Applications of steam and hot water is widely observed in the society. Those applications range from domestic uses such cooking, indoor heating to industrial uses such as boiler based power generation. The primary use of a boiler is not to boil a liquid or fluid, but to produce the heat required for various applications. Initially the heat generation of the boiler was achieved by combustion of biomass. Biomass is natural material obtained from living creatures, for example, plants. To produce heat from biomass it can either be directly combusted or else I can be used to produce bio fuels such as methane gas, ethanol and bio diesel. Due to the factors such as availability of bio mass at a large scale, ability to obtain required material at a lower cost boiler which were run on bio mass became popular. But with time users recognized its disadvantages such as high space allocation, high initial investment, high maintenance cost. users turned themselves in to boilers which run on other type of fuels. With this introduction of,
• Diesel Fired Boiler
• Electric Fired Boiler
• Gas Fired Boiler
• Oil Fired Boiler
Under these several boilers were introduced which were manufactured to meet the requirement of the customer. They range from basic fire tube boiler, water tube boiler to more advanced steam and condensate boiler.
In the selection of this boiler following factors are essential to be considered. They are (Junaidi, 1999),
• Reviewing boiler types
• Comparing features and benefits
• Determining the maintenance requirements
• Determining the fuel consumptions and also boiler efficiency
But considering these factors it was concluded that a Diesel fired boiler system which will be the most suitable to produce steam in a varying quantity. Since the desired boiler is to be installed in to factory following factors were furthermore considered.
• Total Cost on fuel: fuel cost amounts to the cost spent on boiler plus the additional machinery required for the operation.
• Emissions: combustion of fuel oil results emission of gasses such as carbon (CO2), sulfur (SO2) .
• Maintence and operation: Due to the combustion of fuel inside the boiler , byproducts such as solidified carbon particles(soot) gets accumulated inside the boiler. This may lead an obstruction to the operating and moving parts thereby constant maintance and cleaning will be required to make sure the boiler is run without a breakdown or loss of its efficiency.
• Boiler Capacity: fuel oil as a liquid has a higher density therefore a larger storage tank will be essential to store the amount of fuel required for the boiler to function upon the expected duty cycle .
Use of a diesel boiler is said to more productive according to Rezeau, A*.; Díaz where is it mentioned as “Its size and easier assembly allows a quicker and easier installation in the boiler-room, which is often located in the basement of the building and does not have too much free space of easy access” (Rezeau, et al., 2007).Since the desired boiler is to be used in a factory area much of the space spent to place the boiler can be saved by using a diesel boiler.
It is also mentioned as “Its simplicity (thanks to fewer elements required compared to a steel boiler) facilitates the implementation of an automatic maintenance system” (Rezeau, et al., 2007).Which proves the fact by using diesel boiler automation can be done much more efficiently and easily.
The requirement of this boiler is produce steam for the manufacturing of the pharmaceuticals. thereby boiler is required to maintain maximum steam generation efficiency throughout the process, simplicity of operation, and compliance to both stringent air emission and safety regulations. It is expected to automate the whole process of operation. This will make sure the production of pharmaceuticals tablets occurs without any error.
The focus of this article to optimize the boiler according to the composition of the flue gas. As mentioned above it is expected to use a boiler which operates upon diesel as the fuel. By combustion of diesel. According to Anil W. Date “Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75%saturated hydrocarbons and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalene and alkylbenzenes. The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H24, ranging approximately from C10H20 to C15H28 ” (W.Date, 2011). Only CO2 and water vapor is produced in the ideal combustion of the diesel but at the practical scenarios combustion of diesel may lead to the formation of carbon monoxide-CO, hydrocarbons-HC, particulate matter-PM and nitrogen oxides-NOx (?brahim Aslan Re?ito?lu, 2014).This flue gas analysis is carried out to ensure and improve safety of the burning equipment’s , improve fuel economy to make sure the boiler is running at the energy saving mode at all times and finally to minimize the pollution by reducing undesired exhaust emissions.
In Practical scenarios fluctuations in fuel flow ,lack of perfect mixing between fuel and air in the combustion zone would lead to excess air ( ? Lambda ) intake in order to achieve more complete combustion. Without the presence of extra air, the formation by-products such as carbon monoxide and soot may occur. However a perfect balance between the excess air fuel is required to achieve the maximum combustion efficiency of a boiler.
According to eurotron
“During combustion with an excess of air ?=1.1 it develops 11.5 m3 of flue gases ( for each m3 of burned gas) as :
(CO2) 1.0m3 + (O2) 0.2m3 + (N2) 8.3m3 + (H2O) 2.0m3 = 11.5 m3” (Anon., 2006).
This analysis can be carried down in mainly 2 methods,
1. Analysis on Dry basis
2. Analysis on Wet basis
Analysis on Dry basis