KLAIP?DA UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Humanities and Educational Sciences
Department of European Languages
METHODS USED IN TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO LITHUANIAN
Course paper
Author HNAV16, Egl? Ge?ait?Scientific advisor Irena Darginavi?ien?Klaip?da, 2017
CONTENT
1.INTRODUCTION
2. METHODS OF TRANSLATION
2.1. LITERAL TRANSLATION
2.1.1. Borrowing
21.2. Calque
2.1.3.Word-for-word translation
2.2. NON-LITERAL TRANSLATION
2.2.1. Modulation
2.2.2. Adaptation
2.2.3. Concretization or differentiation
2.2.4. Paraphrasing
2.2.5. Logical Derivation
3.TRANSLATION PROBLEMS
3.1.Language structure
3.2. Idioms
3.3. Cultural context
3.4.Compound words
3.5. Missing terms
3.6. Words with multiple meanings
4.CONCLUSIONS5.REFERENCEsAbstract
This paper discusses methods used in translation from English into Lithuanian. Using a corpus of examples from the fairy tales for children: Egl?, Queen of Serpents and , those methods will be described and explained. The examples are taken from translated texts from Lithuanian into English. After a general introduction about the translation and what types of translation exists, this course paper will be focused on explaining the differences those types and what problems may occur during translation. The following aspects of the expression will be discussed:
Introduction
”A translator, like a witness on the stand, should hold up his right hand and swear to ”tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth”. True words spoken by widely known and well-loved American poet, Henry Wadsworth. Most people would agree with that, because it is really difficult to find the equivalent meaning. There are many ways to translate from one language to another. Translation methods could be divided into literal and idiomatic translation. In this course paper I will compare those two types by focusing on the use of intended meaning, the connotation in sentences, the idiomatic meaning, the denotation and the word order. Translation is really significant in our daily life. Because of it, nations are allowed to forge interactive relationships in technology, politics, and etc. Translation is a process, during which the translator: makes a number of decisions on how to interpret the source text, uses resources and apply technical skills to render the text in the target language and re-expresses that meaning in the target text. In example, the translation. Therefore, translation is perceived as a problem-solving process.

This course paper will be focused on the issues of techniques of translation, including word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, adaptive translation, free translation, idiomatic translation and communicative translation. Chosen objects of the research are fairy tales for children: Egl?, Queen of Serpents, War of the Mushrooms by Justinas Marcinkevi?ius. The aim of this course paper is to examine the methods used in translation from English into Lithuanian. To analyze and explore translation techniques of the selected sample of fairy tales for children and then define the results, compare methods of translation, find similarities and differences.

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In the 3rd century BCE the translation of the Hebrew Bible into is considered as the first major translation in the Western world. The dispersed Jews had forgotten Hebrew, their ancestral language, and needed the Bible to be translated into Greek to be able to read it. The debate relating to sense-for-sense translation vs. word-for-word translation also started around that time. The coiner of the term “sense for sense” is said to be Jerome in his “Letter to Pammachius”. While translating the Bible into Latin (later known as the “Vulgate”), Jerome stated that the translator needed to translate “not word for word but sense for sense” (“non verbum e verbo sed sensum de sensu”). Latin was the lingua franca of the Western learned world throughout the Middle Ages, and there were few translations of Latin works into vernacular languages. In the 9th century, Alfred the Great, King of Wessex in England, was far ahead of his time in commissioning translations from Latin into English of two major works – Bede’s “Ecclesiastical History” and Boethius’s “The Consolation of Philosophy” – which contributed to improve the underdeveloped English prose of that time. Translation Studies as an area of research is a new concept. More than 2000 years translators and scholars discussed translation, but only after the 2nd World war this field of study developed into something scientific. From Antiquity to the mid-20th century, interpreting was only seen as a specialized form of translation – spoken instead of written – before becoming a separate discipline. Interpreting Studies gradually emancipated from Translation Studies in order to concentrate on the practical and pedagogical aspect of interpreting. It also developed a different interdisciplinary theoretical framework including sociological studies of interpreters and their working conditions – while such studies are still sorely lacking for translators to this day.
Translation is a job where many common challenges are faced even by experts. Translators are trained individuals who understand the linguistic nuances required whenever they are doing translation work and know that there is no room for error. Still, each translation job is unique, thus challenges are ever present in the job. The aim of my investigation is to study what methods are used in translation from English language into Lithuanian, what problems may occur during translation, and how to avoid those problems. Writing the course paper 3 tasks of the investigation were set:
1. To classify differences between methods of translation
2. To analyze (study) examples of translation.

3. To study : what are the most common problems of translating and how to avoid them, what are the most common, to compare differences between methods of translation and distinguish how they vary.
In this course paper there will be used analytical and comparative methods. By those research methods different techniques of translation will be analyzed and compared. The course paper will start with an introduction about the topic- methods of translation from English into Lithuanian. Then, similarities and differences of methods of translation will be written. Problems that are faced during translation will be added. In the end of the paper work, conclusions will be made.

Literal translation
According to Cambridge dictionary a literal translation of a text is done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence. Another term for “literal translation” is “metaphrase”; and for phrasal (“sense”) translation — “paraphrase.” In translation studies, literal translation is often associated with scientific, technical, technological or legal texts. Direct translation does not attempt to convey text`s style, beauty and poetry making it sound unnatural by translating each word of the original work. In non-technical texts this type of translation leads to mistranslation of idioms making the meaning of the text confusing. Word- for-word translation can be divided into three main parts: borrowing, calque, word-for-word translation. In this course paper those three types of literal translation will be described, explained and an examples from children’s fairy tales will be given.

2.1.1. Borrowing
Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. Borrowed words are often printed in italics when they are considered to be ‚”foreign”. In example:
2.1.2 Calque
.A calque or loan translation is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. Example given:
2.1.3. Word-for-word
A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure. In literal translation, the denotative meaning of words is taken as if straight from dictionary, but TL grammar is respected. E.g.Example of a literal translation of the sentence from the book Egl?, the Queen of Serpents :
Original text:
English translation:
2.2 Non- literal translation
Obligue translation techniques are used when the structural or conceptual elements of source language cannot be directly translated without altering meaning or upsetting the grammatical and stylistics elements of the target language. Obligue translation techniques include:
Transposition – This is a process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated it is in a sence a shift of word class. Grammatical structures are often diffent languages. Eg.
Modulation – when the place of the verb changes. It consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea.

Reformulation or Equivalence
Adaptation – occurs when something specific to one language culture is expressed in a totally different way that is familiar or appropriate to another language culture
Compensation- in general terms compensation can be used when something cannot be translated and the meaning that is lost is expressed somewhere else in the translated text.

Transposition
This is a process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated it is in a sence a shift of word class. Grammatical structures are often diffent languages. Eg.3. Translation problems
Analysis
Egl?, The Queen of Serpents analysis
The materials of the research:
Albakry, M. (2004). Linguistic and cultural issues in literary translation. Retrieved November 17, 2006 from http://accurapid.com/journal/29liter.htm
Online Cambridge dictionary for definitions https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/translation
Graedler, A.L. (2000). Cultural shock. Retrieved December 6, 2006 from http://www.hf.uio.no/iba/nettkurs/translation/grammar/top7culture.html
Venuti, L. (1998). Strategies of translation. In M. Baker (Ed.), Encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 240-244). London and New York: Routledge.

Hervey, S., ; Higgins, I. (1992). Thinking Translation. London ; New York: Routledge.

1791 Alexander Tytler. “Essay on the Principles of Translation”. London.

2008 Lawrence Venuti. “The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation” (2nd edition, first edition 1995). Routledge, London.

2012 Jean Delisle ; Judith Woodsworth. “Translators through History”. John Benjamins, Amsterdam.

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