Most of the world countries are facing the problem of fresh water scarcity mainly due to climatic variation in rainfall and increasing population. Indian cities depend upon underground water to meet their urban water demand. The cities face steep decline in water table in the dry seasons. Cities, the concrete jungle, are characterized by impermeable. The water which can percolate inside the earth in form of rain also get drained off making a depletion in available water resources. There is change in rainfall pattern and also rainfall availability is reducing, due to climatic variations. Rainfall in Guwahati has been in a declining trend It is the sustainable development which is a new buzzword in the arena of academics. In contemporary studies the importance of water and its governance is a big diaspora. Swyngedouw (2004: 28) puts it, “Water is a hybrid thing that captures and embodies processes that are simultaneously material, discursive, and symbolic.” Water is an element whose materiality and geo-ecological properties shape social relations, even as those social relations act on and transform water’s materiality. Perreault (2014, p. 235) Water once naturally occurred and socially produced are pre condition for social power Budds and Hinojosa (2012, p. 120) put it, “Water’s materiality and social relations constitute and express each other.”
In India, water is a state subject. It is the government of India and various state governments who take care of decision in decision making process in regards of water supply.
India launched the National Rural Drinking Water Supply Programme in 1969; and in 1986 the national level apex committee of drinking water was formed, the National Drinking Water Mission (later renamed Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission or RGNDWM). India committed to the MDG of the United Nations in 2002 and all drinking water related programmes were consolidated under the RGNDWM. But India experienced paradigm shift, from the ‘Government-oriented supply- drinking approach’ to the ‘People-oriented demand- responsive approach’. The Swajaldhara projects started piloting in 1999 and it changed the role of government from service provider to facilitator. With the government paying for 90 per cent of the infrastructure cost, and community paying for the remaining 10 per cent and 100 per cent of the operation and maintenance cost, the communities were made responsible for their water supply projects.
The State/ULBs have certain weaknesses that affect their service provisioning. There is influence of political interests on state agencies interferes in key techno-economic decisions such as tariffs, investments, sales and purchases. State owned agencies lack effective accountability. There are no provisions or mechanisms for the accountability of ULBs for the costs and quality of the services. The ULBs lack in grievance redressal and feedback mechanisms. Elections and political functionaries might be a defensive check but there is enough scope for reforms.
Fig: Cycle of Issues with Infrastructure Service Provisioning
(7) (PDF) Issues, Challenges and Prospects of Water Supply in Urban India. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280310011_Issues_Challenges_and_Prospects_of_Water_Supply_in_Urban_India accessed Nov 19 2018.
The question for concept of sustainability belong to operation of public policies and in terms of measuring it. Without indicators or a quantitative framework, sustainable development policies lack a solid foundation on which to advance. But it is necessary to understand which lens we are using to form ideas of ‘sustainability’.
The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is a United Nations membership organization that advocates for improved sanitationand hygiene for the most vulnerable and marginalized people around the world.1 WSSCC facilitates multi-stakeholder collaboration around sanitation and contributes to the international community’s broader goals of poverty eradication, health and environmental improvement, gender equality and long-term social and economic development.2
WSSCC’s members and staff lobbied for a Sustainable Development Goal target for sanitation and hygiene. WSSCC contributes measurably to the achievement of SDG 6.2: By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
Private participation in urban water supply is not new phenomenon. The public water supply
system-usually a network servicing higher income groups in urban areas-coexists with a private, usually informal water sector. Commercializing
a ‘place’ is often recognized as being associated with the idea of
‘home’ and ‘homely’ environment.
Making the concept of sustainable development operational for public policies raises important challenges in terms of measurement.
35% of the city is covered by piped water supply. (Master Plan 2025) The potable water generation capacity in
Guwahati is 98 MLD however; water produced is only 78 MLD as against the current demand for 132 MLD.
Slum improvement Scheme for upgradation/resettlement of 26 slums comprising of 25043 households
Assam, there are 26 slum pockets in the GMC area housing around 0.16 million persons (about 20% of the total population. ?