Shoulder pain is one of the most common symptoms among patients with advancing age and associated risk factors to generally about 4% to 26 %. Majority of the complains have the root cause in subacromial space but may cause radiating pain from various other conditions such as cervical spine radiculopathy, abdominal viscera pathologies, lung apex and even accompanying myocardial ischemia 1. Leading causes of shoulder pain is Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder, which may be associated with minor trauma, environmental stresses, autoimmune processes, or disease like diabetes mellitus and so forth . Inflammation, fibrosis, and contracture of the joint capsule or adjacent bursa leads to AC, which manifests as a progressive loss of active and passive shoulder movement accompanied by pain.2,3,4 Frozen shoulder is a condition with no known cause which slowly progresses with increase in pain and decrease Range Of Motion (ROM) eventually leading joint capsule fibrosis. Frozen shoulder is seen mostly in between 40 to 60 years of age with 2-4 time more prevalent in female as compared to male, occurs in approximately 2-5% of the general population .further increased with existing co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, rotator cuff lesions, thyroid disorders, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, cerebro-vascular accident, myocardial infarction, inflammatory arthritis, trauma, and prolonged immobilization. Frozen shoulder may result in many complications like sleep disturbance, reduced ability to perform daily activities and personal grooming. The disease progresses through three phases before resolving completely
In the first phase (pain phase) disease starts with synovitis, thickening of the joint capsule, synovial fluid loss, and decreased ROM are primarily seen. This phase lasts for about 10-36 weeks followed by second phase (frozen phase), in which pain is decreased and joint capsule fibrosis is more marked along with thickening of the rotator cuff tendons, and loss of joint space are seen. The duration of this phase is approximately 4-12 months. In the final third phase (resolution phase), joint ROM again starts to increase gradually and the patient gradually starts returning to daily activities. The duration of this phase is approximately 12-42 months. 5-7
Rotator Cuff (RC) calcifications are diagnosed by the presence of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposits in tendons at multiple sites with no known cause .The most common site of this calcium deposit is at the supraspinatus tendon 2(80%), followed by infraspinatus (15%), teres minor and subscapularis tendon in approximately 5%.The initial treatment of choice is conservative, typically including rest, analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, rehabilitation and corticosteroid injections, with favorable results in 90–99% of cases. Treatment by ESWT has emerged as an alternative when conservative treatment fails and prior to invasive procedures.8-10
Ultrasound is successfully used in the treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases. Ultrasound applied at target points in tendinopathies and many other musculoskeletal disorder has achieved marked improvement in shoulder pain.11
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an intervention which is increasing in use for treatment of musculoskeletal problems. Many researchers have been performing investigating the effectiveness of ESWT in various conditions, among them are calcific tendinopathies of rotator cuff, adhesive capsulitis, chronic plantar fasciitis, lateral and medial epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathies and painful heel spurs can be enumerated.. ESWT has been reported to be effective for promoting tissue healing through improvement of revascularization and reduction of local inflammation.12
To find out the progression of the patients during the course of treatment and to compare the effectiveness of ESWT versus Ultrasound.
Assess the efficacy of ESWT in patients with calcific and non-calcific tendinitis as there are many studies which support the use of ESWT on calcific tendinitis but not many studies for non-calcific tendinitis as supported by Huisstede BM1, Gebremariam L, van der Sande R, Hay EM, Koes BW. 13 There are many studies which confirm the efficiency of use of ESWT for calcific tendinitis but there have been no studies to confirm the use of the ESWT for non-calcific tendinitis but that is also has limitation of not big enough sample size.14
To determine the efficacy of ESWT in long term, it has already been proven that it is helpful in short term however, will the long term use will cause any complications or not. Leading to surgical indication as has been found in the study 15.
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of shockwave therapy on painful shoulder conditions (frozen shoulder and impingement syndrome) and compare the results with conservative line of management for reducing pain and increasing range of motion .
Secondary objective is to assess decrease in psychological stress related to pain and loss of functional activities.
Alternate hypothesis: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is more useful for treatment of painful shoulder syndromes.
Null Hypothesis: no significant differences in improvement of selected variables.

ESWT can be used a s a preventive measure that can halt the progression of an acute case to chronic by early intervention and resolving the inflammation as proved in study conducted for epicondylitis by Köksal, Güler , Mahiro?ullar? , Mutlu , Çakmak , Ak?ahin in 2015.
The classification system of tendinopathy as described by Nirschl et al. in 2003 also described in the picture given below the phases of pain of patients who participated was between IV-VII

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In rotator cuff tendinitis,acutetreatmen includes physiotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. But even if the symptoms still persists then the treatment method preferred is surgical repair but the alternative therapy to be used before surgery is ESWT as it also helps in chronic cases of tendinitis and this has been proven by Huisstede BM1, Gebremariam L, van der Sande R, Hay EM, Koes BW. 16
The application of ESWT is usually considered when conservative treatment has failed for 6 months.17
Non-calcified tendinopathy of RC present extrinsic and intrinsic pathogenic mechanisms. The term “non-calcified tendinopathy” generally includes degenerative processes determining tendinosis and partial tendon ruptures not eligible for surgery. The foremost include functional and structural disorders and mechanically affect the rotator cuff. The intrinsic includes the degenerative processes suffered by the muscles and tendons over the course of several years. ESWT cannot modify extrinsic factors but could improve vascularization of RC and stimulate the release of growth instead of going for a surgical repair, it would be better to wait for the revascularization of the injured tissue and improved healing, according to histological results reported in treated tendons.18-19
Engebretsen et al revealed that supervised exercises were better than radial extracorporeal shockwave treatment for short term improvement of the shoulder pain and disability index in patients with subacromial shoulder pain.20
Huisstede et al assessed the 17 studies, in which ESWT was applied due to rotator cuff tendinitis (calcified rotator cuff patients were included in 11 studies, and patients who did not have non-calcified tendinitis were included in 6 studies). They reported that ESWT application was efficient in the treatment of calcified tendinitis, and that it was not more efficient than the placebo and other treatment methods in non-calcified rotator cuff tendinitis.21
In the study conducted by Erasmus MC ESWT did not show any positive results for the treatment of non-calcific rotator cuff tendinitis but showed effective results for its use in calcific rotator cuff tendinitis.22

Study design
This randomized and experimental study conducted at this hospital from March 2018 to June 2018. Twenty eligible patients were randomly divided into an intervention group or a control group, each group 10 patients. Patients in the intervention group received ESWT, whereas subjects in the control group received conservative treatment with ultrasound.
Study setup
The study was conducted in Umm-Al-Quwain hospital
Study population
20 patients with shoulder pain syndromes including frozen shoulder and impingement syndrome.
Study criteria
• not improving shoulder pain
• have Neer’s stage 1 and 2 according to Neer’s classification.
• ROM restriction (>75% ROM loss in ?2 directions including abduction, flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation) for at least 3 months
• no treatment other than analgesics within the past 3 months.
• Pre-calcific and calcific tendinitis patients.
• conservative treatment has failed for 6 months.
• pregnancy
• surgical intervention on the affected shoulder
• extensive scar around the shoulder
• joint infection
• lack of stability
• rheumatoid arthritis
• full thickness tear of shoulder rotator cuff,
• cervical radiculopathy
• damage to the spinal cord,
• history of cortisone injection in the affected area in the previous 6 weeks, or if t
• other contraindications to shock wave treatment, including artificial pacemaker, use of anti-blood clotting medications, known bleeding disorder, known malignancy in the area intended for treatment, or epilepsy.
Convenient sampling and 20
Pain intensity, Range of Motion, DASH outcome score and GROC score.
Study protocol:
The subjects were 20 female patients; aged 29 to 72, diagnosed with painful shoulder syndrome based on clinical findings and data obtained from such medical investigative procedures such as MRI were diagnosed as impingement syndrome or frozen shoulder. The subjects were chosen from among the outpatients at Umm-Al-Quwain hospital in Umm-Al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates. Patients who had neurological diseases, malignancy, dislocation, subluxation, rheumatism, or had received surgery were excluded. On average, the control group (n=10) members were of mean age 45.5 ± 14.3, mean height of 164.5 ± 5.4 cm , and mean weight of 89.1 ± 8.6 Kgs; the experimental group (n=10) members were 43.70 ± 10.4 years of age, 161.40 ± 5.96 cm in height, and 86.6 ± 8.88 kg in weight. The study was conducted after its entire process was fully explained to the subjects and their approval was gained. This study was approved by ethical community and written consent has been obtained from each patient.
The control group was treated with a range of conservative physical therapies, including hot packs (10 minutes), ultrasound (8 minutes), and interference current therapy (100 bps, 15 minutes). The experimental group received conservative physical therapy, and then was additionally treated with a magnetic ESWT unit (REGENWAVE, HNT Med, and Korea). Waves of 4 Hz were applied 2,000 times using a focus-type head, while adjusting the intensity of the energy according to the patients’ degree of tolerance to the pain resulting from the treatment. Prior to the treatment, the patient received a physical examination to determine the target region for the accurate delivery of the shock wave energy. All the subjects were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The ESWT was given in neutral position as the main objective was to find out the effective of ESWT when compared to US however there have been studies which show that ESWT in case of calcific tendinitis when given in hyper extended position were proven to be more effective result. The rate of absorption was higher in patients treated with the arm positioned in hyperextension and internal rotation (66.6%) compared with those treated in neutral position (35.3%). 23
A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is a measuring tool that tries to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values and it cannot be measured easily or directly. The VAS ranges from 0-10 where 0 indicates no pain and 10 indicate extremely painful. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is a measurement instrument that tries to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values and cannot easily be directly measured. 24
The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a 30-item questionnaire that looks at the ability of a patient to perform certain upper extremity activities. The questionnaire was designed to help describe the disability experienced by people with upper-limb disorders and also to monitor changes in symptoms and function over time. Testing has shown that the DASH performs well in both these roles. 25
GROC Score:
The following rating scale allows us to review the overall outcome of your condition with physical therapy intervention. It allows us to review your physical therapy outcome, which helps guide our treatment to better serve our patients in the future. The Global Rating of Change (GROC) has been well documented and extensively used in research as an outcome measure as well as to compare outcome measures. 26-27
Microsoft Excel Stats

Data was collected pre and post treatment of each week in order to provide comparison between weekly and to find the trend of improvement. This was done to compare sets of data to provide insights on how ESWT differ in healing as compared to Ultrasound.
Table 1 : Baseline characteristics with the mean and standard deviation of patients enrolled in the study
Group Age Height Weight Duration of pain ( in months)
Control N 10 10 10 10
Mean 45.50 164.50 89.10 13.800
Std. Deviation 14.316 5.401 8.465 12.2275
Experimental N 10 10 10 10
Mean 43.70 161.40 86.60 17.350
Std. Deviation 10.436 5.967 8.884 16.5228

Table 2: Pre and post treatment analysis of parameters, pain (VAS), disability (DASH), and change (GROC) and shoulder active range of motion within experimental group.
Variable Rank Median Z-value P-value
Negative Positive Pre Post Difference
Vas 10 0 9 1.5 -7 -2.83 0.005
Dash 10 0 39.4 19.9 -19.2 -2.83 0.005
GROC 0 10 -3.5 5.5 9 -2.82 0.005
Arom-abd 0 10 95 142.5 43.5 -2.80 0.005
Arom-flex 0 10 96 140.5 46 -2.80 0.005
Arom-er 0 10 45 74 28 -2.80 0.005

Table 2 ; 3 shows the mean decrease in VAS scale, DASH and increase in GROC,AROM-abduction,AROM-Flexion and AROM External Rotation for both the groups before and after intervention. Wilcox on signed-rank test was used for pre and post intervention comparisons.
Wilcox on signed-rank test : It is test use to determine the median differences between the related groups in the population.
Table 3: Pre and post treatment analysis of parameters, pain (VAS), disability (DASH), and change (GROC) and shoulder active range of motion within control group.

Variable Rank Median Z-value P-value
Negative Positive Pre Post Difference
Vas 10 0 9 3.5 -6 -2.9 0.004
Dash 10 0 43.4 29.15 -14.1 -2.8 0.005
GROC 0 10 -3 5 8 -2.8 0.005
Arom-abd 0 10 90 142 48 -2.8 0.005
Arom-flex 0 10 105 142 41 2.8 0.005
Arom-er 0 10 42.5 65 23.5 2.8 0.005

A Mann-Whitney U test was done to determine whether there is any difference between the pain scores in the post intervention for control and experimental group.

Table 4: Intergroup comparison of post treatment analysis of parameters, pain (VAS), disability (DASH), and change (GROC) and shoulder active range of motion, experimental versus control group.
Mann-Whitney U 20.500 28.500 29.000 36.000 30.500 36.000
Z -2.424 -1.631 -1.632 -1.061 -1.478 -1.061
p-value .023 .105 .123 .315 .143 .315

Median score for VAS (-6 for Control and -7 for experimental) was found to be statistically significantly different for both control and experimental group U=20.5, z=-2.42, p= 0.023. However, all the other variables did not show any statistical significant difference in the median scores.
VAS in the experimental group as compared to control group: Ten patients were assessed to find the difference in the pain before and after the intervention. For all the 10 patients, who were in experimental group, the intervention decreased the pain, i.e. the test determined that there was a statistically significant median decrease in the pain scale (-7), when the patients were given the intervention (1.5) when compared to the pre test (9), z=-2.836, p

My name is Milky Datta and I was born on 2nd November 2000. I am from Karnal(Haryana) India. My father is a reputed businessman and my mother is a businesswomen as she runs a boutique.
I have an excellent academic record. I have got 10 CGPA in my 10th class and 93.6% with non-medical stream in my 12th class. I have got many certificates from various institutions and organizations as I am good in academics. I was selected as the Head Girl of my school in the year 2018 and experience of being a Head Girl was outstanding. My result for 12th class was released on 29th May 2018 after which I joined coaching classes for the Pearson Test of English Academic and appeared for the exam on 19th July 2018 for the first time and scored overall 71 ;with 69 in listening, 68 in reading, 78 in writing and 59 in speaking.
Australia is dynamic, energetic and safe country with friendly and harmonious society. The Australian approach to vocational and technical education is now recognized as among the best and most innovative in the world. It enjoys an international reputation for excellence in all areas of education and training. Australian universities are widely recognized for excellence in many disciplines. Facilities for teaching, training and research in Australia are world-class in terms of state-of-the-art laboratories and classrooms, outstanding libraries and modern technology. The biggest advantage in Australia is that it offers country-based research that is spread all over the continent. All these points provoked me to choose Australia for higher studies to gain educational experience.
The reasons for choosing Fed Uni are the small class sizes, larger training span and academic experts along with passionate and approachable teachers. It is ranked no. 1 in Victoria for student support. I was delighted to know about its diverse student population. And when I came to know about the personalized teaching and supportive environment, I just decided to go for Fed Uni.
“Whenever we look around us, whatever we find there is just because of technology: the biggest innovation of mankind”.
Skimming by this quote made me to pursue my carrier in information and technology. Since my childhood, I have a keen interest in computers and technology. The IT world is an endlessly complex one that is continually changing, with each advance bringing with it countless new possibilities to benefit mankind and the societies that we live in. I will be granting myself the best possible chance to prepare myself for a future career as an information technology professional. There are many job opportunities in my mother country and in the world associated with the IT professionals. These key points encourage me to choose IT as my career option.
After getting a bachelors degree, my future plan is hold a post graduate degree from reputed Australian University and then to do a job back to my mother country. After holding an Australian post graduate degree, I will be able to get a good job here in India as it will add more weight to my profile both in terms of qualification and exposure. I will come back to my home country (India) close to my parents after completing my studies and will have a great job.

Gender and community development is a process towards sustainable way of community development incorporating all the gender with equal participation and involvement. In context of rural Kenya, women and girls play an important role, largely unpaid role in generating family income, by providing labour for planting, weeding and harvesting crops. When we see the social inclusion index, women are lagging behind in education dimension index, economic index, women have less access to control over resources, benefit, and opportunities including land, assets, credit and household income.
Therefore, this paper argued that the link between gender equality and community development go both ways and that each direction of the relationship matters for policy making.
Higher income and improved service delivery both essential elements of broad economic development that contribute to greater gender equality. That is why the rise in global prosperity in the past quarter century has seen the unprecedented narrowing of gender gaps on many education and health outcomes as well as in labour market opportunities.
More women than men now attend universities across the world. And women make up over 40% of the world’s labour force. But not all gender gap has shrunk or are shrinking with the rising incomes. Poor girls and those who live in remote areas or belong to excluded groups are less likely to attend primary and secondary education than boys in the same circumstances.
Women continue to cluster in sectors and occupations characterised as ‘female’- many of them lower paying. Women are more likely to be the victims of violence at home and suffer more severe injuries. And almost everywhere, the representation of women in politics and in senior managerial positions in business remains far lower than that of men.
Understanding which of these gaps respond to economic development and why they do so is relevant to policy because it helps shines the light on the gender gaps that need attention. The disparities between men and women or girls and boys that shrinks as countries get richer, differences in access to education for example need less policy attention through gender, less than those that are more persistent, such as differences in wages, Agricultural productivity and societal voice.
The reverse relationship- from gender equality to community development- also matters for policy for two reasons. First, gender equality matters in its own rights, because of the ability to live the life of one’s own choosing and be spared from absolute deprivation is a basic human right, to be enjoyed by everyone, whether one is male or female.
Because development is a process of expanding freedoms for all people, gender equality is core objective itself. Just as lower income, poverty, and greater access to justice is part of community development, so too is the narrowing of gap in well-being between males and female.
Second, greater gender equality can enhance economic efficiency and improve other development outcomes. Evidence from growing set of micro-economic studies points to three main channels for greater gender equality to promote growth in the following manner.
Gender equality can have a large impact on productivity, especially with women now representing large shares of the world’s workforce and university graduates. For countries to be performing at their potentials the skills and talents of these women should be applied to activities that make best use of those abilities.
But this is not always the case. Women’s labour is too often underused or miss-allocated because they face discrimination in markets or social institutions that prevent them from having access to productive inputs and earning the same incomes as men. The consequence economic losses.
The food and Agriculture Organization estimates that equalizing access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase Agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5 to 4 percent. Since women in these regions produce between 60-80 percent of food crops, yet continue to face social barriers and inequalities that prevent them from realizing their full economic potential, which is diversely affecting the economic growth of the country and development. Eliminating barriers preventing women from entering certain sectors or occupations would have similar positive effect, increasing output per worker by 13 to 25 percent.
These gains are large in the 21-century’s integrated and competitive world, where even modest improvements in efficiency of resources use can have significant effects on growth. In a world of open trade, gender inequality has become costlier because it diminishes a country ability to compete internationally-particularly if the country specializing in exporting goods and services that men and women workers are equally suited to produce.
Industries that rely more on female labour expand more in countries where women and men are more equal. In a globalized world, then, countries that reduce gender-based inequalities, especially in secondary and tertiary education and in economic participation, will have a clear advantage over those that delay action.
The rapid aging of the world’s population implies that fewer workers will be supporting growing numbers of elderly in decades to come, unless labour participation increases significantly among the groups that participate less today – mainly women.
In developing countries and regions with rapid aging demographic structures like China and Eastern Europe, encouraging women to enter and remain in the labour force can dampen the impact of shrinking working-age populations.
Women’s economic empowerment and greater control of resources also increases investments in children’s education, health and nutrition, boosting future economic growth. Evidence from a range of countries such as South Africa and Brazil shows that increasing the share of the households that women control, either through their own earnings or cash transfers changes spending in ways that benefit children.
Improvement in women’s health and education can also benefit the next generation. Better nutritional status and higher education levels of mothers are associated with better child health outcomes- from immunization rates, to nutrition, to child mortality. Mother’s schooling is positively linked to children is educational attainment across a broad set of countries. In Pakistan, children whose mothers have a single year of education spend extra hour studying at home every day and receive higher test scores.
Women’s lack agency – evidence is domestic violence has consequences for the children cognitive behaviour, and health as adults. Medical research from developed countries has established a link between exposure to domestic violence in childhood and health problems in adulthood.
Numerous studies also document how witnessing violence between one’s parents as a child increases the likelihood that women experience violence from their own partners as adult and that men penetrate violence against their partners.
Across countries and cultures, men and women differ in agency- that is, ability to make choices that lead to desired outcomes- with women usually at a disadvantage. When women and men do not have equal chances to be socially and politically active and to influence laws politics and policy making – institutions and policies are more likely to systematically favour the interests of those with more influence. So, the institutional constraints and markets failures that feed gender inequalities are less likely to be addressed and corrected, perpetuating gender inequality over generations.
Women’s collective agency can be transformative for society as a whole. Empowering women as political and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of arrange of voices. Female suffrage in the United States led policy makers to turn their attention to child and maternal health and helped lower infant mortality by 8-15 percent.
Several studies have also examined the relationship between gender equality and economic growth at aggregate level. Using cross-country data. It provides considerable evidence that gender equality matters for many aspects of growth.

Things have changed for better but not for all women, and not in all domains of gender equality. Progress has been slow and limited for women in every poor country, for those who are poor a mid greater wealth, and for those who face other forms of exclusion because of their disability, ethnicity and sex orientation. Whether companions between men and women in the same countries, the progress in some domains is tempered by the sobering realities that many women face in others as discussed below.
Severely disadvantaged population: a cross and within countries, gender gaps widen at lower incomes and in the poorest economies, gender gaps are larger. The benefits of economic growth have not occurred equally to all men and all women for some parts of the society.
Household poverty can mute the impact of national development and the differences are often compounded by other means of social exclusion, such as geography and ethnicity.
Sticky domains: improvements in some domains of gender equality- such as those related to occupational differences or participation in policy making -are bound by constraints that do not shift with economic growth and development.
Gender disparities endure even in high-income economies despite the large gains in women’s civil and economic rights in the past century. These outcomes are as a result of slow- moving institutional dynamics and deep structural factors that growth alone cannot address.
Reversals: external shocks-sometimes economic, sometimes political, sometimes institutional – can erase hard -earned gains. In some instances, improvements in gender equality have been reversed in the face of unexpected shock that revealed or worsened institutional or market failures. The shock affect both males and females, but multiple factors shape their impact on gender differentials – among them, the source and type of shock, economic and institutional structures and social norms.
Even when the shocks do not have differential gender impacts, the absolute welfare losses for both men and women can be substantial. In particular, adverse circumstances early in life, as in the critical first three years, can have irreversible long-term effects.
Less voice and less power: some domains of gender equality where progress has been slowest fall in the domain of women’s agency- women’s ability to make decisions about earned income or family spending reflect. Their control over their own lives and immediate environment, trends in domestic violence capture intra-household gender dynamics and asymmetric power relations between men and women and pattern in political voice can measure inclusiveness in decision making, exercise of leadership and access to power.
Less control over resources: many women have no say over household finances, even their own earnings. The demographic health survey shows that women in rural areas are not involved in household decisions about spending their personal earned income.
Less control over the resources and spending is partly are flection of large differences between men and women in the assets they own. In many communities in Kenya, land ownership remains a restricted to men only. Customary laws disadvantage women in land ownership, and they can only acquire land through marriage. Marriage is the most avenue to women to own land, but husbands usually own it, while wives only have acclaim to its use.
While the property rights for women have slowly begun to improve in Kenya, legislation has often proved insufficient to change observed practices.

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A bouzahr, Carla 2003, Global Durden of maternal death and disability- British Medical Bulletin 67.
Allandrf, Keera 2007, Do women’s land rights promote empowerment and child health in Nepal.
Baird , Sarah, Jed Friedman and Norbert Schady 2007, Aggregate income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing world.
Benneria, Lourdes, 2005, Changing employment patterns and the information of jobs.
Deere , Carmen Diana and Cheryl R, Doss 2006, gender and the distribution of wealth in developing countries.
Baniera ,Oriana, and Ashwimi 2011, does gender inequality hinder growth?
Makinsey and Company Inc 2007, Women matters- Gender diversity, A corporate performance driver.
Thomas, Duncan 1990, Intra-household Resources allocation.
World Economic Forum 2010, Global gender gap report.
World development report 2012

This world has now become a smaller place and with web the portfolio we carry out has enhanced in every sector possible. Web promotion actually means promoting the website to increase the value which generally means increase in more traffics, views, user views and page views. In other words, web promotion is a unique process of promoting a website on the global platform of Internet and marketing the products and services to online buyers via various avenues.
Nowadays, almost all the businesses and services make maximum use of web technology which results in gaining a positive outcome in their personal business. In order to grow the business and make the most out of it, marketing and promoting a website is very necessary. Internet is an unstoppable trend these days. Even having a traditional “brick and mortar” business, we may lose potential customers. People usually search for the business on the web, as online advertisement is cheap these days. Here are some of the potential outcomes of website promotions:
The website increases creditability among customers.
Having a massive increase in technology, online business and marketing yields in huge sales and revenue opportunity.
It is cost effective
Having a website opens an ease of convenience to the customers.
The website will promote any business 24 hours a day, 7 days a week despite of any geographical locations.

According to the survey conducted form 2000-2018 in US, we can analyze that more than 90% of the adults are using internet which proves that the growing population makes most use of internet. (Fig: Appendix 1). Among 90% of the people who visit the website leave without doing anything like buying, calling or signing up to a newsletter and once they are gone we have lost our chance to market to them in the future. But saying that are we getting the needed outcomes while marketing the website and web applications?
3.1 Possible techniques in marketing/MONITORING a website
a. Adding of CALL TO ACTION button
Adding of this button on the home page or better still at the end of any homepage helps in signing up for the offers and giveaways where we can achieve a lead capture and get the users to sign-up. We can now start a dialogue with the customers. (Fig: appendix 2)
Adding of pre-written responding of emails definitely helps in enhancing the user-experience and the closeness between the user and the business owner. While any user signs up they can get an emails at a pre-determined intervals offering more value overtime. (Fig Appendix 3)
Writing effective content is probably the most important of all internet marketing strategies. These content writing techniques should be used for scripts, blog articles, emails and direct mail marketing. This helps in making the reader or the viewer more involved. Also, keeping the contents free from spelling and grammatical errors yields in gaining more valuable customers in identifying the pain points.(Appendix 4)
Being a user, it’s really frustrating if the webpage takes maximum time to load, In order to make the less time to load, the pages plays a vital role. Usually a page contains informations whether in the form of any contents or video and any unnecessary or less necessary contents are better if deleted as it enhances the page load time.
It might not be any astonishing to find that, YouTube is the world’s 3rd most visited website. Around 80% of the people watch a website video, compared to 20% reading same content online. Just by adding video to each of your website pages increase the effectiveness. It also helps in providing the complete walkthrough of your website. This feature would be really helpful for everyone as people from all the age groups do not necessarily understand each contents explained.
One must understand the user behavior and research to find out what people are searching for. We can also use some of the keyword research tools like Google ad words, …..This way we can get more traffics.(Fig: appendix 5)
There are over 130 million registered websites out there on the internet, to sort through all of it most of us rely on search engines to find what we want. When we search something on Google we get back a lot of results indicating what we are actually looking for. But as explained by GOOGLE only 63% of the people follow the golden triangle principle of clicking only the first three links. This is why optimizing is necessary. Page rank plays a vital role by tracking all the words in webpages.(Fig: appendix 6)
Use of database in a website is very common. Another usually common thing is the maximum load time of webpages and run time of the queries fetched from database. It is highly important to monitor the response time for database queries
3.2 Analysis
One of the popular e-commerce website, was taken as an example. This was an online e-commerce website that gets over 10,000 views in a day. However, the website needs to improve on few factors. Like, adding of the ‘call to action’ button and the online YouTube help feature is missing. Even though the best part of the website is the auto-responding mail feature and I was also impressed by the loading time of the database.
Reflection and Conclusion:
This report provided me with a great virtue in my student career. On the previous assignments submitted I tried implementing certain features and was well graded. Here are some proofs as a reflection to my repots. (Appendix 7-10).
In conclusion, Web plays vital role making the biggest breakthrough in creating this world a small place. As a result, promoting a website and monitoring user behavior is an essential part in real-world.

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right273494500In 21st century, the biggest threat earth is facing, the climate change in the form of global warming. According to IPCC report, in the instrumental record of the global surface temperature, the last three decades (1983-2012) are the warmest year since 1850 1. In the last 50 years, the major contribution to global warming is the human activities such as excessive use of fossil fuel and coal. As a consequence of these activities the gases emitted to atmosphere is the so-called greenhouse gases (GHGs). The GHGs mainly consist up of CH4, CO2, N2O, chloroflouro carbons (CFC’s), H2O and SF6 2. The highest contribution in GHGs is from CO2 (78%) 3. In the key world energy statistics 2018 by International Energy Agency (IEA) reported that, in last 4 decades, the Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) is increased by 48% and CO2 emission increase by 47%. figure 1 shows the CO2 emissions and fuel share of TFC4.

The increasing demand of the energy, depletion of fossil fuel reserves and environmental threats in the form of global warming, pull researchers to work on alternative and eco-friendlier sources of energy 5. The researches have done on fuels like biodiesel, CNG, LPG and hydrogen (H2). The H2 is marked as most suitable alternative and said to be the fuel of the future. As a fuel H2 is clean in its nature as it does not emit harmful products upon burning. The only byproduct is water vapors 6,7. H2 can also be used as energy carrier for both industrial and domestic purposes 8. Largely H2 is used in the petroleum refining and the production of fertilizers. The H2 produces higher amount of energy on mass basis then any other fuel such as gasoline, coal and methane (CH4) 9.
Currently, H2 is being produced from different methods such as reforming, gasification, electrolysis and pyrolysis 10. At present, 90% of world’s H2 is produced from fossil fuels such as crude oil, Natural gas (NG) and coal. Among these sources, the NG is most important source to produce H2 11, 12.

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The processes available to produce H2 from NG are steam methane reforming (SMR), auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and partial oxidation (POx). The low cost and commercially used process to produce H2 is steam methane reforming (SMR). Almost 50 % of world’s total H2 is produced from SMR 9, 13. The SMR process has two main steps, the first sept (R1) includes CH4 conversion to H2 at high temperature (800-1000 ?C) and moderate pressure (20-35 atm). The second step (R2) includes water gas shift reaction (WGS) 14.

CH4(g) + H2O(g) ? CO(g) +3H2(g) ?H298 K = +206 kJmol-1 (R1)
CO(g) + H2O(g) ? CO2(g) + H2(g) ?H298 K= -41 KJmol-1 (R2)
The overall SMR reaction is:
CH4 (g) + 2H2O(g) ? CO2(g) + 4H2(g) ?H298 K = +165 kJmol-1 (R3)
As clear from (R3), the overall SMR process is highly endothermic (+165 kJmol-1) and need heat from outside. The efficiency of SMR process is depend upon the catalyst or the oxygen carrier material (OTM). The properties of OTM, such as high reactivity with CH4, high selectivity and stability are play important role in the selection of OTM 9. The common OTM has reactivity order with CH4 is NiO ; CuO ; Mn2O3 ; Fe2O3 15. Commonly metallic nickel is used in SMR as a catalyst and nickel-based oxides are treated as most favorable OTM. With time SMR process become expensive and less efficient. Due to very high temperature, the life period of the furnace tube is reduced from 11.4 to 2 year in SMR process 16. To overcome this high temperature issue a new technique was introduced in 2000 called chemical looping reforming (CRL)17. The process of transporting oxygen is referred as chemical looping. In SMR reactions metal is reduced, to start new cycle of chemical looping metal should be oxidized. During this process OTM and two reactors are used. The two reactors are fuel reactor (FR) and air reactor (AR). The reaction taking place in them for chemical looping steam methane reforming(CL-SMR) are given below 9.

Fuel reactor:
Direct partial oxidation with metal oxide:
CH4(g) + NiO(s) ? CO(g) +2H2(g) + Ni(s) ?H1200K = 213 kJ mol-1 (R4)
Internal combustion:
CO(g) + NiO(s) ? CO2(g) +Ni(s) ?H1200K= -48 kJ mol-1 (R5)
H2(g) + NiO(s) ? H2O(g) +Ni(s) ?H1200K = -13 kJ mol-1 (R6)
The WGS and reforming reactions:
CH4(g) + H2O(g) ? CO(g) + 3H2(g) ?H1200K = 228 kJ mol-1 (R7)
CO(g) + H2O(g) ? CO2(g) + H2(g) ?H1200K = -33 kJ mol-1 (R8)
Air Reactor:
The oxidation of metal:
Ni(s) + 1/2O2(g) ? NiO(s) ?H1200K = -468 kJ mol-1 (R9)
The overall reaction of CL- SMR is:
CH4(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) ? CO2(g) + H2(g) (R10)
The advantages of CL-SMR over SMR are (1) for the reforming reaction no external head is required; (2) As no external combustion is involved so no CO2 emission externally; (3) less amount of catalyst and steam is required per unit of fuel feed; (4) No big concerns for sulfur contaminants and no thermal NOx is formed 18, 19.

As 90% of H2 fuel is produced by fossil fuels resulting in the emission of GHGs that disturb our environment. Researchers go for developing a new method to produce clean H2 fuel 20. A method that gain attention is sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) because of its hybrid nature of CO2 capturing and reforming. CO2 is captured by using sorbent along with catalyst in this process. In this process reaction equilibrium is shifted to product side and H2 yield is increased (;90%). The other advantage of SE-SMR is lower reaction temperature (732-873C) then SMR process. The CO2 capturing reaction (R11) in SE-SMR, when CaO is used as sorbent is mention below 21.

CaO(s) + CO2(g) ? CaCO3(s) ?H298 K = -178 kJmol-1 (R11)
The main disadvantage of SE-SMR is the regeneration of sorbent required high temperature conditions. To overcome this temperature condition and make process more eco-friendly SE-SMR is coupled with CLR. The process is called sorption-enhanced chemical looping steam reforming (SE-CLSR). In this process the heat produced by carbonation of CaO is used by reforming reaction. In the regeneration step, head required for the CaCO3 decomposition into CaO and CO2 (R12) is provided by the oxidization of the reduced metal (R9) 22.

CaCO3(s) ? CaO(s) + CO2(g) ?H298 K = 178 kJmol-1 (R12)
In this process 95% pure H2 is produced in reformer reactor and overall reformer reactor operates under thermos-natural conditions 23. In SE-SMR and SE-CLSR one of the most important part is the selection of sorbent. Selection criteria for selection are stability, high CO2 capturing capacity, inert for catalyst, high sorption rate and easy regeneration. Researchers performed many experiment for the selection of sorbent. The most highlighted sorbents are CaO, Li2ZrO3, KLiZrO3, Li4SiO4, MgO and Na2ZrO3. Among these CaO is the most promising sorbent for SE-CLSR process 6, 24, 25.

Research Objective:
Development of the two-dimensional heterogeneous mathematical model of SE-CLSR process using NiO/Al2O3 as catalyst and CaO as sorbent in an adiabatic packed bed reactor.

To examine the effect of different operating conditions of pressure, temperature, gas mass flow velocity (Gs) and steam to carbon ratio(S/C) on the performances of SE-CLSR process.

Comparison of modelling results with an independent equilibrium-based software i.e. chemical equilibrium with applications (CEA) in terms of H2 purity, H2 yield (wt. % of CH4) and CH4 conversion.

Literature Survey:
According to US energy department 50% of global H2 is produced by NG and the main SMR process used for this production is 75% efficient. That’s why not ending research is carried out to improve this process 8.

At first in 18th century, Akers et al. 26 presented the first kinetic study of SMR for H2 production over Ni catalyst and temperature range of 609-911K. they presented that the reaction rate of H2O and CH4 was first ordered. The product of this reaction was CO2 and CO. The formation rate of CO2 is far higher than CO 27. Ross et al. 28 worked on the kinetic of SMR over Ni/Al2O3, temperature range of 773-953K and pressure range of 0-10 torr. They presented that the rate decisive step of SMR is adsorption of CH4 on catalyst surface and CH4 compete with H2O for catalyst’s active site. Van Hook et al. 29 had huge amount of work on the kinetic study of SMR over temperature range of 533-1200K, catalyst activities (200,000-folds) and pressure range of 0.01-50 atm.
Wide-ranging work had been done in 19th century for the improvement of the SMR process technology. One of the most promising improvement is the concept of chemical looping technology (CL). In early 1950s, Lewis et al. 30, 31 presented the concept of chemical looping for CO2 and syngas production over copper and iron based OTM from carbon-based fuels. They also presented the concept of solid circulation in two interconnected fluidized bed reactor (FBR). This concept is still used in chemical looping combustion (CLC). Later, Richter et al. 32 establish the principle of CLC. They increased the efficiency of power plant by using metal oxides (CuO and NiO) as OTM in interconnected FBR system.

Mattisson et al. 33 was first to introduce the concept of CLR. The product of CLR is H2 instead of heat, as CLR works on the same principle of CLC. Later Mattisson et al. 34 observed the reactivity of CH4 with various metal oxides such as NiO, CuO, Fe2O3 and Mn2O3 supported on SiO3 base in laboratory. Their research work also explains oxygen fraction (not more than 0.3 of total oxygen) in steam to maintain high temperature and CH4 conversion. Zafar et al. 35 experimented different metal oxides (NiO, CuO, Fe2O3 and Mn2O3) on SiO2 and MgAl2O4 support in laboratory for FBR. They examined that MgAl2O4 has high reactivity than SiO2 during redox reactions.
Ryden et al. 36, 37 has done a remarkable work on H2 production. They studied pressurized and atmospheric CLR processes. They found that pressurized process is 5% more efficient in reducing energy requirement for H2 compression than atmospheric process. They also experimented Fe2O3/MgAl2O3 as OTM with NiO as traces on it. They observed 1% addition of NiO on OTM increases selectivity and reactivity of desired reaction. Johansson et al. 38 observed CLR process in continuous fashion, using two different Ni-based OTM, having different support NiAl2O3 and MgAl2O4. They found that the using NiO/MgAl2O3 favors the higher fuel(CH4) conversion and less propensity for carbon formation. Diego et al. 39 has also examined different supports such as ?-Al2O3, ?-Al2O3, ?-Al2O3 for NiO. They determined that OTM braced on ?-Al2O3 has high reactivity then other during reduction reactions. They also examined that the decreased in carbon deposition during reduction reaction with the increased in temperature and steam to carbon ratio (H2O/CH4). Ryden et al. 40, 41, 42 tried various supports in 500W continuous unit such as ?-Al2O3, ?-Al2O3, ZrO2-MgO and MgAl2O4 for Ni-based OTM. They reached the complete conversion of CH4 and high selectivity of H2 and CO in all units.
Diego et al. 39 tested the 900W unit CLR process with NiO/?-Al2O3 and NiO/ ?-Al2O3. They examined the process by varying different operational variables such as H2O/CH4 ratio (0- 0.5), FR temperature (800-900 ?C) and solid circulation rate. Proll et al . 18 tested 140kW pilot plant using CLR process over NiO/NiAL2O4+MgO. They investigated the process at temperature range of 750 – 900 ?C. All the work stated above is done on atmospheric pressure. Ortiz et al. 43 tested pressurized (upto 10 bar) CLR process in 900W unit with same OTMs formerly studied at atmospheric pressure by Diego et al. 39. The results were same as stated by Diego et al. 39.

In all these studies, it is observed that Ni-based OTM with Al2O3 or MgAl2O3 support has high reactivity, longer life and most suitable for CLR processes 2. As production of H2 is higher with CLR process but the issue of CO2 emissions is not addressed. To address this issue researchers, move towards another process called Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR).
A lot of theoretical work is done on SE-SMR in literature. Rostrop 44first presented the idea of hydrocarbon conversion in the prsences of steam and Ca-basedsorbent. Han et al. 45 studied the synchronized process of H2 production and in suit CO2 removal using dolomite as sorbent in fixed bed reactor. They also analyzed the effect of CO2 removal on temperature, pressure, synthesis gas composition and space velocity of gas stream in SMR process. Ding et al. 27 examined the SE-SMR over Ni-based catalyst along with hydrotalcite adsorbent. They stated that the overall CH4 conversion is increased with in-suit CO2 capturing due to equilibrium shift. Dou et al. 46 examined SE-SR of glycerol in continues FBR using dolomite for CO2 capture at atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 400-700 ?C. They recommended the optimum temperature of ~500 ?C for attaining maximum H2 purity. Silva et al. 47 studied the effect of temperature and H2O/CH4 ratio in convention stem reforming (SR) and SE-SR process of oxygenated hydrocarbon over CaO sorbent. They found that H2O/CH4 ratio was different for different hydrocarbons, but the optimum temperature was ~973 K to attain high purity of H2 in conventional SR. While in SE-SR relatively high purity of H2 (;97%) was attained at relativity low temperature range of 723-873 K, with trace amount of CH4, CO and CO2. Chanburanasiri et al. 48 established the multifunctional catalyst for SE-SMR and studied that possibilities to improve the process. They proposed that the use of multifunctional catalyst eliminate the need for catalyst support. Dou et al. 49 studied the SE-SR of glycerol over Ni-based catalyst and CaO sorbent in temperature range of 500- 600 ?C with synchronized regeneration of sorbent and catalyst. The founded that continuous reaction and regeneration of catalyst/sorbent did not affect their activity at 500 ?C and 600 ?C, the attainted H2 purity is 93.9% and 96.1% respectively. Wang et al. 50 also studied SE-SR of glycerol with different composition of catalyst (Ni-based) and sorbent (CaO). Their result suggested that the catalyst/sorbent composition of NiO 41.21 wt%, Al2O3 28.02 wt% and CaO 30.77 wt% showed high capacity and sorption rate for CO2. Radfarnia et al. 51 studied SE-SMR with Al-stabilized CaO-nickel catalyst as NiO support. Their found that 25 wt% of NiO over Al-stabilized CaO-nickel catalyst support give best results. Xu et al. 52 examined the SE-SMR over Ni/CaO-Ca5Al6O14 powder catalyst. Their work stated that catalyst display stability with high CaO efficiency. The catalytic stability and activity did not display much deterioration even after 20 cycles at steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 2 and 923 K.

Later different studied shows that the regeneration of sorbent in SE process required high amount of heat. To address this issue researchers coupled the sorption-enhanced process with CL H2 production process, most promising of them is Sorption-enhanced chemical looping steam reforming (SE-CLSR).
Ryden et al. 23 first proposed this innovative process for H2 production by using three interconnected fluidized bed reactor (1) reforming reactor (2) calcination reactor and (3) air reactor. They observed that overall reformer reactor is operated under thermo-neutral condition and achieved 95%+ pure H2. The heat for the regeneration of sorbent is provided by the oxidization of OTM. Pimenidou et al. 53 examined the SE-CLSR process by using waste cooking oils fuel in packed bed reactor. They used 18 wt% NiO supported on ?-Al2O3 and dolomite as CO2 sorbent. They found batter conversion of fuel then without using sorbent.

At present when computation analysis is become an essential part of researches. Modelling and simulation serves as most powerful tool to analyze the different process on various operating condition to find best optimum condition. In literature many mathematical models and simulations are available for SMR, CLR, SE process on various operating conditions and catalyst compositions. Xu et al. 54 established the model and determined the rate equation for SMR process over NiO/MgAl2O3 catalyst which still serves as the base model for research work. Halabi et al. 54 established the model 1-D model of adiabatic FBR for analyzing the performances of auto thermal reforming (ATR) process. Zhou et al. 55 developed the 1-D model of PFR for CLC process using NiO as catalyst. They analyze the reduction behavior using isothermal and isobaric process conditions. Ghous et al. 56 developed the 2-D model heterogenous model of SMR process. They supposed the complete mixing of the species and on carbon deposition. They used equation of mass and energy transfer in solid, gas and within pellets. J. Morgado et al. 57 developed the model for FBR to compare gas switching reforming (GSR) and CLR process. This model presents the state of the art closure for bubbling, turbulent and fast fluidization regime. Simulation were used to examine the degree of OTM utilization as an important process variable. Singhal et al. 58 projected the multiscale model for CLR using packed bed reactor. They offered the comparison of reactive flows on two different scales (1) 1-D packed bed model and (2) particle resolved direct numerical simulation. Fernandez et al. 59 developed the dynamic pseudo-heterogenous model for SE-SMR in FBR over CaO as sorbent in adiabatic conditions. They proposed the conditions of temperature (923 K), pressure (3.5 MPa), S/C (5) and space velocity (SV) (3.5 km/m2) that formed 95% pure H2 with 85% CH4 conversion. Diglio et al. 60 developed the 1-D model for numerical investigation of SE-SMR in network of FBRs under isothermal conditions. S. Z. Abbas et al. 24 developed the model for SE-SMR in packed bed reactor to produce H2. The simulate the model at different operating condition and predicted the behaviors of operating conditions on H2 yield and purity.

Ryden et al. 23 first developed the model for SE-CLSR in fluidized bed reactor taking NiO as catalyst and CaO as sorbent by using ASPEN PLUS. They simulate the model on various operating conditions and proposed the best one. Most recently. S. Z. Abbas et al. 3 developed the 1-D model of SE-CLSR of methane in an adiabatic packed bed reactor. They performed the thermodynamic analysis of the process. Their results show that the SE-CLSR process gives significantly higher purity and yield of H2 among any other SMR process.

Their work should provide the base for this research work. As this work is aiming to develop the 2-D heterogenous model of SE-CLSR of methane over nickel-based catalyst and CaO as sorbent and simulate the model for different operating conditions of temperature, pressure, S/C, and gas velocity.

Research Methodology
right37084000The methodology adopteded for research work is as follow:
Expected Results
Propose the optimum condition for SE-CLSR process over Ni/CaO-Al2O3 for both laboratory and industrial scale process.

Research Milestone
This work will be a very helpful addition in the ongoing work of SE-CLSR process. Later, this work will be submitted in an international journal of hydrogen energy with the title “Two dimensional mathematical model of Sorption-enhanced chemical looping steam reforming of methane over 18 wt % Ni/?-Al2O3 in an adiabatic packed bed reactor” for the publication.

Research Schedule
The research follow the schedule:
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