Multiculturalism is very difficult how should describe.
However, the meaning of multiculturalism is the national cohabitation of difference cultures such as ethnic, religious, language, customs and tradition which might have variations and dissimilarities in traditional actions, cultural assumptions and morals, impression of philosophy and association types (Chu,M ,2015). Multicultural has to be divided into two types of multicultural an observable fact is typical of countries which empirical multicultural societies and normative multicultural societies. In recent year, the world is becoming a global village society because of people migrate for many different reasons such as economic, social, political and environmental. Normative multicultural societies have been built on migration because of economic and colonial such as California, America, Portugal, France. Some countries multicultural has been formed by its many thousand year ago history, unique geography and diverse demography which is the adoptment of projection based on evidence such as Myanmar, China and India which is called empirical multicultural societies.
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Some people believe that multicultural is more popular after finished the world War (II) because of legacy which taking about boundary in colonialism. However, multicultural society is an inimitably phenomenon started in 5th century BC. In current century, many different cultures and leads on to split the society. Therefore, a multicultural society is outdated. This essay will discuss whether multiculturalism as a political ideology is modern, multicultural societies existed in the past, for example in Myanmar.
It will start by outlining the colonial and economic multicultural become start after World war (II) such as Canadian and United State. Next, it will demonstrate some the history of American multiculturalism. Finally, this essay will argue that multicultural societies are not a popular situation in the recent century due to its ancient multi-language, multi-religion and multi-ethnic in Myanmar.Multicultural societies have started with the huge immigration waves after the Second World War, when several began to emigrate to western countries. In recent century, when talking about Multiculturalism, probably the first two countries that come to mind are the United States and Canada. In both countries, it is based on the same concept in but with an entirely difference constructions.
Both of these countries are known for their opportunities and their so-called acceptances of newcomers from all around the World. Canada’s history of settlement and colonization has resulted in a multicultural society made up of three founding peoples-Aboriginal, French, and British and of many other racial and ethnic groups (Dewing, 2009). Therefore, Canada multicultural can be able to call colonial multiculturalism which the situation of first nations in Canada. Colonial Multiculturalism also evolves from imperial situations, but from situations where the hierarchical difference between the cultures in present were judged important especially from situations where there were great differences of political power between the groups. Canadian’s federal multiculturalism policy has evolved through three developmental phases: the incipient stage (pre-1971;) the formative period (1971-1081), and institutionalization (1982 to the present) (ibid). Multiculturalism policies have a good consequence in promoting the development of cultural integration. Canadian’s policies on multiculturalism have had mainly positive effects on Canadian society.
Apart from reducing ethnic tensions within Canada, the practice of multiculturalism gave a special identity to Canada at the global. Canadian governments have effectively used multiculturalism to promote Canadian political and business (Srikawth.H, 2018). It takes into account the type of political response that is offered to the multicultural situation, as suggested earlier, the political response is to some extent constitutive of the situation.
However, the diversity characterizing contemporary Myanmar is a consequence of a long historical process extending over 2th century BC. Knowing history is important because many races and tribes since time immemorial have shaped Myanmar culture. Beginning from the ancient period to modern through medical times. Each ethnic contributed to the language, literature, art, architecture, Religion. For instance, In Myanmar, the Myazedi (Rajakumar) Quadrilingual stone inscription, located in Bagan Historic city, is unique and significance written documents of Myanmar history, religion and culture in 12th century A.D (Wanna.K ; Yoshiki.
M, 2005). The inscription inscribed in A.D 1113. There are described with four languages, such as Pyu, Mon, Myanmar and Pali, on each of the four faces. Myazedi Stone inscription Myazedi stone inscription is the earliest Myanmar language document with chronological date(ibid).
Moreover, The making of 550 Jataka (Buddha life stories) pictures in low relief on terracotta plaques, on stuccos, added by mural paintings on the walls and ceiling of stupas, temples and monasteries, provided with a narration of Pali, Mon and Myanmar Literature(Khin.S, 2007). These archaeological evidence shows that multi-language existed since 11th century in Myanmar country.
In addition, Multi- religions have appeared over a period of more than 1,000 years between ca. 200 BCE and 900 CE in the Dry Zone of the middle Ayeyarwaddy (Irrawaddy) River basin within the territory of what is today modern Myanmar.