It is good to understand the difference between the sequences and the rate of child development as it helps monitoring a child from early stages till they become a young adult. Monitoring the child and young person helps plan effectively to ensure that the child gets the help and support in things they find hard. E.g.
Physical development: Gross motor skills (where the child can use their large muscles such as leg or feet), Fine moto skills (where the child practise the use of muscles such as hands and fingers.
Social and Emotional: This is the growth of a child’s identity and self-perception, the development of connection with others and developing the skills of living in society.
Intellectual/communication: Learning the skills of understanding and how to communicate with others.
From the day a child is born they can respond to noise and when they are touched. They recognise there parent or guardian’s voice and they tend to look at bright things. From the earliest months a child can smile and participate in what their parent or guardian is communicating to them. By the time they turn 4months they can vocalise by ‘cooing’ and ‘babbling.
From the age of 6 months the child would interact with other children social and this could be by playing with the other children but all this depends on how much time they have had playing or seeing the other children. At this age they tend to be afraid of strangers and the separation of their parents when they are not present. During the time they reach 9 months they can remember faces and they can also recognise faces they have never seen.
When they turn 1 year old they start to develop temper tantrums where they can become demanding and assertive. They tend to express themselves by the use of the word “No”. They have no idea what the word sharing means, as they just want all things to themselves, which leaves them with saying “Mine” often.
At the age of 2 to 4 years old this is when a child is learning to be independent away from the parent or carer for small period of times. They will be going nursery, or play group, this gives the chid a more social understanding. At this age, some children will play in small numbers by sharing ideas or play with other children they are used to seeing often such as close friends and that includes both genders.
At the age of 4 – 7 years old they most likely have started school and independent but they still need comfort and reassurance they tend to have a sense of self-awareness (good and bad) which will have been developed. These things are fears that they have within them such as: ghosts under the bed, monsters at night time. Children at this age have more solid friendships with their friends and they form groups with their friends. They are assertive and they know what’s good and what is bad.
When they turn 7 – 11 years old they have developed a much better understanding about the world and where they belong. They value friendships a lot and worry what people will and think of them and can sometimes be unsure about changes in settings. At this age signs of independence from the parents, carer and family start showing.
At the age of 11 – 16 years old this is when they will be considered as a young person. They will be going through a change in their life 9both physically and mentally). They experience changes in their bodies which can affect their self-esteem and confidence. They start to feel peer pressure from friends and society. The young person starts to be a lot more independent and wants to spend more there with their friends instead of their family. Because of the change in their body they also experience mood swings and confrontation becomes an issue. The young person also starts to think about their future and what they could achieve.
At the age of 16 – 19 years old, a young person should have developed more knowledge about society and life. At this stage, the young person is able to give a good reason for the choices they make and they are able to express their views. At this stage, the relationship between the young person and the parent / carer will have improved compared to when they were 11 – 16 year old but they will still want to spend more time with their friends. As the young person becomes more aware of their strengths and weaknesses, they will have started to create their own personal identity in society.

Physical Development from 0~19 years (Gross and Fine Motor Skills)
As a new born, infants start to show signs of physical development. They are able to move their heads and limbs. They have also started to grasp fingers and when they are held upright they use their legs in a stepping movement.
At 6months old they can roll back on their backs to their stomach and also push their head, chest and neck off the floor alone. At the age of 1 year old they have learnt to sit alone with on support, grab toys and mobile through crawling. They are able to put to cubes together and put cubes back in the box once they are shown to. At the age of 18 months they are most likely to walk by themselves and pull toys when they walk by themselves and some children at this age can spoon food themselves, and take off their own shoes.
By the age of 2 years old they have improved both gross and fine motor skills. Majority of children will be able to jump off the ground with both their two feet. They are likely to walk up and down the stairs without falling down.
By the age of 4 to 7 years old a child’s fine motor skills may include: putting together things such as pieces, button and unbutton their own clothes. When they are five years old they learn letters and some children are capable to write a few alphabets or write their own name by themselves. When they are 7 years old they are more likely to use a pencil or pen to write more constructive sentences, the can also use scissors to cut more accurately. At this age a few children can have a better understanding of making intricate. At this age the gross motor skills for 4 to 7 year olds would include, riding, jumping, and running quickly and with a bat. Some children are capable to stand up alone without the use of their hands.
Both gross and motor skills are better when the child reaches the age of 11 years old. Their physical skills will have improved and so will their body strength, balance and coordination. The weight will go up and their height as they are growing however with some girls they would have started puberty as an age of 8 years old. Their body would have started to change, e.g.: breast would have started to develop and so might have started their menstruation cycle.
At this rate their fine motor skills will be better and their concentration can be held for longer which will allow them to perform more challenging tasks. Other children would have developed talents such as playing a musical instrument, playing a specific sport e.g.: football or basketball. Their writing will also have improved and they will be earning or should be writing using joined up writing.
During adolescences they experience changes from childhood into going their teenage years. At the age of 11 to 16 years old a girl’s body will have developed more and will full develop at 12 to 18 years old. Some girls star their menstrual cycle as early as 12years old and as late as 15years old. They start to develop pubic, armpit and underarm hair which will grow equivalent to that of an adult at around 13 – 14 years old.
However with boys they may start to notice their testicles and scrotum are developing and by the age of 16 or 17 their genitals are usually at their adult size. They also start growing pubic as well as armpit, leg, chest and facial hair begins to grow around the age of 12 years old which is equivalent to that of an adult about 15 to 16 years old.
From birth to 3years old children are capable of a vast amount of communication and intellectual skills. When they are at this age they cry when they’re hungry tired or distressed

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