The era in which we are living is the era of technology. Technology has developed more than the human expectations. Since last few decade technology has taken over the human jobs and now companies can use machines for not only the routine tasks that can be done by robots. Artificial Intelligence is playing an important role in the world of emerging technology. However, due to the Artificial Intelligence companies can use machines to think and act like humans in different situations. Industry and industrial operations are continually progressing. The drives for competitive edges in manufacturing have been the engine for the blooming of progressive and productive new mechanism. In this attempt, and, a technological leap occasionally happens that alters dramatically the concept of industrial production since the starting point of industrialization. It is being referred to as industrial revolutions. The first industrial revolution came about in the field of mechanization and steam engines; second industrial revolution brought out electrical energy and mass production; and third industrial revolution saw the presence of IT environment and the omnipresent of digitalization.
There is a repeated concept for this new revolutionary industrial age which is the self-awareness of technology. A quality that is directly connected with what artificial intelligence (AI) intents to accomplish is the development of systems that can recognize their surroundings and, in consequence, can act towards being in the picture for success. These days, producers and manufacturers prioritize individualized demands to reach every potential client, therefore tomorrow’s industry will have to prepare a dynamic production line, where not only products are manufactured, but both service and products are given to seek competitive advantage over their competitors and drive the production to continually shift its settings. To obtain this, the degree of automation should proceed to the next extent where sensitive computing, receiving information from the environment, should have the ability to predict next methods of production without any interaction with the user, in the same way artificial intelligence can function.
The phrase “artificial intelligence” (AI) was initially coined in 1956 by John McCarthy during a conference where a handful of scientists came together to have serious discussions to see if intelligent machines could be brought into existence. Since then, AI is usually clarified as the proficiency of a computer program to carry out works or reasoning processes that are commonly associated to intelligence in a human being. Most of the time it has to do with the ability to generate good alternatives even when there is doubt or obscurity, or information overload. The phrase “artificial intelligence” recalls to the notion of displacing human intelligence with synthetic materials. Many instances of the presence of AI in everyday life that people don’t even acknowledge or hear of. An instance of what this fourth industrial revolution is aiming to attain in manufacturing settings, can be found in a safety device like the “airbag” from vehicles. Apart from that, MasterCard infuses artificial intelligence into credit card transactions. Plus, the Google translate service, which in present-day, supports more than 100 languages, is based on statistical machine learning, which is part of Artificial Intelligence.
Since the Industrial Revolution kicked off in the 18th century, technological evolution has always transformed the way human work. Automation and artificial intelligence are unequalled in the speed and scale at which they are transforming the workplace. Many innovative departments play a huge part in structuring the life of humankind. Artificial Intelligence has become deeply ingrained in everyday life. This is due to the abrupt adaptation and growths in especially computer and electronics-oriented devices. In the long run, there have been many emergence of inventions making revolutionary jumps in these technologies. Even though they come with some downsides, they have seized more and more role in the modern times, through various advantages and strengths. With active roles of such technologies, the quality of life has enhanced, and people are eager to see what will become of the world in the time to come. But it is always an active question at the present time that what if the future is different from humankind’s desire.
AI is now a “hot spot” of scientific research. The main efforts of great cybernetics, psychologists, mathematicians, engineers and other specialists, scientists are concentrated at this spot. Here scientists are solving many fundamental questions related to the development paths of scientific thought, and to the impact of these developments in robotics as well as computing for the life of future generations. Here scientists create new methods of scientific interdisciplinary research. Here, a new perspective on the role of certain scientific results is formed and here appears philosophical understanding of these results. Artificial intelligence is one of the latest sciences that emerged in the second half of the 20th century on the basis of computer technology, mathematical logic, programming, psychology, linguistics, neuroscience and other disciplines. Artificial intelligence is an example of interdisciplinary research, where it joins the professional interests of workers in various fields. The name of the new science emerged in the late 60’s, and in 1969 in Washington, the first World Conference on Artificial Intelligence was held (Min 2010).
Replacement of a human expert with artificial intelligence systems, in particular expert systems, of course, where it is permissible, can significantly speed up and cheapen the production process. Artificial intelligence systems are always objective and their results do not depend on the mood and number of other subjective factors that are inherent in man. Kyle Jennings points out that despite all this, you should not feed the illusion and the doubtful hope that in the near future, human labor can be replaced with the work of artificial intelligence. Experience shows that to date, artificial intelligence systems achieve the best results when functioning together with the man. After all, people, as opposed to artificial intelligence, are able to think unconventionally and creatively, which allows them to develop and make progress throughout time (Jennings 2010).
Artificial Intelligence can be defined as an ability of a computer or network of neuron elements to respond to the information received from its input devices, almost the same a person would react at the same information conditions. Machine and the simulated person equally in their results recognize the images and situations, solve word games and other tasks, take the same decisions in conflict situations, in short, they show the same results of thinking. Stuart Jonathan Russell thinks that if the machine has enough range of flexible input devices, the machine and the person commit the same motion, which generally leads to the same results in the behavior (Russell 2010). Ideally, the emotional coloration of the results of thinking and behavior of the machine model and human – object of modeling – should be the same. The widespread usage of artificial intelligence creates the preconditions for the transition to a qualitatively new stage of progress, gives impetus to a new round of industrial automation, and thus improves productivity.
ETHICAL ISSUES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Ethics is an essential requirement in human life. New quandaries arise in ethical area, linked to environment, e-communication, respecting human rights and none other than, artificial intelligence. The social improvement as well as all knowledge and tools used for this motive have exposed several ethics issues. Decision makers attempt to decide what the moral issues are and how artificial intelligence can be applied to come up with good decision not only for one person, but also for the society. It is a fascinating challenge to develop a software for assisting human being in deciding the best decisions, but it is believed that it could be incompetent and impotent because it cannot value all features and because a lot of mind properties cannot be, yet, reproduced by artificial intelligence.
Human consciousness and ethical perception could develop the trap that could be established in our world as it is apparent that besides people, other creatures or artificial who “live” on our planet must have ethical rights. The principal issues that must be respected are uprightness, altruism, tranquility, courtesy, the right to be use in a harmonious way and a decent “death”. (Pavaloui & Kose, 2017) Considering recent accomplishments in the field of machine learning and robotics, it seems it is only a matter of time until even complex occupations that require high intelligence could be completely gained control by tools. If machines become clever, more dependable and very low in cost than human employees in many areas of work, then this would likely cause the labor market to be displaced on a scale that has not been seen since the Industrial Revolution.
Ideally, human should instill trust in intelligent machines to make correct ethical decisions on their own, and to do this, an ethic for machines must be designated. To program a machine that is capable of making moral decisions on its own will be hard given these differences, whether using one or more of these moral philosophies. The question is whether the machine have that capability just like human. In response, one must remember that humans are capable of coping with nuance and dealing with vague decisions, but computer programmers find such decisions particularly confusing. In addition, it is arguable that individuals make moral choices based on many philosophies, however, people first learn the moral values ever since they were little from the people they are raised from, and then adapt these merits as they are exposed to various ideas from new groups, cultures, and subcultures, gradually cultivating their own personal moral mix. Driverless cars are programmed to accumulate information, process it, draw conclusions, and convert the ways they conduct themselves correctly, without human involvement or advice. Hence, such a car may set out with a program that contains a command such as not to go above the speed limit, only to learn that other cars do this and conclude that it can and should speed too. For instance, the Tesla car was driving at nine miles over the speed limit and killed its passenger. Since these vehicles may denote danger, scholars argue that self-driving cars need to be able to distinguish between what is morally ‘right’ or ‘wrong’.
Cars and other machines are not emotional beings that experience all sort of human emotions, but emotionless tools built to serve humans. There is nothing morally intolerable about overriding their choices or making them abide to the rules. Their dignity is not violated by forcing them to make alternatives within the boundaries set by their programmers. It seems disturbing to rewire the brain of an autonomous person but there is no ethical reason to oppose to reprogramming a harmful smart machine. If a car that decided on its own to break the rules, one would ask how to reprogram that car in order for it to ”behave” better instead of pointing the fault to the autonomous person that helps that car obtains the moral values that would permit it to make more proper ethical decisions. Human beings, even if they misbehave or commit mistakes, the society tries to draw out their good nature and polish their character by re-education but often, society will also set new bounds on them. In this case, vehicle should not be treated any differently. Since a faulty smart car is not ‘autonomous’ in the way that people are, there appear to be no moral orders against executing restrictions on a smart car’s actions when it should be dealt with properly. The function of AI systems must be according to principles that are aligned to those of humans, so that they are acceptable among the societies and by the environment in which they are intended to function.
What values machines should innate and how to embed these values into them have not yet been figured out. Several ethical theories meant for humans, are being reviewed as well as the implications of their use within a machine, in order to find the best method to know and adapt values from humans to machines. (Pavaloui, 2017) This is crucial not just in autonomous systems, but also in systems based on human-machine collaboration, since value misalignment could prevent or delay effective teamwork. Having ethics that can be adjusted to specific professions and real-life scenarios would deliver the main principles and values the AI systems should base its behavior on, as well as the potential to dynamically adapt them over time to relate them to the real situations that are found in that profession. Such a strict approach could offer enough value alignment without negotiating the full problem-solving potential of artificial intelligence. Every AI system must have its own ethics module to pave the way for a constructive interaction and collaboration with humans in the environments in which it is used.
Ethical issues that highlight on safety control are crucial because an AI system that behaves according to ethical principles and moral values would allow humans to interact with it in a safe and purposeful way. It is evident that a lack of regulations would pave the way to risky developments. However, unnecessary regulations would give impact to society since that would permit users from taking advantage of all the goodsakes that AI can return, such as saving lives, curing diseases, and solving planetary problems. For instance, driverless cars face dilemmas with the pre-set conditions to adhere to because their moral ethical sensitivity would need to always be assessed in order for the vehicle to make up its mind that breaking the speed limit at times might save the life of the passenger. A scenario would be one of a female passenger is in labour and the other one is severely injured. Both lives depend on how swift the car could reach the hospital. In this case, being able to identify predominant scenarios and prioritize the life of the passengers over speed limit will save the lives of both patients even at the expense of violating the rules as a minimal damage.
The behavioral implications of AI consist of liability and law. That is, to integrate moral, societal and legal values with technological developments in AI must serve a purpose. Responsible AI is more than accumulating some add-on features in AI systems. Relatively, responsibility is fundamental to intelligence and to artificial intelligence research. A responsible artificial intelligence is not just about establishing rules to govern intelligent machines, but it is required to study how the created and shared data is regulated since digital technologies and data science are at the moment being utilized to influence the societies, to construct the very fabric of human sociality.
Algorithms gradually shape today’s reality. While the actions of people are regulated by hundreds of laws, algorithms are subjected to very few only. Regulators and technology manufacturers need to take into account that connected devices give additional chances for both organizations and hackers to access to their personal data. It is improper and unsafe, as anonymous without legitimate grounds intervene in the lives of humans, often without their knowledge. Humans are on the verge of losing control over the information and communication technologies they have manufactured. Currently, cybercrime has costed tremendous amount of money annually. Therefore, it is important to build the tools and institutions that support the explicit design of technological systems that are compatible with moral, social and cultural values.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT
Conversations with several figures in the field of job search and recruitment representing behemoths in the industry and smaller players revealed a job-hunt landscape that will look very different just a few years from now. Though their approaches to matching worker and employer may differ, all agreed that the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning would streamline the complexity of matching work to talent and that the job search and recruiting experience of the future will involve more face time and less resume spamming.
Assessing skills specific to various industries is the name of the game for Harver, a five-year-old firm based in Amsterdam. Its specialty is having job applicants go through a testing process chosen by hiring companies that gauges whether they are a good match for a given position. The firm has made deals with Netflix, Booking.com, OpenTable and Zappos.
Barend Raaff, CEO of Harver.
“A lot of people apply for jobs and they don’t have any clue what the job is really like,” says Barend Raaff, Harver’s founder and CEO.
Automation and AI are no longer the future. They are present now in Industry 4.0. The structure and nature of business are anticipated to simultaneously change. The pace of change will likely be significantly sooner than before. Outstanding advances in artificial intelligence (AI), robotics and many other breakthrough technologies, together with new emerging business models made possible by these technologies, and the resumed progress in information and communications technology (ICT), seems promising to drastically reshape the economy, overturn existing industries, and alter the landscape for employment for the country. The phenomenon of unemployment due to acceleration in technology is now common. Even so, over the past few years, fears of technology-driven job disappearances have come into sight with advancement in ‘smart automation’, the integration of AI, robotics and other digital technologies that is already producing innovations like robotic cars and trucks, intelligent personal assistants such as Siri, Alexa and Cortana, and Japanese nursing-care robots. It is not impossible that someday human will be outsourced by intelligent machines that possess an incorporation of advanced sensors, GPS tracking systems and deep learning, if not today then possibly within the next decade or two.
Technology has always raised the productivity of human labor. Certainly, the history of the modern economy is in general defined by the sustained economic growth brought about by the perpetual enhancement of productivity since the 18th century. But the onward march of technology is not in line. Sturdy periods of incremental improvement in productivity are interrupted by huge leaps of progress empowered by certain highly far-reaching technological advances. These quantum leap have implications on productivity and the broader economy that are orders of magnitude greater than typical incremental technologies and can fundamentally transform the hidden productivity of an economy.
The world is now at the tipping point of another great technological leap known as Industry 4.0, brought about by a convergence of technological breakthrough, most life-changing of which is AI. The field of AI has carried off noteworthy progress in recent years, supported by the use of machine learning in which computers boost their perception, cognition, and action with experience. This, as a result, is made possible by the ongoing rapid growth in the processing power of computers, and the massive amount of digital data generated through the adoption of digital mobile devices all over the place. The application of AI can potentially transform many, if not all industries and reshape the landscape of work. Advances in robotics, machine vision, natural language processing, human-computer interactions, and many other subfields because the progress in AI has made it technically realizable for a vast variety of tasks currently done by human labour to be handled by machines. Human jobs being replaced by new automation technologies in the coming years are now becoming a concern. On the other end, jobs that will most significantly be infected by automation are those mainly involving repetitive routine tasks. The effected sectors are manufacturing and retail, banking, etc. However, the function of technologies is to operate tasks, not occupations.
Technological advancement uplifts the productivity of society, elevating the moderate standard of living. Humans will have more leisure times and got to focus on their self-development as more tasks are carried out by machines, at least those who would like to gain profit from it. However, a drawback to increasing automation could be the surges in productivity followed with growing social inequality so that a rise in the mean standard of living doesn’t overlap with a rise in the median quality of life. In a competitive economy where AI technology has advanced to the point where many jobs are shouldered by machines, the income for automatable human work will decrease. Without regulation, the income of many people could drop below sustenance level. Social imbalance may rise sharply if economic production were to upsurge quicker than the wages needed.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ETHICAL CONCERN
The witness of the construction of AIs who are brainer than humans in this century is considered reasonable by many experts. The desires of such AIs could undertake any viable form of which human ethical objectives represent only a small proportion and would affect the future of the planet in ways that could cause a catastrophic risk to human race. Human species only dominates Earth whether for better or worse, because they are blessed with intelligence. These considerations come with profound ethical consequences. According to Mannino, Althaus, Erhardt, Gloor, Hutter, and Metzinger, (2015), if machines could have souls, then it would be morally wrong to exploit them as a workforce and to put them into service for risky duties. If sufficiently complex AIs are responsive and have personal preferences, then similar ethical and legal safety precautions to those used for humans and other living things will have to be met. These ‘alive’ machines could be misused for research purposes. Besides, as “second class citizens”, they may lack legal rights and be derived as replaceable experimental tools, all of which could be negatively reflected in machines’ inner experience. It is possible that AIs will be manufactured in huge numbers. As a result, the number of victims could increase drastically, outnumbering any destruction that occurred in the past.
Nick Bostrom (2015) substantiated the significance of evolving an AI which would not constitute a threat to humanity, nor to its development. Producing AI is already challenging and having people-friendly AI would prove to be even more laborious. Preventive measures need to be performed for the safety of AI to avoid any unforeseeable side effects of rampant innovation. Despite having an off-switch or undo button, the reversibility of a course of actions cannot be insured now. The future consequences need to be evaluated not only by ethics committees or research departments, but also by the government, industry and organizations at the prior stages and on global scale to maintain an AI friendly environment. The society pace at the technological level will not end, but it will be directed by having ethical conducts, accompanied with high safeguard and a risk-management assessment expecting all possible outcomes. Nonetheless, the safety measures need to extend upon all the surprise actions that may happen from an autonomous form of thinking. In the author point of view, there are three aspects of concern to assure that AI-related developments are to be for societal benefit. Firstly, awareness of the ethical issues of AI research and development, and formalisation of liability. Is it the inventor of the software that allows the car to select on a path? Or the authorities that allow the car in the road? Is it the owner that can personalise the car decision-making system to meet its preference? Or perhaps the car itself because its behaviour is based on its own learning?
Secondly, the necessity to develop models and algorithms that lets AI systems to reason about and take decisions based on responsibility, and to justify them respectively. Current deep-learning mechanisms cannot link decisions to inputs, therefore there is no explanation of their actions in ways that human can comprehend. However, the future self-driving cars are on demand for the purpose of dealing with moral dilemmas such as the decision to veer left and hurt a pedestrian or veer right and expose its passengers to danger. Thirdly, accuracy and participation is necessary. Here, education plays a key role, both to make sure that knowledge of the potential AI is boundless, as well as to bring awareness in people that they are welcomed to participate in outlining the societal development. A new and more striving form of governance is one of the most pressing needs so that imminent AI advances will serve societal good. Only then accountability, responsibility and accuracy are achievable.
The fact that Artificial Intelligence is beneficial or not must be considered by using ethical, physiological, and social perspectives on the society. Isaac Asimov presented that robots are efficient and can perform the complex task. The idea was represented in his book which discusses Artificially Intelligent robots. His robots were friendly, can take care of everything, perform complex and skilled task. He developed three laws of robotics including that robots must not harm human being and vice versa, robots must obey the order given by human beings and robot must protect his existence. However, there are many uncertain situations that can affect the overall process but the overall impact of Artificial Intelligence is helping the world to grow and prosper in today’s modern era.
The present time witness the wide-ranging of novel AI technologies with surprising potential. The AI technology currently behind driverless cars, medical diagnosing, and US military drones that will steadily be made available for use on large scale in the foreseeable future. It is important that thoughtfully constructed legal frameworks are in place before this turns into reality, to realize the capability of these machines in ways that can safely minimize any risks of a unfavorable overall development. The more progress is done in the field of AI technology, the more pressing a reasonable, foresighted approach to the associated challenges becomes. Since political and legal progress are still playing catch up to technology, there is an especially large amount of duties resting on the researchers and developers who directly take part in any progress being made.
AI can solve the inexplicable problems but humans being a part of the advancement for AI to help augment human’s inventiveness and form a culture based on cooperation. There is no agreement on social norms, nor on the ethical principles that AI must follow. Until ethics begin to be a prominent part of human manner, there is no definite answer to AI safety. But nowadays, there is also an incredible interest in guarding the safety of AI. Creating an AI-friendly environment for human being and a human-friendly environment for AI can be a possible solution towards looking for shared context of values for both living souls and robots. The process of educating machines to incorporate human behavior may show an effective influence upon persons and resemble persons themselves. Henceforth, humanity will possess the opportunity to reorganize its values correctly, apart from changing and bettering their code of ethics and to reevaluate their contribution to society at a deeper level.
Human beings have always claimed that they are equipped with moral and ethics, many of whom have also sought to do so on their own initiative. Approaches have traditionally been used to instill a keen sense of morality such as the incentive of certain behaviors, propaganda, religious messages, ethical reflection or, above all, education. However, the results are not so heartening, partly because these traditional methods of moral building are often prolonged, and usually useless. This is due to serious human constraints such as poor cognitive and deliberative capacities, weakness of will or the immoderate importance given to intuitions based on emotions, favoritism and inequality. The previously mentioned difficulties of the traditional methods of moral enhancement would not be so concerning if the modern world, globalized and technologically unstoppable, which changes so rapidly does not go hand in hand with human’s current morality which is so finite and narrow. However, the revolutionary in manufacturing can also suggest a solution to the challenges. This solution could be discovered in artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is believed to accomplish more rapidly and successfully than traditional methods, the mentioned universal claim to make individuals more moral.
Bostrom, Nick (forthcoming 2014), ‘Future progress in artificial intelligence: A Survey of Expert Opinion, in Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence (Synthese Library; Berlin: Springer).
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