Introduction:
Surah Al-Fatihah is the first surah of Holy Quran which was reveald on Holy Prophet(S.A.W) in the city of Mecca(Makkah).This Surah is recited by muslims in every salah(Namaz) without this surah salah is incomplete.This surah means “the opening”.Its literal meaning is “that which is often recited”.It consist of seven(7) verses which have full guidance and blessing for us.The importance of this can be visualize by that this surah is compulsory in every salah.Its mean this surah is the summary of whole Quran.As it is the very first surah of holy quran so it is given many names such as Al-Kitab, Al-Huda , Al-Dhikr, Al-Bayan, Al-Furqan,Al-Tanzil, Al-Hikmat.

THEME:
The theme of this surah is that Allah has asked his mens to workship him and ask guidance from him.We should have firm and strong belive in our Lord who is our Master,Guider,Substainer, Sovereign,Ruler of Islam requrier every thing to be asked from Allah which enable us to be far from bad deeds.. He is the supreme Justice and everybody will have to answer him on the day of Judgement for his worldly deeds. When believers implore for the straight path, He always showers blessings on them and protects them from going astray. “And your Lord said: Call Me, I will respond to your supplication.”

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Virtues of Surah Al-Fatihah:
There are many virtues of with this Surah;

2) It is a pillar of the prayer;
The Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said that:
“Whoever does not recite Surah Al Fatihah in his prayer, his prayer is invalid”.
3) Hazrat Abu Saeed al-Khudri(RA) said:
Once we were having a journey while we were passing a men came to us and said that our king is suffering from scorpion bite if you will cure him we can give you something in return,So I went with him and i recited Surah Al-Fatiha and his diease was cured.As in returned they were given some sheeps.
When this topic was discussed by holy prophet so he asked why you only recite Surah Al-Fatiha so he told that he only knew it and as a result whole quran in cure for us.

Tafseer of verses of Surah Al-Fatihah:
Surah Al-Fatihah start with In the Name of Allah (SWT) known as Bismillah.
1) In the Name ofAllah (SWT):
Its first Ayat is “in the name of Allah the most Benifical the Most Mercifull.”
It is recited before doing any work or action.
2)Al Hamdulillah:
Alhamdulillah, also known as Tahmid .Which meaning “praise be to the Lord”, and translated as “thank Lord!”.
3) Meaning of Al-Rahman and Al-Raheem:
These are the names and atributes given to Allah that he is very Rehman and Raheem on his peoples.These words are orinated from man and emm which mean he is very mercyfull. This is why Allah says: “Call upon Allah or call upon al-Rahman; by whichever name you call upon Him, to Him belong the most excellent names.” Allah other names can be used as words to describe others: words like rahim (merciful), sami (hearing), and basir (seeing). About the Prophet (peace be upon him) Allah says: “With the believers he is gentle and merciful”.Allah says: “Verily We created the human being from a drop of mingled sperm and made him hearing (sami) and seeing (basir)”.
Another opinion is that the difference between them is that al-Rahman denotes the presence of the attribute of mercy, while al-Rahim refers to the expression of Allah’s Mercy and its affects on Creation. Based on this opinion, Allah is al-Rahman and al-Rahim with respect to both this world and the next And Allah knows best.
4)All Praised is by Allah:
In second ayat praised of allah almighty is being discussed that he is lord of all the world.
5) Verse 3:
Allah is the master and Mercy of the people and for the day of Judgment.He is the master and he will be all upon on us what we did in our lifes. We should therefore not allow ourselves to misled. We should always remember that he knows very well that what we are doing. We all know that Allah (SWT) has appointed “Karaman Katebeen” to write every good and bad deed of us. We should never be unaware of our existence. If someone did something wrong to you, he will surely be punished on the day of judgment as Allah is the best judge. Also, if someone is doing good deeds, he will be awarded for his struggles.

6)Verse 4:
When we workship in front of Allah Alimighty it is basically that we are demanding help from him for our life that please grant us his mercy and help on us for our lifes.Basically if we see this Surah Al-Faitha it is basically a dua for us that we says in front of Allah Almighty.d O’ Allah our worship, obedience, submission and devotion is for You alone, and we only serve You. O’ Allah we know that You are the Lord of the Universe and You have the power over everything, therefore, we only turn to You for help, for our needs and requirements.
Verse 5:
In this verse the guidance is being asked from Allaha that please guide us the right way and path to success in life today and for the day of judgment.We want to meet our lifes as for as Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W).Keep us the guidance for our betterment and keep us away from the sins and sinnerse of this world.We says that “OH My Lord we workship you and we seeks help and guidance from you”. We can only get lost in labyrinths of doubt and uncertainty due to lack of true knowledge. Let us hold firm to the straight path that Allah Almighty has opened up for us.
Verse 6:
In this verse the right path and right way has been asked from Allah that guide us the right path and right way from which we can seek the betterment of this world and the day of Judgment. The path of those upon whom you bestowed and not of those who have evoked and not of those who are astray.
Verse 7:
This verse has to be related with above verse 6.As before we has prayed god for guidance and betterment of our selfs.We have asked god for way to good deeds not to astray.Astray are those who are not in search of the truth. Those who have known what is right but their weaknesses have led them far away.In this last ayat we have to to a moral that who nows the right and truth but hides from world only gained Allah Anger because Allah bestowed him that thing but he did not so he should have anger just and after never hope of usefull things.And other who did not search for truth may should go to Astray.We pray from Allah to keep away from this type of person or people in life.

Impact of Surah Al-Fatihah on life of Muslim as servent of Allah:
Surah Al Fatihah is the important chapter of Holy Quran. The Surah Al fatahiah a chapter so important that Muslims cannot implore God without its recitation in each of the five daily prayers, is not only the beginning of the Qur’an but in a sense a summary of it.
Surah fatahia is the most important surah which help man to seeks guidance in his present life and the life day after tomorrow.This surah help man to change his life and ask guidance right way and success from god in his life basically. Surah al-Fatiha, “The Opening”, is the first chapter of the Holy Quran. Its seven verses are a prayer for God’s guidance, and stress Its lordship and mercy of God. This chapter has an essential role in daily prayers; being recited at least seventeen times a day, at the start of each unit of prayer .
The surah is described in various Hadith as “the mother of the Book” (Umm al-Kitab), and said to be the seven verses alluded to in Surah.”We have given thee seven of the opt-repeated (verses) and the great Quran.”
This surah has great effect on muslim life that goods attributes are discussed that our god is very praised and vey benifical on his peoples. His mercy and his belessing upon peoples is very helpful and useful in life of a muslim.He is master of all the world and as for as day of judgment he will forgive his sinner which enable muslim to work more hard to achive googd attributes from him.Muslim workship to him is seek of help and blessing to him which is highest way of success.guidance is for right and correct path and woy of life.and he forgive those to whome he give but they don’t give in return to the society. A wise Shaykh has said that since our Ruh (Spirit) has come from the heavens therefore the sustenance and food for our Ruh is also in the heavens. And so when we recite the seven verses of Surah Fatiha, we’re actually assisting our Ruh to spiritually transport itself through these seven heavens and bond itself with Allah (swt), Who is high, above and beyond these heavens. Since Fatiha means Opening, this Surah opens the door for our Ruh to begin its spiritual journey, the goal of which is to connect itself with Allah (swt). Each verse of this Surah forms a step to cross each heaven thus by the time we have recited all seven verses with full concentration of heart and mind, we should be able to experience a communion and joy unlike any other.

Introduction:

Juvenile crime is and has been a relevant topic in New Zealand and the world for many years, and I was interested in what, when, where and why juveniles commit crimes, therefore I chose the topic of “Juvenile crime in New Zealand”. My main research inquiry question is “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?” My key questions are: “How are juvenile offenders sentenced in New Zealand and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?”, “What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, “What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, and “Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?”

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How are juvenile offenders sentenced and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?

According to Te Ara’s website, depending on the circumstances, different procedures are used to punish juvenile offenders, including: Warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim, a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. If the case is more serious, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court. “In 2014, 43% of offenders were dealt with through alternative action by Police Youth Aid (for example, written apologies, community work, reparation and counselling.” In the “Youth Justice Indicators Summary Report” written by the “Ministry of Justice” in April 2018, it discusses becoming part of the Youth Justice System, being part of the system, and reappearing in the system. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a date of publishing included, and the spelling and grammar are correct. This source is a government source, therefore it is less likely to be biased.

According to justice.govt.nz’s website, almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. “In 2017, youth were most often charged with burglary (25%), theft (19%) or robbery (15%) offences as their most serious offence”. In 2017, and 600 youth (32%) were given a sentence or order. The most common out of these were ‘monetary, confiscation, or disqualification’, which accounted for 22%, (or 129 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017, and also, ‘supervision or community work’, which accounted for 19% (or 111 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017. ‘Supervision with residence’ (96 youth), ‘education and rehabilitation programmes’ (12 youth), ‘supervision with activity’ (87 youth), are included as other orders. Out of the small number of youth who were sentenced in court and received an adult sentence to serve fully (36 youth), most of them were given home detention or imprisonment for highly serious offending.

Brinley McIntosh, author of the HMA article “Reducing recidivism rates among young offenders”, discusses the attributes of juvenile offenders, group work among juveniles, CBT with juvenile offenders, and inspiring juvenile offenders. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a listed author, there is a date of publishing included, and the sources in the website are cited.

According to Bennett (2009), “Current literature around young offenders and recidivism rates shown that in NZ there is a core group of young offenders that continue to reoffend despite going through the youth justice system.” This tells us that sentencing is ineffective for preventing reoffending in New Zealand. To address the rate of recidivism, in 2010, the Young Persons and Their Families Amendment Bill put forward and carried out alterations to the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act (1989) to make way for harsher sentences (either residence or community based) for young offenders and also their families. This amendment elongated the length of time young offenders were able to be sentenced to supervision and/or residence orders, and also made way for requested parenting education programmes for both: young offenders who are parents, and also, those who are parents of young offenders. They needed to do this to inhibit offending and also reoffending. This tells us that these individuals come from violent and/or poor etc. households, which may influence their recidivism greatly.

According to McIntosh, the amendment also accentuated the need for mentoring, rehabilitation, and support for young offenders as well as their families, which are used as preventative measures towards recidivism. Subsequently, there was a powerful push towards developing and implementing programmes that lower recidivism rates of young offenders by aiming at criminogenic needs, and also promoting and teaching prosocial skills. McIntosh claims that there is only a small amount of controversy in the literature that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and its variants are the most effective treatment for reducing recidivism among youth offenders. McIntosh also claims that the most economical and effective way to give interventions to young offenders in residential facilities is in a group layout.

I disagree with this statement because to me, imprisonment seems like it would be the most effective preventative measure for recidivism among juvenile offenders. I believe this because it would essentially “keep juveniles off the streets” and give them less opportunity to re-offend. I also think that when more juveniles are participating in training, education, or employment, the less likely these individuals are to offend, as “idle hands are the devil’s

playthings”, meaning if an individual is not occupied, they have a higher chance of getting into trouble.

According to an infographic summary by the Ministry of Justice, in 2017, the majority of juveniles (78%) had charges proved, most acted in accordance with plans agreed at Family Group Conferences, and a third of them were given orders for their offending, including 129 confiscation, disqualification, or monetary orders, 111 supervision or community work orders, 96 supervision with residence orders, 87 intensive supervision or supervision with activity orders, and 36 adult sentences for serious offending. The amount of juveniles charged in court has decreased by 25% since 2013 and by 5% since 2016, (possibly because in recent times juveniles have fewer opportunities to offend, which may be because they are involved in training, education, or employment), and only accounted for under 3% of all individuals charged in court in 2017.

What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?

According to https://www.justice.govt.nz, “there have been very large reductions in the number of… young people aged 14 to 16 who offended (…down from 14,183 to 5,188 young people).” I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise. In 2016/17, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 131 cases. In 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 504 cases. From 2008 to 2017, the percentage of M?ori juvenile offenders rose over that decade, from 49% to 64%. The number of juveniles charged with theft, burglary, or assault has been decreasing since 2013, which may be surprising to some, but the number of juveniles charged with robbery has increased since 2015 to 2017, which may not be surprising to some. This could be due to the stigma in New Zealand regarding juvenile crime. It has been said that the youth justice

system is ‘racist’ towards M?ori, which I agree with. Nevertheless, the number of juveniles charged has decreased significantly among all ethnicities over the decade spanning from 2008 to 2017. The changes are as follows: M?ori changed from 2,421 to 1,197 individuals (a decrease of 51%) European changed from 1,749 to 426 individuals (a decrease of 76%), and Pasifika from 501 to 174 individuals (a decrease of 65%). Theft is different to robbery because theft is taking property that doesn’t involve interaction between people. An individual simply takes property that they do not own. Comparing robbery and theft, robbery is where an individual takes property that involves interaction between people but involves intimidation, coercion, and/or force. Burglary, in comparison to both robbery and theft, is where an individual enters a residence or building while intending to commit a felonious crime, such as theft. Burglary doesn’t require interaction between individuals or property to be stolen. From 2008 to 2017, the number of juveniles charged in court had significantly declined (from approximately 160 per 10,000 juveniles), to approximately 60 per 10,000 juveniles), and the overall juvenile offending rate decreased 63% between 2009/10 and 2016/17, from 761 per 10,000 individuals to 285 per 10,000 individuals. It may be thought that the rate of juvenile crime is increasing but in fact, the rate is actually decreasing, which I am surprised about, and may be to other people’s surprise. During that time, the decrease in the offending rate has been much larger for European/Other (74%) than for Pasifika (61%), or M?ori (59%). The age ratio of juvenile offenders has greatly stayed the same since 2013, whereof the offenders aged 14-16, 24% of those were 14 years old, 32% were 15 years old, and 41% of those were 16 years old. I am not surprised about the age ratio.

What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?

In New Zealand in 2016/17, the percent by offence division if the most common type/s of crime among young people aged 14 to 16 are as follows (in descending order): The highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at

16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and finally, robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.

I think that theft is so high because many youths have chances to thieve, rather than have opportunities to commit other crimes. Although theft is less serious than, for example, violent crimes because people’s lives are not necessarily in danger throughout a theft, they are throughout a violent crime.

The “Youth Justice Statistics 2014/15” (about England and Wales), composed by the “Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice” on the 28th of January 2016, discuss, for example, moving through the Youth Justice System, proven offences by juveniles and measures of crime underwent by juveniles. According to Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice, In England and Wales, in the year ending March 2015, the main types of juvenile offence were; violence against the person (24%), theft and handling (17%) and criminal damage (12%). Additionally, there were 2,000 sexual offences in the same year in which a young person was cautioned or convicted, which accounted for 2% of all juvenile offences.

Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?

According to Te Ara’s website, regarding the law, young people are those who are aged 14–16. “…They can be charged and prosecuted for an offence and dealt with by the youth justice system. Those aged 17 and over are treated as adults in the general court system.”

I think that this age is too young to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I think the age should be raised to 18. I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, by answering the previous inquiry questions, I have been able to answer my main research inquiry question: “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”. Research proves that juvenile crime is caused by financial hardship (Scientific studies have shown that it is not just a juvenile’s brain that turns them

into a criminal, but also poverty that changes an innocent juvenile into an inveterate criminal. If teens see that others such as their friends are more financially stable and richer than them,
so they eventually begin to look for illegal ways to tide themselves over, and once they start offending, they are usually small crimes such as theft to accomplish their daily costs, but as time goes on, they re-offend and continue to re-offend. Peer pressure is another major cause of juvenile crime as surveys conducted show that teens that are friends with criminals have a higher likelihood to become eventually a criminal themselves, as it is reasonably natural for the individuals to be influenced by the criminals. Teens prefer committing crimes in groups because it can be more exciting and also lowers their likelihood of getting caught offending.

I believe that one way to combat peer pressure and also juvenile crime is to make sure that juveniles’ friends are not negatively influencing the juveniles.

Additionally, a lack of care from family is another major cause of juvenile crime as neglected juveniles are more likely to become criminals because they become violent and angry when they lack love and affection that they feel they deserve from the family. They then use their negative energy to commit crimes. Furthermore, bullying is another major cause of juvenile crime. Bullying is a crime and it also fuels other crimes. Multiple studies show that juveniles who bully others tend to become criminals later in life. Abusive behaviour promotes juvenile crime and juveniles who demonstrate abusive behaviour or are in a group of friends who demonstrate abusive behaviour wind up committing crimes. A few cases have been reported where the victims of bullying become criminals only for the purpose of retaliating on society. Lastly, drug and alcohol abuse are also major causes of juvenile crime. It is a crime to take drugs or drink alcohol as a minor, and it also causes various other crimes. Juveniles’ judgement is impaired when they abuse drugs or alcohol, which increases the likelihood of committing crimes, such as property damage or public disorder. When a juvenile becomes intoxicated, their judgement and reasoning become obscure, causing them to commit a crime that they might not have wanted to commit originally. In 2017 specifically, the highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and the lowest percentage was robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.

I think that the age of 17 is too young and too harsh to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I believe that the age should be raised to 18.

The research indicated that overall, depending on the circumstances, different methods are used to punish juvenile offenders, of example, including warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim,

a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases either in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. But for more serious cases, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court. Almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. Studies show that in 2017, the most prevalent charges given to juveniles were confiscation, monetary, or disqualification. Research suggests that overall, sentencing is not effective for reoffending, because studies show that in New Zealand there is a main group of juvenile offenders that continue to offend regardless of being dealt with by the youth justice system. Research shows that in 2017, the most common ethnicity of juvenile offenders in New Zealand was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 131 cases. Compared to 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending in New Zealand was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 504 cases. Research also shows that in 2017, the most common age of offenders in New Zealand was 16 years old (41%), the second most common age was 15 years old at 32%, and lastly, the third most common age was 14 years old at 24%. These statistics did not surprise me. Additionally, compared to 2013, the age ratio has largely stayed consistent. In 2016/17, the most common type of youth crime in New Zealand was theft at 26%, the second most common type of youth crime was ‘other’ at 20%, and the third most common type of youth crime was unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%. When compared to England and Wales, in 2015, the most common type of offence was violence against the person (24%), followed by theft and handling (17%), and then criminal damage (12%). Lastly, during my research, I have found that juveniles (regarding the law) are those aged 14–16.

Introduction:
“A culture is a way of life of a group of people–the behaviours, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next” (Thill, 2018). Culture reflects the total way of life a society. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), cultural competence is our willpower and ability to understand and respect the different cultures and communicate effectively with people from other cultures. Being culturally competent is important for nurses and midwives as it reduces the possible dangers due to the misinterpretation of the patient thereby contributing to their well-being. Besides briefly reflecting on my own culture and the different cultures of the world, this essay will also discuss the measures taken by nurses and midwives in order to be more culturally competent.
My culture and my values:
I come from Tamil Nadu, which is in the southern part of India. My parents are originally from a state called Kerala, but currently live in Tamil Nadu. I speak four languages including the regional languages of these two states. My Father is the only son of my grandparents and so we live as a nuclear family which consists of my grandmother, my parents and myself. I am emotionally every attached with my family and I cannot go even a day without talking to everybody at home. I come from a Christian family and even though I am a little confused about the concept of God, I believe and trust in the existence of God. We are generally superstitious about many things. One good example of this would be a case that came into notice (Drielsma,2013), where it was found that the parents of an Indian girl, who was born with four arms, refused a pro bono offer of a surgery, because they believed their child was the four-armed Hindu God (Laxmi) reborn. Respecting elders is a very important aspect of my culture and we do not question them or go against what they say or hurt them in any way. Even if I were to marry somebody, it would be decided by my parents and all the elders of my family, as that is a sign of respecting their life experiences. Religion and the society’s opinion are important parts of our lives. Indian parents prefer arranged marriage system as there is no unnecessary complication of their children falling in love with people of a different religion or caste or lower status. Friends and family are important in my life. I make friends very easily as I ca put people at ease. In India words like “thank you”, “welcome” or “please” among friends or family is considered as a violation of the closeness of the relationship and often considered sarcastic. We also avoid using the word “no”, instead we say something synonymous to “I will try my best”, so that we don’t sound rude or hurt people with words. Relatives and friends are considered family and we drop in on them when we feel like it, without any prior appointments, as they are considered “family” too. When it comes to food, we prefer it spicy and we use hands to eat food, as we see, smell, touch and taste the food we eat. Moreover, we consider it to be both a physical and spiritual contact with food, because as per our belief, each finger represents the five elements of nature (space, air, fire, water, earth). But we never use our left hand for eating, as, it is considered impure. This is because there are no tissue papers available in the toilets and people use water and their left hands! Also, footwear is considered unclean and we avoid wearing them inside our home or holy places. When greeting people, it is very rare that we shake hands, instead we acknowledge them with nods and smiles with a “hello”, as physical contact of the opposite sex is not encouraged in our society. Alcohol, smoking. Partying or clubbing are taboo subjects in in my family and, at a society level, it leads to negative stereotypes. I am a strong believer of “KARMA” (you get what you do to others) and this influences most of the decisions I make.
Compare and contrast:
There are so many different cultures in the world and every culture is different and unique in its own way. This is what makes the world a colourful place to live in.

Introduction:
The illicit diamond trade in Zimbabwe has been reported taking place since October of 2008. At that time, the people of Zimbabwe were entering an unlicensed ‘mine’ to dig up diamonds to sell. However, later that month the army moved in, in force. At least 150 diggers were killed; some were chewed and torn apart by dogs. Only a few survived. Now, only last year an article was written by the Guardian (by Simon Allison) about how the diamonds are not being used to “transform the country’s economic prospects and, ultimately, the lives of its people” but instead “billions of dollars have been lost to private companies with links to the military, the intelligence services, and President Robert Mugabe.” This illicit trade centres on Zimbabwe, and one of the biggest diamond deposits in the world.

Social Impacts:
There are many types of diamonds, which are mined all over the globe. In northern Russia, there is a large craton Diamond-bearing and barren kimberlite that is very rare. There are also large cratons in north Canada and many smaller ones in southern America. But, more importantly there is a small craton in eastern Zimbabwe. In this craton, there is Barren kimberlite (Fig 3). The locals had been mining for some profits until the government took over in 2009. However, when the government took over the ‘operation’ they allegedly killed over 150 people. More recently, Anjin Investments, a Chinese investment company, has not been fulfilling its agreement with the Zimbabwean government and not paying its royalties. However, even after every foreign mining company’s license was cancelled, Anjin have been allowed back into Marange. This is because Anjin Investments are shareholders include “Anhui Foreign Economic Construction Company Ltd of China (AFECC) and Matt Bronze” which is an investment company controlled by Zimbabwe’s military. This means that although in the past Anjin has not paid the Zimbabwean government a percent of their profit, they are the only foreign mining company with a license because of military links. Additionally, the Zimbabwean government promised to use the diamond money to better the people, they are still clearly not honouring that promise.
Environmental Impacts:
In Africa, and Zimbabwe particularly, reckless diamond mining is unfortunately quite common. For every one carat of diamonds mined, 1750 tons of earth is mined and of 2014, the average engagement diamond ring size is 1.25 carats. In some extreme cases, the abandoned mining pits can cause ecosystems to shut down and collapse. The animals leave the area because of the changing of the landscape and noise pollution and the topsoil (which has the most organic matter and microorganisms out of all of the layers of soil) erodes which leads to the land being almost permanently unsuitable for farming. Additionally, the pits begin to fill with stagnant rainwater and become a popular breeding spot for mosquitos, which can be detrimental, especially in developing countries like Zimbabwe.

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INTRODUCTION:
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a copolymer, synthesized of lactic acid and glycolic acid. Lactic acid has two optical isomers: L-lactic acid and D-lactic acid as it contains an asymmetric carbon atom. When the lactide and glycolide moieties get polymerised to form the PLGA co-polymer it forms different conformation and tacticities in it. In the body lactic acid is formed as an intermediate product through the metabolism of carbohydrates. And also the Glycolic acid could be formed as through the metabolic processes of the body. So, when the PLGA copolymer is given in the body, the body metabolizes it slowly to Lactic acid and Glycolic acid. These end products are eliminated from the body via the Krebs cycle. Thus, making the PLGA copolymer to be a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. The polymer is not harmful to the body. So, this polymer is approved by the U.S. FDA for its clinical use in humans. By altering the copolymer ratio we can also alter the biodegradation rates of the PLGA copolymer. Also, PLGA could be formed as nanoparticles, micro-particles, microspheres, polymeric micelle, scaffold structures which can act as a potential device for loading of hydrophilic drug molecules, charged drug molecules in the core of the PLGA matrix in the above mentioned devices for drug delivery. The PLGA surface properties could be modified for targeting the drug to a specific site of action. Because of all these properties of PLGA this polymer gains interest of the researchers to work on for drug delivery modifications.
SYNTHESIS OF PLGA:
The PLGA copolymer is synthesized by means of random ring opening and copolymerization of the monomers, the cyclic dimers of lactic acid and glycolic acid. The copolymerisation is initiated by use of catalysts like tin (II) 2-ethylhexanoate, tin (II) alkoxides and aluminum isopropoxide. Thus, yields a linear polyester amorphous, aliphatic product having ester linkages between the two copolymers.

Synthesis of Higher Molecular Weight or Lower Molecular Weight PLGA:
The degree of condensation and the PLGA copolymer chain length decides the higher molecular weight and lower molecular weight of PLGA copolymer. PLGA of low molecular weight (below 10 kDa) can be obtained by a ring-opening co-polymerization of lactic and glycolic acid. PLGA of higher molecular weights can be synthesized using the same process by using the above mentioned catalysts or using cyclic dimers as a starting material.

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AMORPHOUS NATURE OF PLGA:
The number and types of sequences are limited in the ring-opening polymerizations. Typically, randomly distributed atactic or syndiotactic PLGAs are obtained. Thus, are amorphous in nature. As the atactic/syndiotactic sequences have the random(not on one side of the chain) arrangement of the pendant group, (in the case of PLGA are the carbonyl and methyl groups) across the linear chain thus not causing any ordered arrangement or crystalline form. So, they are amorphous in nature.
ADVANTAGES OF PLGA:
Biocompatibility.

Tailored biodegradation rate (depending on the molecular weight and copolymer ratio)
Approval for clinical use in humans by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Potential to modify surface properties to provide better interaction with biological materials and targeting the site of action.
Suitability for export to countries and cultures where implantation of animal-derived products is unpopular.
PROPERTIES OF PLGA:
The mechanical strength of the PLGA copolymer depends on the crystallinity of the polymer. Also, properties like swelling ability, capacity to undergo hydrolysis and the biodegradation rate depends on the crystallinity of the polymer. While, we consider the individual polymers Poly lactic acid (PLA) and poly glycolic acid (PGA), the PLA is highly crystalline in nature and the PGA is amorphous in nature. So, there is influence of the molar ratios used for the preparation of the PLGA copolymer on the crystallinity. It is thus said that higher the PLA content the PLGA copolymer is more towards crystalline form.
Considering, the rates of biodegradation as the polymer is more towards crystalline form i.e. content or the molar ratio of PLA is more than that of the PGA in the PLGA copolymer, causes it to be less soluble than that of the amorphous form and so the rate of hydrolysis is less in this case and subsequently the rate of biodegradation is low in the case of the PLGA copolymer having PLA content more. So, we can say that by altering the copolymer ratio we are able to modify the biodegradation of the PLGA copolymer.
PLGA copolymer containing a 50:50 ratio of the monomers PLA and PGA is an exception and show higher rate of hydrolysis and biodegradation than those made with either monomer ratio to be higher. It has a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 45°C to 55°C and an inherent viscosity of 0.5-0.8 mPa.

BIODEGRADATION OF PLGA:
The PLGA co-polymer undergoes degradation hydrolytic degradation or biodegradation through cleavage of its backbone ester linkages. Mechanism for PLGA biodegradation could be explained in three steps:
Random chain scission process: There is scission of the long polymer chains, with no appreciable weight loss and no soluble monomer products formation.

In the middle phase, a decrease in M.W. and soluble oligomeric and monomer products are formed.

Soluble monomer products formed- This phase is that of complete polymer solubilization.

After this the polymer by Krebs cycle is elimanted from the body.
The biodegradation of PLGA could be affected by different factors:
29883103048000Effect of Molar Ratio:
PLA is more hydrophobic in nature than that of the PGA. So, when the ratio of PLA is more in the PLGA polymer, the biodegradation is slower in this case. The exception is only in the case, where the PLA:PGA ratio is 50:50 the degradation rates are faster than where the polymer ratios of either of them are higher.
Effect of Molecular Weight:
Higher molecular weight PLGA polymers are formed where the length of the chains is also longer. So, it takes a larger time for the biodegradation of the PLGA polymer with higher molecular weight.
Effect of Drug loading:
The drug loading plays a significant role in the degradation of the polymer. Larger amount of drug loading results in more content (burst) release at the initial stages of the polymer degradation.
Surface area in contact:
The higher the surface area in contact with aqueous environment (available for hydrolysis), greater is the biodegradation of the PLGA polymer.
MODIFICATIONS ON PLGA:
The PLGA system is hydrophobic in nature, due to PLA content. To alter the drug release pattern of hydrophilic drugs we need to modify the properties of the PLGA and the surface of the PLGA. Also, to increase the shelf life of the formulations and to avoid any kind of immune response inside the body due to the hydrophobicity of PLGA, we modify the PLGA surface with hydrophilic groups like PEG, Chitosan, Dextran.
34880558953500PEG Modification:
The PEG could be linked with the PLGA polymer chemically. It can thus form the PLGA-PEG block systems i.e. the diblock, triblock and so on and it could be made hydrophilic. The hydrophobicity could be maintained if the PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock is formed where there are two PLGA molecules associated with a single PEG molecule. When there is need of more hydrophilicity of the formulation the PEG-PLGA-PEG triblock could be used. Also, the ratio when altered may result in formation of different systems (micelle formation) when administered or when are in the formulation for solubility of the drug inside the micelle.
The PLGA-PEG systems also show the solution-gel transitions. Because, while in the formulation they are in aqueous environment and stored at lower temperatures. In this case the hydrogen bonding between the PEG and the water molecules dominate thus dissolving the system in water. When the formulation is administered in-vivo at the body temperature, the PLGA and PEG interactions dominate and thus hydrophobicity increases due to PLGA. The solution state of the formulation then turns gel due to the transformation. So, these systems could also act as depot type of formulation with sufficient hydrophilicity for drug release in the body.

Dextran modified:
For the formation of the interaction and bond between Dextran and PLGA, the modification in Dextran is essential. Dextran is converted to aminated form, which forms an amide linkage with the PLGA and they are linked.
Chitosan modified:
34372555905500The chitosan is a weak cationic type of polymer. When it is surface coated on the PLGA surface it forms interactions with PLGA. Thus, chitosan could be over the surface of the PLGA. So, in the PLGA core hydrophobic in nature, encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs is possible. And in the chitosan layer the hydrophilic and/or charged moieties could be encapsulated. So, a co-drug delivery at a particular target site could be possible with this kind of modification.
End-Groups Modification of PLGA:
32258004169900End capped PLGA with modification of the free carboxylic end of it is achieved by esterification at the carboxylic group and the free hydroxylic end by attaching alkyl chain i.e. ether end capping is performed to modify the drug release patterns. This causes alteration in the drug release patterns of the PLGA as due to end capping it is more hydrophobic in nature due to attachment of alkyl chains. So, prolonged drug release could be achieved due to this modification.
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE PLGA WITH DIFFERENT MOLECULAR WEIGHTS:
Polymer Name Molecular Weight Range Viscosity dl/g Tg °C Tm °C End Group
Poly(L-lactide) — 0.8-1.2 60-65 180-185 Ester terminated
Poly(D,L-lactide) 10,000-18,000 0.16-0.24 38-42 Amorphous Ester terminated
Poly(D,L-lactide) 10,000-18,000 0.16-0.24 44-48 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide) 18,000-28,000 0.25-0.35 46-50 Amorphous Ester terminated
Poly(D,L-lactide) 18,000-28,000 0.25-0.35 48-52 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 7,000-17,000 0.16-0.24 42-46 Amorphous Alkyl ester
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 7,000-17,000 0.16-0.24 42-46 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 24,000 -38,000 0.32-0.44 44-48 Amorphous Ester
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 24,000-38,000 0.32-0.44 44-48 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 38,000 -54,000 0.45-0.60 46-50 Amorphous Ester
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 38,000-54,000 0.45-0.60 46-50 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 54,000 -69,000 0.61-0.74 48-52 Amorphous Ester
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 65:35 24,000-38,000 0.32-0.44 46-50 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 75:25 4,000-15,000 0.14-0.22 42-46 Amorphous Free carboxylic acid
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 75:25 76,000-116,000 0.71-1.0 49-55 Amorphous Ester terminated
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 85:15 190,000 -240,000 1.3-1.7 – Amorphous Alkyl ether
DIFFERENT PLGA SYSTEMS:
In the literature people have reported different systems of PLGA in different forms for drug delivery like PLGA micro-particles, PLGA microspheres, PLGA micelles, PLGA nanoparticles, PLGA stents, PLGA scaffolds, PLGA solid implants.
PLGA Microspheres:
PLGA microspheres are used for localised drug delivery at specific site of action, thereby reducing side effects and increasing the therapeutic response of the drug administered within this system. According to the molecular weight, the distribution of particle size of PLGA microspheres is from 0.1 to 150µm. So, these are micron size particles. The uptake of PLGA microspheres by the cells thus depends on phagocytosis mechanism as the size is larger. The PLGA is hydrophobic, but due to the carbonyl functional groups on the surface of the PLGA it shows a strong negative zeta potential of almost 70mV. The drug is dispersed within the core of the PLGA microsphere. The release of the drug depends on the degradation of the PLGA microspheres. The degradation could be by surface erosion of the microspheres and by bulk erosion. The chain breaks and microsphere loses its integrity eventually releasing the drug. When the PLGA microspheres are in the body, their uptake is by phagocytosis. These are then produced to the lysozyme pathway for degradation by different enzymes. If the PLGA microspheres are given alone, due to its hydrophobicity it is recognized as foreign by the body and immunological responses like release of cytokines could be observed. When we want the PLGA microspheres to circulate in the blood for longer time, we generally coat them with hydrophilic substances to avoid the body recognize them as foreign due to its hydrophobicity. Generally, PEG modified PLGA are used to improve the shelf life of the formulation and t-half in the body.
The PLGA microspheres mostly in literature are prepared by keeping the copolymer ratio to be 50:50 of the monomers PLA and PGA. So, here the molecular weight plays a significant role in the process of biodegradation of the PLGA copolymer.
PLGA Nanoparticles:
The PLGA nanoparticles are solid Nano sized spherical structures of approximately 200nm. The nanoparticles could be used for targeting action at a specific site. When surface coated with hydrophilic moieties, can circulate in the blood for longer period. They can thus be used for prolonged action for 1 to 6 months based on the copolymer ratio and the molecular weight of the PLGA used, in the body. Hydrophobic drugs, therapeutics could be administered by using the nanoparticle system. The PLGA nanoparticles are basically prepared by Emulsification solvent evaporation techniques. The polymer as is hydrophobic is dissolved in organic liquid and the drug (in case of drug loaded nanoparticles) in aqueous phase. They are mixed together to form a primary emulsion and eventually a secondary emulsion by addition of excess organic phase with agitation to achieve the desired size of the particles, is formed. The solvent is then evaporated from the double emulsion and the precipitation of PLGA nanoparticles is possible. There are different types of PLGA nanoparticles:
Non-targeted Nanoparticles:
The non-targeted PLGA nanoparticles could be a nano-sphere where the drug is dispersed within the core of the PLGA polymer. The nano-capsules are those where the drug is encapsulated within the PLGA polymer. Also, the PEG coated nanoparticles which are only used to increase the hydrophilicity of the PLGA nanoparticles act as the non-target specific moieties.
Targeted Nanoparticles:
These kind of systems are gaining a lot of interest of the researchers. Here, the nanoparticles are either coated/linked with the targeting ligands, antibodies which recognize the target site epitopes (glycoproteins/receptors) as the antigen and bind at these target sites or accumulate near these cells where we want to target the drug release to happen. The target ligands could be the ones which have specifically those ligands which bind to the target receptor which have got expressed on the surface of the target cells. This, kind of treatment works in case of the treatment of cancer. The cancer cells produce or express some particular receptors on its surface which can be targeted. The nanoparticles could be loaded with the cancer therapeutics, i.e. drugs for the treatment or use of biological content the DNA, siRNA, miRNA, and the aptamers which could interfere with the mechanism of growth of the cancer cells leading to apoptosis and cell death.
Theragnostics:
These are the type of targeted nanoparticles which include the diagnostic agents and the imaging agents, where we can note the drug release and the site at which the drug is released in the body. Also, therapy is simultaneously given at a specific site due to targeting nature of these particles.
The nanoparticles of PLGA could be used in the treatment of cancer as due to the nano-size, at the tumour site there are leaky vasculature present due to no proper formation of blood vessels. From the leaky vasculatures, the nanoparticles escape at reach the tumour site thus targeting the drug release at the site of cancer.
PLGA Micelles:

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