Topic: EnvironmentEcosystem

Last updated: March 31, 2019

IntroductionPharmacological ClassPharmacological class which is also known as drug class is a set of medications and other compounds that have same chemical structures. Examples would be Fibrate, Benzodiazepine, Cardiac glycoside to name a few. Second, drug classes is to have the same mechanism of action that share a common molecular by modulating the activity of a specific biological target and also include the type of activity at that biological target. For receptors these includes agonist, antagonist, inverse agonist or modulator. Enzyme target mechanisms include activator or inhibitor and ion channel modulators include blocker or opener. Third, a related mode of action of drug classes which includes Diuretic, Cholinergic, Dopaminergic, GABAergic and Serotonergic. Lastly, drug classes are used to treat the same disease.

What does Pharmacology meansPharmacology means the field that studies the characteristics, effects and uses of drugs and their interactions with living organisms/system. There are a few subdivisions of pharmacology but the two main areas are Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems while Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug.

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Layman’s term for pharmacodynamics would be what the drug does to the body and what the body does to the drug for pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems.Sub disciplines divisions of pharmacology:? Clinical pharmacology= clinical use of a drug and the discipline application of pharmacological principles and methods? Dental pharmacology= the study of drugs or pharmaceuticals used on the dental field? Systems pharmacology= application of systems biology principles of pharmacology? Neuropharmacology= the properties and reactions of a drug in the nervous system in our body? Psychopharmacology= study the effect of drugs on the mind and behaviour of a human? Pharmacogenetics= the study of how genetic differences among individuals responses to a drug? Pharmacogenomics= the study of how variations in the human genes affect the response to medications? Cardiovascular pharmacology= the study of effect of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system which includes the heart and blood vessels? Pharmacoepidemiology= study the uses and effects of a drug in a large number of people thus supporting the rational and cost-effective use of drugs in the population which leads to improving health outcomes? Toxicology= the study of the nature, adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms, detection of poisons and the treatment of poisoning? Theoretical pharmacology= basically study more in depth about pharmacology aim to find structural feature derived from computer experiments and activity relations? Environmental pharmacology= study the effect of pharmaceuticals and house care products on the environment and the ecosystem? Experimental pharmacology= study to test the efficacy and potency of a drug e.g. deals with effect of drugs on living system like animals and to find out if the therapeutic agent of the substance is suitable for human use? Posology= the study of dosages of medicines and drugs? Safety pharmacology= study that investigate the potential undesirable pharmacodynamics effects of a substance in relation to the dosage within the therapeutic range and above? Molecular pharmacology= study the effects on a molecular level like receptors, cell structure and functionSteroidsOne of a large group of chemical substances classified by a specific carbon structure. Comprising many hormones, body constituents and drugs. Steroids have two principal biological functions: as important components of cell membranes which alter membrane fluidity and as signalling molecules. Majority of the steroids are found in plants, animals and fungi.

All steroids are manufactured in cells from the sterols lanosterol inside animal and fungi or cycloartenol inside of plants. Lanosterol and cycloartenol are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene which means formation of one or more rings in a chemical compound where triterpene squalene is the chemical compound. Steroids were originally designed for use in therapeutic treatments such as hormone deficiencies, inflammation, arthritis, skin conditions, asthma and some types of cancer. A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can be grouped into two major classes: corticosteroids which typically made in the adrenal cortex and sex steroids. Under sex steroids there are Progestogens, Androgens and Estrogens.Progestogens- progesterone is an endogenous steroid which regulates menstrual cycle changes in the endometrium of the uterus and maintains a pregnancy. Progesterone has a variety of important functions in the body.

It is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids, including the sex hormones and the corticosteroids, and plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid.Androgens- Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. Which contributes in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate and maintenance of the male secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair.

Estrogens /Oestrogen- Estradiol also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone which involved in the regulation of the estrous and menstrual female reproductive cycles. It contributes the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as the breasts, widening of the hips, and a feminine pattern of fat distribution in women. Estradiol also development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues such as the mammary glands, uterus, and vagina during puberty, adulthood, and pregnancy. It also has important effects in many other tissues including bone, fat, skin, liver, and the brain.

Steroids are hormones of three types: 1) Anabolic Androgenic Steroids – like testosterone, that builds muscle and masculinize. 2) Glucocorticoids Steroids – like cortisone or prednisone, that are anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressants used in swelling, rashes, asthma, or bronchitis. 3) Mineralocorticoids Steroids – like vasopressin, that are produced by the adrenal glands for salt and water regulation.Anabolic Androgenic steroids (Testosterone)Anabolic and androgenic steroids are under the same category of sex steroids but what effect it does to the body is two separate roles. For anabolic steroid, it targets muscle building in our body increasing in muscle size and strength and as for androgenic steroid it increases the masculine sex characteristic. These two steroids basically are synthetic hormones which are chemical compounds that imitate the activity of natural hormones produced in our body. It stimulates growth in many other types of tissue, especially bone and muscle it also includes increased production of red blood cells. It acts like a performance-enhancing agent by increasing lean muscle protein synthesis and body weight without increasing fat mass.

It also aids fast recovery of muscle after a intense workout.Anabolic androgenic steroids therapeutic treatment:• Delayed puberty in adolescent boys• Anaemia (deficiency of red blood cells)• Breast cancer in women• Low muscle mass due to AIDS or HIV• Osteoporosis (deficiency of calcium in bone)• Other conditions with hormonal imbalance• Hypogonadism (low testosterone level)Therapeutic treatment of this steroids is originally used for treating diseases and to control or enhance hormones in the patient’s body but there is bound to be side effects using it. Being prescribed by the doctor the side effect would be little or minimal but if it is abused the side effects would be life threatening. In this case, body builders and athletes. Both have slightly similar goals using steroids and that goal is to build up their physique, increasing muscle mass, prolong endurance, strength and enhance performance.

But non-athletes and non-bodybuilders also abuse these steroids for cosmetic reasons.Anabolic androgenic steroids side effects (abused):• Heart disease (heart attack and stroke)• Kidney disease• High blood pressure• High cholesterol• Liver disease• Shrinking of testicles• Gynecomastia (breast enlargement in men)• Infertility and menstrual irregularities in women• Deeper voice in women• Altered mood (violence, aggression, depression leading to suicidal thoughts)• Severe acne, oily skin and hair loss• Azoospermia (low sperm count)TestosteroneTestosterone is a hormone that is produced primarily in the testicles for men. For women it would be the ovaries and adrenal glands. This hormone is important to the development of male growth and masculine characteristics. Women also have testosterone but in smaller amounts. Characteristic role of natural testosterone in men:? Sex drive? Mood and quality of life? Verbal memory and thinking ability? Facial and pubic hair? Development of deeper voice? Muscle mass and bonesTestosterone therapyTestosterone production increases about 30 percent more during onset of puberty and early adulthood. After early adulthood, naturally the testosterone level drops slightly each year. After 30 years old of age that is where the level of testosterone starts to decrease.

Basically, the older a person gets, the lower their testosterone level will be which may lead to hypogonadism and that is where a treatment called testosterone therapy takes place. That is why it is important to determine in older men if a low testosterone level is simply due to the decline of normal aging or if it is due to the disease hypogonadism. It is a disease which the body is unable to produce normal amounts of testosterone due to a problem with the testicles or pituitary gland that controls the testicles. The therapy can improve the signs and symptoms of low testosterone in men.

Dosage forms of testosterone doctors may prescribe are injections, tablets, patches or gels.


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