M. Kyiakidis, R. Happee, J.C.F. de Winter objective is to find the main benefits of road transport using automated cars though there are few demerits which lead to destructiveness.
On record, 60% of the total U. S petroleum consumption was used for road transports. Fatalities rate in high-income countries is declining while those in low-income countries are generally increasing.
Day-to-day trends make it obvious that injuries caused by road traffics result to be the fifth prominent cause of death based on the country.
Every darkness has light, the light to the cause of road transport is automated driving systems and has three classifications and the final step is where no manual cooperation is involved. This poses optimal solutions to safety, congestion, and emissions. Though automated driving systems have great potential to advance the safety of road transportation.
Underwood research in 1992 to identify intelligent vehicle technology that will likely deploy in North America shows that ACC will be the popular feature. Experts predicted that ACC would be installed in 5% of the vehicles by 2004 and would reach 50% of market penetration by 2015. Also, Automated braking would follow lagging 6 to 10 years and by 2002 with frontal collision warning systems and backup warning systems will reach 5% penetration. It obvious that their predictions were quite accurate. To know the level of acceptance of technological systems that could assist drivers who are in an impaired state, a questionnaire was carried out in 9 European countries, and results showed that, though many drivers accepted being warned by a supportive assistance system, they expressed “a definite rejection of automated driving”. The first study of global market research power and associates surveyed 17,400 vehicle owners defined autonomous driving mode as, “a feature that allows the vehicle to take control of accelerating, braking and steering, without any human interaction” quite a number of drivers answered that they “would” be interested in such a technology. These responses, however, declined to 20% after they were informed about the estimated market price of $3,000.
A survey carried out by continental A.G in 2013 among China, Germany, Japan, and the U.S. pointed out that 59% of respondent considered automated driving a useful advancement.
They didn’t believe that such vehicles would function reliably. Ratio findings of men finding driverless cars important to women were 23%. People aged 55 and above also found it to be useless while those between 16 to 34 years old didn’t. Likewise, people living in congestion cities found automated driving technology important than those living in a non-living environment.
June 2013, a study was conducted among 32 people from Los Angeles, Chicago and Iselin who were at least 21 years of age had a car. From results, women were willing to use self-driving vehicles than men.
Howard and Dai explored people’s opinion on self-driving cars using a video and a questionnaire. Results showed that 75% safety and convenience 61% were the attractive features about automated driving while 70% and 69% indicated liability and lost respectively.
They carried out a survey on public opinion on fully automated cars among 467 students. When the students were asked to rank the most influential feature, 82% choose safety, 12% legislation, and 7% cost. Men were likely to adopt and enjoy self-driving cars than women.
Begg (2014) conducted a survey of London transport professionals to know their perception, whether self-driving cars would be a reality, 35% believed it would happen, while 10% believed it would never happen, 36% and 24% of respondents agreed and strongly agreed, respectively that automated vehicles will improve safety for all road users.
Though experts and public have an optimistic perception about automated driving, there are also issues concerned with it. Users concerns, unreluctance and embracing manual, automating high and fully automated driving is the prime for this study. Apart from the view from Western countries, the opinion of other countries was respected as well. This study also explores the opinion of people on automated driving based on their personality.
Mayham can be suppressed by carefully interpreting our present findings since fully automated vehicles are not yet on the market. Scientist predicts the future of human-machine interaction as unusual but we can caution that one “cannot foresee what machines can be built to do in the future.
The approach to this research is information of a 63-question survey approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee was unknowingly record.
The aim of the study provided information on the below:
Manual driving: Human beings driving uses steering wheels and pedals.
Partially automated driving: The automated driving systems handle both steering and speed control but should be prepared to take over anytime.
Highly automated driving: an automated driving system that controls speed and control but the driver is not required to permanently monitor the road.
Fully automated driving: The system takes over speed and steering controls permanently.
No requirements were demanded to respond to the respondent’s country of residence for the accommodation of data. Moreover, we ogled for “level 1 contributors”, which is the lowest among the three available levels, accounting for 60% of crowd flowers monthly completed work.
Descriptive statistics, as well as the Spearman correlation coefficient, were calculated for statistical importance. Between age, gender, mileage, driving frequency, computer use, education, income, accidents, disability, ACC use and personality on the hand and the level of enjoyment, willingness to pay and comfort about automated driving.
Analysis from spear correlation coefficients was calculated nationwide. The countries number of fatal road traffic accidents per 100,000 inhabitants.
The countries number of fatal road traffic accidents per 100,000 vehicles was recorded by WHO in 2013.
The outcome of 5000 people who were involved in the survey. Respondents, on the whole, they were satisfied with the survey and its specifics. Some respondents were not included in the analysis due to some rules they went against.
Respondents enjoyed manual driving compared to automated driving. They also indicated that fully automated driving will be easier compared to manual driving but partially automated driving would be more difficult than manual driving. They also indicated that in 30years to come automated driving will be advance that manual driving will be extinct.
To sum up all, some respondent was willing to pay more for automated vehicles whilst others were reluctant. A number of them also prepared to investigate a fully automated car as compared to just radio listening on a manual car. It was also concluded that people with high income, people who like driving and ACC user willing to pay for the automated vehicles.