Mango (Mangifera indica) is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the panes Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to the south Asia from where it was distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruit in the tropics. Mango (Mangifera indica) is produce in most frost free tropical and sub tropical climates, more than 85 countries in the world cultivate mango. The total production area of mango in the world is around 3.69 million hectares. The total amount of mango production in the world is around 35 million tons by the year 2009 45.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an ever green fruit crop native to Southern Asia, especially Eastern India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. It is grown in more than 85 countries of the world with total area coverage and annual production of 3.69 million hectares and 35 million tons, respectively 46. Currently, mango is one of the most widely cultivated and traded tropical and subtropical fruit crops in the world. Therefore, it is usually named as king of tropical fruit crops.
The amount of mango production in Africa during 2009 is 13.6 million tones. Nigeria is the leading country followed by Egypt 46. In Ethiopia mango produced mainly in west and east of Oromia, SNNPR, Benshangul and Amhara 47. Mango production in Ethiopia is in fluctuated conditions, because of occurrence of diseases, lack of proper management and also weather conditions 45.
Ethiopia has large tract of suitable land for mango production. It is mainly produced in Oromia, SNNPR, Benishangul Gumuz, Amhara, Harari and Gambela regions. Mango ranked 2nd and 3rd in total production and area coverage among fruit crops grown in Ethiopia, respectively. From 2003/4 to 2013/14, both its area coverage and total production increased by 208.4% and 247%, respectively. Despite this improvement in the last one decade, its productivity is very low, 7 tons/ha and Ethiopia produced only 72,187 tons fresh mango in 2013/14 48. Therefore, its potential has not yet been fully utilized and markets in different parts of the country are not sufficiently supplied with the demanded quantity and quality of mango.
EDUCATION STATUS OF MANGO PRODUCERS
The result Y. Dessalegn 48 study indicated that the educational status of mango growers 54.3% were illiterate, and 31.4% and 14.3% attended elementary and secondary education, respectively. Similarly, 80% of mango growers in Bati district of Oromia zone did not attended formal education 45. These results indicated that most mango growers in the study area and other parts of Ethiopia did not attended formal education. Hence, they are not benefitting from mango production knowledge and technologies promoted through written materials 48. Therefore, they need practical training, experience sharing visit and on site demonstration to improve their knowledge and skill on different mango production practices 48.
INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Results of field observation by Yigzaw Dessalegn 48 indicated that anthracnose and powdery mildew as the two most common and wide spread fungal disease of mango in the study area. Sooty mold and parasitic algae also observed in some fields. The prevalence of powdery mildew increased since farmers intercrop mango with most powdery mildew susceptible crop, chat and since most mango producers did not prune their mango trees. Mango growers as well as most development agents were not able to identify different diseases using their symptoms. Therefore, they have disease identification knowledge gap to apply effective prevention & control measures 48.
CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN FRUIT CROP AGRICULTURE
Inadequate knowledge & skill, disease & insect pest problem, low market price, land and irrigation water shortage, and inadequate grafted seedling supply were identified as the top six important mango production constraints of smallholder mango growers. Lack of effective pesticide and Lack of access to equipments are other constraints 48.
48 Yigzaw Dessalegn stated that farmer’s awareness about the importance of different agronomic and pest management practices is very low. Therefore, theoretical and practical training on canopy management, proper spacing, time, rate and method of fertilizer application, disease and insect pest identification and management methods, and irrigation methods and interval should be provided to mango growers and development agents.
48 Indicated the existing of technological gaps for mango production in the study area and also Ethiopia. Therefore, farmers need to be trained and improved mango production technologies should have to be introduced in order to improve the quality and boost the productivity of mango in Ethiopia.
The adoption of improved mango production practices by famers largely depends on the availability of knowledgeable extension workers in the area. Even though agriculture is the main stay of Ethiopian economy, level of agricultural productivity in general and crop productivity in particular is very low. Given capital constraint in the country, it is difficult to adopt new technology to enhance productivity.
Seid Hussen 45 study indicated 85% of the respondents/farmers replied that they did not control diseases and most of the producer control birds during the fruit matured. Other pests are present on mango orchards but the producers not aware for control those pests and diseases. Some of the respondents/farmers replied that they report the problem for agricultural office and measures taken to control the pest and diseases.
Irrigation water scarcity, pest and disease, limited technologies are the main factors that reduce mango production.
For most developing countries, enhancing the total production and productivity is not an option rather it is a must and the first priority in their policies. Production and productivity can be basically boosted using two ways. The first method is through increased use of inputs and/or improvement in technology given some level of input. The other option of improving productivity is to enhance the efficiency of producers or firms, given fixed level of inputs and technology.
Seid Hussen 45 concluded that farmer awareness about spacing of orchards, pruning, fertilizer application, access of new varieties and pest and disease control is very low. In order to increase the production of m

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