Its use to rectify the wave means it allow it pass in one way negative or positive wave pass. We use the diode to rectify the wave because it’s a component which allow the current flow in one direction only. There are three types of rectifier and we use in our project the full wave rectifier which reflect the negative side for the sine wave to be in the positive side, so the will be like what shown in the diagram.2.
Filter:Its smooth the wave and decreasing the variation and ripples by using the capacitor. Capacitor absorb energy from Ac source and when the Ac power provided is higher than the wanted DC power and returning energy to the DC load when the AC power provided is less than the DC power needs. The factor that can decide how fast the discharging for the capacitor is the time constant. Slow discharging is the optimum solution because the voltage of the capacitor will decrease slowly.3. Regulator: Regulation means fixing the output voltage no matter what the load is. It’s kind of circuit that help to maintain a constant output voltage its job is to fix the output voltage to the wanted value then its change value despite any output or input variation. Changing the load will cause the output voltage to vary.
Regulator is done by components called IC regulator Line Regulation:Line regulation is the ability of the power supply to maintain its specified output voltage over changes in the input line voltage. It is expressed as percent of change in the output voltage relative to the change in the input line voltage.Load Regulation:Load regulation is the ability of the power supply to maintain its specified output voltage given changes in the load. This does not mean the tolerance applies when there are sudden changes in load, it means over the permissible load range the regulation can change by this amount.