allow followers to finish. Leaders should be selfless people who want the best for followers even if it means taking home little or nothing for themselves. Leaders eat last is a mockery of current leadership where leaders take everything and leave nothing for the followers. It is a mockery of the way leaders are perceive in the modern society as people who need to be worshipped and feared.
Sinek sends the message that the current state of affairs is based on the wrong principles and must be changed as soon as possible. Leadership should not be a factor that divides people into two but a factor that makes people find more reasons to work together, help one another and ultimately improve working environment. Leaders need to use more of their selfless chemicals and reserve the selfish chemicals. Employees too must start working together to further their common cause and avoid unnecessary competition that only creates a very unhealthy working environment.
Work Cited
Sinek, Simon. Leaders eat last: Why some teams pull together and others don’t. Penguin, 2014.

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The United States History
Progressivism refers to the idea that the government and her citizens can play a significant role in changing the social, political and economic systems. Progressivism addressed various social ills facing the United States including inequality, and social problems that were dominant in the USA (Foner and McGirr, 123). The progressives were committed to end corruption, promote efficiency, perfection, labor reform and urbanization. Furthermore, the progressives enhanced the social welfare of the American population.
The progressives achieved their role and played a significant role in changing the lives of the Americans. They addressed the various social issues that affected the local population. They helped in the preservation of democracy. The various parts of the progressives including the settlement house movement and the Young Men Christian Association enlightened people about their rights (Foner and McGirr, 201). They created economic forums and promoted moral improvement. Progressivism was a success because they fostered efficiency in different sectors. Workers worked for fewer hours, and the minimum wage labor was improved for factory workers.
The progressive movement in the United States became popular in the 20th century. The progressives were committed to redefining human fulfillment of capacities. It was one of their primary tasks, and modern conservatism owes its success to the efforts of the founders of the contemporary constitutionalism ((Foner and McGirr, 64). They advocated for open and democratic systems of government. They progressives also advocated for presidential leadership that provided unity of direction, vision, and a progressive government that takes the desires and interest of all people at heart.
During the Gilded Age, the politicians were mostly corrupt and ineffective. The politicians amassed wealth and the expense of the general populace resulting from rapid economic growth. The quality of the middle class improved significantly. However, the industrial workers and farmers did not have the opportunity to enjoy the new prosperity. They worked for long hours in poor working conditions, and this affected their health in a great deal. Majority of the Americans during this period were committed to having political and social reforms. The ineffectiveness and the corrupt nature of the politicians prompted the citizens to demand reforms. The individuals who were advocating for reforms became to be known as progressives (Foner and McGirr, 147). The economy was growing at an unprecedented rate which created massive wealth. The railroads and the telephone lines that stretched across the country created opportunities for entrepreneurs, and cheaper goods were made available to the consumers. During the Gilded period, the poor Americans struggled to survive as a result of the industrial and financial aristocracy (Hayes, 234). Some of the Americans populace celebrated the new wealth that was created while others lamented.
The American political and economic elites capitalized on the rapidly growing wealth while industrial workers struggled to survive. The industrial wages were low, and people were working in the factories for long hours under poor conditions. One consequence of the Gilded Period was the emergence of the labor movement where workers banded together to force their collective will upon the industrial giants who had dominated them (Foner and McGirr, 165). The long, violent crimes organized by industrial workers gave rise to the development of the progressives.
The ideas of progressives transformed the American politics. A new theory of justice took hold and developments within the contemporary liberalism became predominant as was evidenced in the American education system, media popular culture and politics. Besides, the majority of the people who refer to themselves as the progressives and the liberals accept much of the progressive view of the American society.
The United States became a kinder gentler as a result of the progressive movement because it advocated for equality of all races in the US. Besides, the ideologies would promote a just society and ensure equitable distribution of wealth and success for every American. Majority of the Americans who were working in the industries did not receive any benefits from growing economy. They were subjected to poor working conditions and low pay. The industrial workers went ahead to organize for labor movements to address their plights and advocate for better wages and working conditions. They organized violent demonstrations that were posing a threat to the rapidly growing economy (Hayes, 123). The American economic and political elites became weary of this growing trend and demanded equality and promotion of human rights for the benefit of the economic investments and political rights. The progressives believed that all men were created equal and have specific inalienable rights. They believed that every individual was expected to obey the natural law. The government found it necessary to abide by the considerations of the founders of the progressive movement. They had to protect the rights and freedoms of the people since it was a duty and not a right.
The historians assess the progressive movement from the perspective of conservatism and liberal movements which has continued to be a characteristic of the American society (Hayes, 47). The progressives contributed significantly to the development of a new society and ideals that holds today. The democratization and liberal society which is a characteristic of the United States was brought about by the progressives.
Work Cited
Foner, Eric, and Lisa McGirr, eds. American history now. Vol. 79. Temple University Press, 2011.
Link, Arthur S. “Woodrow Wilson and the progressive era, 1910-1917.” (1954).
Hayes, William. The Progressive Education Movement: Is it Still a Factor in Today’s Schools?. Rowman ; Littlefield Education. 15200 NBN Way, PO Box 191, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214-0191, 2006.

Name: Yvonne Anthea Jensen
Class: K17vx34gu11v
Date: 11 March 2018
Fair trade may not be a fair deal after all
Based on the article, the following text discusses the benefits and drawbacks, that the fair trade movement has on consumers, workers and companies.

For the consumers, the fair trade movement gives them a good conscience, that they are buying products in line with their principles and values. It gives them the assurance, that they have made the right choice in supporting socially and environmentally sound practices. They get better quality products, which are not polluted with hazardous chemicals, and are produced without harming future generations. On the downside, there are limited products under the Fairtrade label, and therefore consumers will have to pay a higher price due to higher farming costs. In addition, there are some news that the fair trade movement is not fair due to the unscrupulous middlemen, who takes a profit leaving the workers in darkness. Which means that there may be some mistrust in the fair trade system.

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For the workers and producers, the fair trade movement helps to reduce poverty. It is committed to give the producers higher prices for their products. This will create decent working conditions, and fair wages for the workers. The drawback is that the products that need to be certified, requires a lot of resources. Firstly, the producers need to train the workers. Thereafter, they need to implement the work processes to meet Fair Trade quality and standards. It may not be easy for smaller producers to have the required skill set, and therefore leaving the market to the bigger players, who have the required resources.

As for the companies, the fair trade movement is a marketing tool to strengthen the power of the company’s brand. The company can also sign long-term commitments with producers, without having the need to constantly source for new producers. The downside is that they are required to pay higher prices for the raw products, which makes it a challenge to compete with other products, that are not Fairtrade certified. In addition, there are a lot bureaucracies, because the companies need to have all the formalities in place, before having their products certified as Fairtrade.

In conclusion, the fair trade movement is a means of getting a fair deal for consumers, workers and companies. Although the intention is to have a good and fair system, but it may not be a fair deal for all parties involved due to the perplexity and lack of transparency of the fair trade system.

NAME: OGORE MATAGA ANGELINE

SCHOOL: SOCIAL SCIENCES

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DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

UNIVERSITY: MOUNTKENYA UNIVERSITY

YEAR OF STUDY: FIRST YEAR

UNIT CODE: DED 1301
UNIT TITLE: RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FUNDRAISING

DED 1301
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FUNDRAISING
CAT 1
1. Outline and explain 5 methods/strategies of mobilizing financial resources for public development projects.
a) Donor agency
Donor is an organization or a person who willingly or voluntarily donates resources in form of money, information, materials and energy.
We can get financial resources from donor agencies to support any public project. It is a matter of writing a good proposal requesting for cash, material and energy resources from maximum number of donor agencies so that incase one refuses to give the donation, the other agencies are in a position to continue with their support. It is also advisable to expand the relations with the national, local, private and public sectors for a stable income generation.
The donation can also be in form of boxes where you request donations from the public by placing boxes in a stationary point. It can be a hospital, school, airports, or any other public places.
b) Fundraisings
This is a way of getting voluntary contributions of money or other resources. This can be done by organizing fundraising events whereby mobilizing of people can be done by distributing contribution papers, synthesizing the public through media, newspapers, audio visual materials, billboards, stickers or contacting them directly. This fundraising can also be by grants from the government or charitable organizations which are willing to contribute finance for public projects. The fundraising is done by inviting guest of honors in a place booked by an organization which can include churches, schools, stadiums, conference halls. This fundraising can be successful by having good communication skills and consulting the existing donors and the local communities.
c) Income generation
Income is money earned after work done. The work can either be self, public or private employed. Business oriented projects organizations can come together and contribute their incomes and other resources to start a public project in a different location of their choice. This type of resources mobilizing is done by the Indians and Somalis who mostly run family businesses. Although this is how they operate their businesses but most of them are generous and can contribute to start a public project which will help the surrounding and create employment opportunities to the public. Civil servants can decide to contribute some of their incomes to establish a public project. Most churches in the countryside are built using the contributions from incomes of their congregation.
d) Government policy
Tax is money payable to the government. This money is used to build schools, infrastructure, hospitals, stadiums and social amenities. It is also used to pay salaries of public servants. A public project can get its financial resources through the government by the proprietors writing proposals or during finance allocation to different places. Yearly during the budget reading the government allocates a certain amount of money to different firms for public projects. It can be for construction of bridges, infrastructure, schools or hospitals and this money is allocated to the government officials like governors, senators, members of parliament and head of different departments. The government can also borrow funds from developed countries or any good established film; get loans so that the money is distributed for the establishment of public projects.
e) By raising fees
This can be done when different organizations whether public, private or international decide to collect funds through increasing partnership by raising a certain fee to either goods or services rendered so as to acquire financial resources for a public project. The other way of raising fees would be for the NGOS to carry out the construction of public resting places, canals, schools, monastery, worshipping areas and hospitals; and the local body to pay back to the NGO. The county government on the other hand can collect some cash by raising the parking fees for vehicles, in the market stalls and the street vendors. This can be seen like harassing the less fortunate but with proper communication and negotiation skills, people will be able to understand what is happening. Also an organization can raise fees by selling its technical skills, becoming trainees or raising fees from visitors from individuals or organizations doing research in another organization

CAT 2
2. State and describe 5 skills required for effective resource mobilizing
a) Communication skills
Communication is a way of transmitting knowledge or information to someone else. To have an effective resource mobilizing, one has to have best communication skills to be able to convince people to mobilize resources. Mobilizing of resources to take place people have to be communicated to by either verbal or nonverbal; through media.
People have to be told the reasons for resource mobilization so as they can extend their contributions in form of cash, materials, information, energy or skills.
One needs also to communicate clearly both verbally or written to be able to give advice and inspire trust to develop a strong rapport otherwise getting the resources required will be hard because of the mistrust.
Leaders in a given organization needs to have good communication skills to be able to explain the specific goals and tasks. He should be able to master all forms of communication, including conversations, one-on-one and be computer literate to be able to communicate with people through media, phones and emails

b) Management and leadership skills
These skills are essential in resource mobilization because both involve decision-making, planning, communication and problem solving. For resources to be brought on board, it needs proper planning and communication to achieve the goal. People mobilizing the resources need to keep a record of all the events for future reference and be a role model.
In order to be an effective leader and manager, one needs more than a good attitude and intentions of uniting people. Unity is the key to strong bondage which is unbreakable thus making people to do great things and fight back in case of problem. If the leaders have good vision the team members will not feel confused but organized and have an initiate to prioritize thus leading to effective resource mobilization

c) Writing skills/financial reporting skills
Financial resources are one of the key resource mobilizations, for it to be effective the knowledge and skills of writing is needed especially in proposal writing to the donor agencies and other financing institutions. Good and appropriate proposal convinces people to contribute more resources unlike if a person writing the proposal or requisition does not have good writing and reporting skills.
On the other hand financial reporting skills are more effective in an organization because most of decisions of private or public organizations depends or relay on a good detailed and accurate financial reports. Inaccurate resource reports can damage the image of an organization thus discouraging investors and donors in investing in such places.
d) Interpersonal skills
In resource mobilization one needs to have a clue and be in a position to tackle complex problems as they arise. In any given organization misunderstandings are inevitable but how to deal with it needs more personal skills.
During resource mobilization, for it to be effective patience and courage is a guarantee because it is not easy to convince people to contribute their resources especially in grants and donations. Also in energy resource people will tend to be rigid but with patience and a convincing words one can harvest more than he thought off.
When mobilizing resources many obstacles may arise, when such problems arises one needs to be strong, these can be cases of theft, natural hazards and death many resources are destroyed and lost. The resources destroyed have to be replaced and this needs extra personal skills to mobilize them again.
Personal skills like trust and integrity are essential and lead to an effective resource mobilization. People need to trust someone with their resources. Trust leads to a strong bond in that one is convinced of gaining or getting good resources.
e) Innovation skills
Innovation means introducing and creating new important ideas and issues related to life. This can help in mobilizing resources when people with such skills are able to think critical and solve difficult problems experienced by human beings. Innovation skills help one to build new things to create and develop new ideas with others. Collaboration is very essential because different organizations brings their thoughts together and end up with something meaningful which will help others and the community in general. The reason these skills of creativity, communication and critical thinking is becoming important is because of the changing nature of the work and the rapid pace at which change is spreading. For example the technology of computers has spread like bush fire and everyone is enjoying the resources. Incase more new innovations can come up then life will be easier as compared to the olden days.
Finance and accounting may be associated with normal routines systems but that does not mean that innovation in new resources has changed much.

Name: Victoria Blacklock
Determining the Molar Enthalpies of Calcium Chloride, Potassium Nitrate and Potassium Chloride Using Calorimetry
October 18th, 2018
Introduction:
Calorimetry is the experimental process used to solve for the amount of heat absorbed or released within the system or surroundings during a chemical or physical change. Calorimetry is used to find the Molar enthalpy of a reactant or product. In this case the Molar enthalpy of solution is the total amount of thermal energy released or absorbed in the dissolving process at constant a pressure corresponding to the amount of moles in the compound. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the amount of thermal energy needed to dissolve calcium chloride, potassium nitrate and potassium chloride in water.

Materials and Methods:
Refer to lab sheet and p.347 of the Nelson Chemistry 12
Observations:
Table 1: Calorimeter Data of CaCl2, KNO3 and KClSalt Trial Mass (g) Temperature Change (C)
CaCl2 Trial 1 4.641 8.9
Trial 2 4.931 10.4
Trial 3 3.786 6.2
KNO3 Trial 1 5.152 -7.9
Trial 2 5.000 -4.1
Trial 3 4.161 -4.4
KClTrial 1 4.409 -6.0
Trial 2 5.161 -6.3
Trial 3 4.338 -4.0
Table 2: Average Mass and Temperature Change of CaCl2, KNO3 and KClSalt Mass(g) Temperature Change (C)
CaCl2 4.453 8.5
KNO3 4.771 -5.5
KCl4.636 -5.4
Data Manipulations:
CaCl2:
HSol= -( 4.18KJKg C x 0.0500Kg1 x 8.5C1 x 110.98gmol x 14.453g)
= -44 KJ/mol% Error= (-81.30-(-44)-81.30)x 100
= 46%
KNO3:
HSol= -( 4.18KJKg C x 0.0500Kg1 x -5.5C1 x 101.11gmol x 14.771g)
= 24 KJ/mol% Error= (34.88-2434.88)x 100
= 31%
KCl:
HSol= -( 4.18KJKg C x 0.0500Kg1 x -5.4C1 x 74.55gmol x 14.636g)
= 18 KJ/mol% Error= (18-17.2217.22)x 100
= 5.0%
Results Summary:
The accepted molar enthalpy of calcium chloride is -81.30KJmol , the experiment generated a molar enthalpy of -44KJmol . This signified that the calculations of calcium chloride were 60% less than expected, leading to a 46% error. Potassium nitrate has an accepted molar enthalpy of 34.88KJmol , with calculations the experiment generated a molar enthalpy of 24KJmol. This signified that the calculations were 37% less than the accepted molar enthalpy, causing there to be a 31% error. Potassium chloride has an accepted molar enthalpy of 17.22KJmol, while the experimental molar enthalpy is 18KJmol. This signified that the calculations were 4.4% more than the accepted molar enthalpy, generating a 5.0% error. Calcium chloride has the largest percent error and potassium chloride having the smallest.
Discussion:
Each reaction has a varying molar enthalpy, this is because each reaction needs a different amount of energy to break the bonds within the reactants (absorbed), or make new bonds within the products (released). In the dissociation of calcium chloride, potassium nitrate and potassium chloride, the water molecules are attracted to and bond to the salts. Potassium nitrate solution and potassium chloride solution both have a positive molar enthalpy, meaning that both of these reactions are endothermic. Endothermic reactions are chemical, physical or nuclear reactions that occur when the amount of energy absorbed is greater than the amount released. This energy is used to break the bonds within the reactants. In this case, the amount of energy used for the water molecules to bond to the solute is less than the amount needed to separate it. This indicates that there is a temperature decrease in the surroundings, since the reaction absorbs energy. Calcium chloride is the only solution in this experiment that has a negative molar enthalpy, this signifies that this reaction is exothermic. Exothermic reactions are chemical, physical, or nuclear reactions that occur when the amount of energy released is greater than the amount absorbed. This energy is used to make the bonds. In this case, the greater amount of energy is released when the water molecules bond to the solute. This indicates that there is an increase of temperature in the surroundings, since the reaction releases energy. The accepted and the experimental molar enthalpies results are different based on the assumption that no heat was transferred between or lost to the surroundings. If this assumption was true the experimental molar enthalpies would have been much more accurate than precise.

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