Liberty University
Master of Interdisciplinary Studies
HLTH 509


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Tajah Saunders
ID: L25792978
August 19, 2018

Bembnowska M, Jo?ko-Ochojska J. What causes depression in adults? Polish Journal of Public Health. 2015;125(2):116-120. doi:10.1515/pjph-2015-0037
This article focuses on the causes of depression amongst adults. Early signs of depression can begin during adolescent years. Puberty starts during adolescent years, which leaves the adolescents unhappy about the changes that are taking place within their bodies. This situation can be viewed being in a crisis because of feeling overwhelmed about the changes. Other events that lead to depression for adolescents include: divorce, alcoholism in the family and abuse physical or verbal. Major events like this are difficult for an adolescent to process and often leads to depression. The article then goes on to discuss how depression can be the end result for mothers who are pregnant and after having the baby. Having a baby is a life changing experience that can often become overwhelming. The feeling of being overwhelmed and feeling that she is not a good mother can cause depression. This is known as post partum depression.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US). Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2014. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 57.) Chapter 3, Understanding the Impact of Trauma. Available from:
Trauma effects each individual differently regardless if it takes place one time, on occasions or continuously. How a traumatic event affects an individual is determined by different factors such as; characteristic of the person, the type of event, how the event is processed and ones definition of trauma. Someone who survives a traumatic event can have a complicated reaction that he or she is only able to understand. Every reaction is different once again it depends on the individual, which leads to the difference in coping. Some are able to cope with what took place, then there are those who are unable to control their emotions, changes in self esteem and unable to function on a daily basis. Survivors are encouraged to use social supports to cope with the aftermath. It can be complicated to cope with there are so many emotions that are being expressed. Although the experience can not be erased having coping techniques to use will assist with processing the traumatic event.
Child Sexual Abuse. (2015). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs website:
Children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to develop mental health concerns. Sexual abuse has been defined as, sexual behaviors that happen between a child and someone who is older. Often it is difficult to determine if a child has been abused unless there is physical proof or the child communicates that something has taken place. Children who survivor such a traumatic experience are left with the aftermath of emotions such as; feeling lonely, blaming themselves, becoming angry and violent. Processing sexual abuse for a child can become extremely confusing especially when it takes places from an adult that he or she trusted. It has been found that children who have been sexual abused grow up still having nightmares of the traumatic event that took place years ago. Not addressing a severe experience like being sexually abuse can possibly lead to depression and PTSD. Once it has been identified that a horrific event has taken place the child should seek counseling immediately.
Niles, N. J. (2018). The Basics of the U.S. Health Care System (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Behavioral services have been provided for those who suffer from mental illnesses from psychiatrist, psychologist, counselors and therapist. Each have been educated on how to effectively assist those who are in need. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) is a guide that was created to clarify signs and symptoms of mental illnesses. Once a mental illness has been determine behavioral health providers work to create a treatment, which will better assist the client with determining goals he or she has to help with being able to function “normally”. Families who have persons who have a mental illness are in need of counseling themselves. In order to effectively assist persons who have experienced trauma, families need to be educated on how to effectively help survivors cope with what took place. In order to see progress the survivors and families need to participate in treatment, which will also show the survivor that there is support for them.
Rafique, I. (2013). Mental health. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 52(4), 95-95,96A. Retrieved from
It has been found that 450 million people in the world have a mental illness. The common mental illnesses are: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post traumatic disorder and drug and alcohol misuse. Studies have shown that woman suffer from depression more than men. Depression is 35% of the mental health population. The article goes on to discuss how psychological trauma can cause posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological trauma is an event that was either witnessed or experienced and unable to get rid of he images. Those who are experiencing posttraumatic tend to lead to self harm, the abuse of drugs and alcohol and possibly becoming diagnosed with an additional mental illness. The author then discuss how those who have a mental illness are going untreated and believes that there are not enough mental hospitals and inpatient facilities to assist the entire mental health population. Creating more awareness and providing resources can assist those who are experiencing difficulties coping.
Seidman KF. Coming Home to New Orleans: Neighborhood Rebuilding After Katrina. Oxford;New York;: Oxford University Press; 2013;2014;.
After hurricane Katrina took place it took several years to rebuild the community that was damaged from a tragic disaster. During Katrina many were forced to evacuate their homes and leave behind valued possessions. Around 1,833 people died during the hurricane, several family and friends witnessed the death of their loved ones. Once the flood was over the aftermath was devastating to view. Homes, schools, stores and churches had been destroyed from this awful natural disaster. Due to many not having a place to go it left them being homeless with no money. Studies have shown that about 17% of the people who experienced Katrina have shown signs of a mental illness. Depression was popular due to many not having a place to call home and financially unable to improve their situations. PTSD was also common, having flashbacks of what took place and nightmares. Many also suffered from anxiety, Katrina affected many in different ways some have been able to cope however many were unable to.
The long-term effects of child sexual abuse. (2013). Retrieved July 29, 2017, from Australian
Government: Australlian Institue of Family Studies website:
Children who have experienced some form of sexual, whether is be sexual abuse or being molested and have survived are more likely to develop a mental illness. The article discusses how children who survivor such a traumatic event have developed a mental concerns. Due to children blaming themselves for what took place and feeling guilty they result to using drugs to numb the pain. Children are fearful of being judged or scared that something may happen to them if they tell are suffering in silence. Those who were sexual abused and penetration was involved are more likely to become diagnosed with schizophrenia with psychotic features. Mental health problems such as suicide are occurring more frequently. Experiencing such severe trauma at an early age can also affect their adult lives. In their adult lives they tend to isolate themselves and struggle with who can and not be trusted. A traumatic event such as sexual abuse in early childhood will affect the individuals their entire lives.
Tracy, M., Morgenstern, H., Zivin, K. et al. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2014) 49: 1769.
A traumatic event is an event that is outside the norm of a human experience. The article discusses how traumatic events can lead to being diagnosed with a mental illness. The chance of experiencing a traumatic event is 39% among those who are between 21-30 years old. After a traumatic event has taken place one may feel afraid, no longer in control, hopeless which can lead into depression. It can become difficult for one to return to “normal” life after a sever experience and trying to continue as if nothing took place can become difficult and unable to cope. For those who have a history of mental health increase becoming diagnosed after trauma. A study has been completed to determine the effects of a traumatic event and the signs of depression that are displayed within a year that the event has taken place. After one has been exposed to trauma it can increase the chances of depression.


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