Shoulder pain is one of the most common symptoms among patients with advancing age and associated risk factors to generally about 4% to 26 %. Majority of the complains have the root cause in subacromial space but may cause radiating pain from various other conditions such as cervical spine radiculopathy, abdominal viscera pathologies, lung apex and even accompanying myocardial ischemia 1. Leading causes of shoulder pain is Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder, which may be associated with minor trauma, environmental stresses, autoimmune processes, or disease like diabetes mellitus and so forth . Inflammation, fibrosis, and contracture of the joint capsule or adjacent bursa leads to AC, which manifests as a progressive loss of active and passive shoulder movement accompanied by pain.2,3,4 Frozen shoulder is a condition with no known cause which slowly progresses with increase in pain and decrease Range Of Motion (ROM) eventually leading joint capsule fibrosis. Frozen shoulder is seen mostly in between 40 to 60 years of age with 2-4 time more prevalent in female as compared to male, occurs in approximately 2-5% of the general population .further increased with existing co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, rotator cuff lesions, thyroid disorders, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, cerebro-vascular accident, myocardial infarction, inflammatory arthritis, trauma, and prolonged immobilization. Frozen shoulder may result in many complications like sleep disturbance, reduced ability to perform daily activities and personal grooming. The disease progresses through three phases before resolving completely
In the first phase (pain phase) disease starts with synovitis, thickening of the joint capsule, synovial fluid loss, and decreased ROM are primarily seen. This phase lasts for about 10-36 weeks followed by second phase (frozen phase), in which pain is decreased and joint capsule fibrosis is more marked along with thickening of the rotator cuff tendons, and loss of joint space are seen. The duration of this phase is approximately 4-12 months. In the final third phase (resolution phase), joint ROM again starts to increase gradually and the patient gradually starts returning to daily activities. The duration of this phase is approximately 12-42 months. 5-7
Rotator Cuff (RC) calcifications are diagnosed by the presence of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposits in tendons at multiple sites with no known cause .The most common site of this calcium deposit is at the supraspinatus tendon 2(80%), followed by infraspinatus (15%), teres minor and subscapularis tendon in approximately 5%.The initial treatment of choice is conservative, typically including rest, analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, rehabilitation and corticosteroid injections, with favorable results in 90–99% of cases. Treatment by ESWT has emerged as an alternative when conservative treatment fails and prior to invasive procedures.8-10
Ultrasound is successfully used in the treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases. Ultrasound applied at target points in tendinopathies and many other musculoskeletal disorder has achieved marked improvement in shoulder pain.11
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an intervention which is increasing in use for treatment of musculoskeletal problems. Many researchers have been performing investigating the effectiveness of ESWT in various conditions, among them are calcific tendinopathies of rotator cuff, adhesive capsulitis, chronic plantar fasciitis, lateral and medial epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathies and painful heel spurs can be enumerated.. ESWT has been reported to be effective for promoting tissue healing through improvement of revascularization and reduction of local inflammation.12
To find out the progression of the patients during the course of treatment and to compare the effectiveness of ESWT versus Ultrasound.
Assess the efficacy of ESWT in patients with calcific and non-calcific tendinitis as there are many studies which support the use of ESWT on calcific tendinitis but not many studies for non-calcific tendinitis as supported by Huisstede BM1, Gebremariam L, van der Sande R, Hay EM, Koes BW. 13 There are many studies which confirm the efficiency of use of ESWT for calcific tendinitis but there have been no studies to confirm the use of the ESWT for non-calcific tendinitis but that is also has limitation of not big enough sample size.14
To determine the efficacy of ESWT in long term, it has already been proven that it is helpful in short term however, will the long term use will cause any complications or not. Leading to surgical indication as has been found in the study 15.
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of shockwave therapy on painful shoulder conditions (frozen shoulder and impingement syndrome) and compare the results with conservative line of management for reducing pain and increasing range of motion .
Secondary objective is to assess decrease in psychological stress related to pain and loss of functional activities.
Alternate hypothesis: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is more useful for treatment of painful shoulder syndromes.
Null Hypothesis: no significant differences in improvement of selected variables.

ESWT can be used a s a preventive measure that can halt the progression of an acute case to chronic by early intervention and resolving the inflammation as proved in study conducted for epicondylitis by Köksal, Güler , Mahiro?ullar? , Mutlu , Çakmak , Ak?ahin in 2015.
The classification system of tendinopathy as described by Nirschl et al. in 2003 also described in the picture given below the phases of pain of patients who participated was between IV-VII

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In rotator cuff tendinitis,acutetreatmen includes physiotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. But even if the symptoms still persists then the treatment method preferred is surgical repair but the alternative therapy to be used before surgery is ESWT as it also helps in chronic cases of tendinitis and this has been proven by Huisstede BM1, Gebremariam L, van der Sande R, Hay EM, Koes BW. 16
The application of ESWT is usually considered when conservative treatment has failed for 6 months.17
Non-calcified tendinopathy of RC present extrinsic and intrinsic pathogenic mechanisms. The term “non-calcified tendinopathy” generally includes degenerative processes determining tendinosis and partial tendon ruptures not eligible for surgery. The foremost include functional and structural disorders and mechanically affect the rotator cuff. The intrinsic includes the degenerative processes suffered by the muscles and tendons over the course of several years. ESWT cannot modify extrinsic factors but could improve vascularization of RC and stimulate the release of growth instead of going for a surgical repair, it would be better to wait for the revascularization of the injured tissue and improved healing, according to histological results reported in treated tendons.18-19
Engebretsen et al revealed that supervised exercises were better than radial extracorporeal shockwave treatment for short term improvement of the shoulder pain and disability index in patients with subacromial shoulder pain.20
Huisstede et al assessed the 17 studies, in which ESWT was applied due to rotator cuff tendinitis (calcified rotator cuff patients were included in 11 studies, and patients who did not have non-calcified tendinitis were included in 6 studies). They reported that ESWT application was efficient in the treatment of calcified tendinitis, and that it was not more efficient than the placebo and other treatment methods in non-calcified rotator cuff tendinitis.21
In the study conducted by Erasmus MC ESWT did not show any positive results for the treatment of non-calcific rotator cuff tendinitis but showed effective results for its use in calcific rotator cuff tendinitis.22

Study design
This randomized and experimental study conducted at this hospital from March 2018 to June 2018. Twenty eligible patients were randomly divided into an intervention group or a control group, each group 10 patients. Patients in the intervention group received ESWT, whereas subjects in the control group received conservative treatment with ultrasound.
Study setup
The study was conducted in Umm-Al-Quwain hospital
Study population
20 patients with shoulder pain syndromes including frozen shoulder and impingement syndrome.
Study criteria
• not improving shoulder pain
• have Neer’s stage 1 and 2 according to Neer’s classification.
• ROM restriction (>75% ROM loss in ?2 directions including abduction, flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation) for at least 3 months
• no treatment other than analgesics within the past 3 months.
• Pre-calcific and calcific tendinitis patients.
• conservative treatment has failed for 6 months.
• pregnancy
• surgical intervention on the affected shoulder
• extensive scar around the shoulder
• joint infection
• lack of stability
• rheumatoid arthritis
• full thickness tear of shoulder rotator cuff,
• cervical radiculopathy
• damage to the spinal cord,
• history of cortisone injection in the affected area in the previous 6 weeks, or if t
• other contraindications to shock wave treatment, including artificial pacemaker, use of anti-blood clotting medications, known bleeding disorder, known malignancy in the area intended for treatment, or epilepsy.
Convenient sampling and 20
Pain intensity, Range of Motion, DASH outcome score and GROC score.
Study protocol:
The subjects were 20 female patients; aged 29 to 72, diagnosed with painful shoulder syndrome based on clinical findings and data obtained from such medical investigative procedures such as MRI were diagnosed as impingement syndrome or frozen shoulder. The subjects were chosen from among the outpatients at Umm-Al-Quwain hospital in Umm-Al-Quwain, United Arab Emirates. Patients who had neurological diseases, malignancy, dislocation, subluxation, rheumatism, or had received surgery were excluded. On average, the control group (n=10) members were of mean age 45.5 ± 14.3, mean height of 164.5 ± 5.4 cm , and mean weight of 89.1 ± 8.6 Kgs; the experimental group (n=10) members were 43.70 ± 10.4 years of age, 161.40 ± 5.96 cm in height, and 86.6 ± 8.88 kg in weight. The study was conducted after its entire process was fully explained to the subjects and their approval was gained. This study was approved by ethical community and written consent has been obtained from each patient.
The control group was treated with a range of conservative physical therapies, including hot packs (10 minutes), ultrasound (8 minutes), and interference current therapy (100 bps, 15 minutes). The experimental group received conservative physical therapy, and then was additionally treated with a magnetic ESWT unit (REGENWAVE, HNT Med, and Korea). Waves of 4 Hz were applied 2,000 times using a focus-type head, while adjusting the intensity of the energy according to the patients’ degree of tolerance to the pain resulting from the treatment. Prior to the treatment, the patient received a physical examination to determine the target region for the accurate delivery of the shock wave energy. All the subjects were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The ESWT was given in neutral position as the main objective was to find out the effective of ESWT when compared to US however there have been studies which show that ESWT in case of calcific tendinitis when given in hyper extended position were proven to be more effective result. The rate of absorption was higher in patients treated with the arm positioned in hyperextension and internal rotation (66.6%) compared with those treated in neutral position (35.3%). 23
A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is a measuring tool that tries to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values and it cannot be measured easily or directly. The VAS ranges from 0-10 where 0 indicates no pain and 10 indicate extremely painful. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is a measurement instrument that tries to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values and cannot easily be directly measured. 24
The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a 30-item questionnaire that looks at the ability of a patient to perform certain upper extremity activities. The questionnaire was designed to help describe the disability experienced by people with upper-limb disorders and also to monitor changes in symptoms and function over time. Testing has shown that the DASH performs well in both these roles. 25
GROC Score:
The following rating scale allows us to review the overall outcome of your condition with physical therapy intervention. It allows us to review your physical therapy outcome, which helps guide our treatment to better serve our patients in the future. The Global Rating of Change (GROC) has been well documented and extensively used in research as an outcome measure as well as to compare outcome measures. 26-27
Microsoft Excel Stats

Data was collected pre and post treatment of each week in order to provide comparison between weekly and to find the trend of improvement. This was done to compare sets of data to provide insights on how ESWT differ in healing as compared to Ultrasound.
Table 1 : Baseline characteristics with the mean and standard deviation of patients enrolled in the study
Group Age Height Weight Duration of pain ( in months)
Control N 10 10 10 10
Mean 45.50 164.50 89.10 13.800
Std. Deviation 14.316 5.401 8.465 12.2275
Experimental N 10 10 10 10
Mean 43.70 161.40 86.60 17.350
Std. Deviation 10.436 5.967 8.884 16.5228

Table 2: Pre and post treatment analysis of parameters, pain (VAS), disability (DASH), and change (GROC) and shoulder active range of motion within experimental group.
Variable Rank Median Z-value P-value
Negative Positive Pre Post Difference
Vas 10 0 9 1.5 -7 -2.83 0.005
Dash 10 0 39.4 19.9 -19.2 -2.83 0.005
GROC 0 10 -3.5 5.5 9 -2.82 0.005
Arom-abd 0 10 95 142.5 43.5 -2.80 0.005
Arom-flex 0 10 96 140.5 46 -2.80 0.005
Arom-er 0 10 45 74 28 -2.80 0.005

Table 2 ; 3 shows the mean decrease in VAS scale, DASH and increase in GROC,AROM-abduction,AROM-Flexion and AROM External Rotation for both the groups before and after intervention. Wilcox on signed-rank test was used for pre and post intervention comparisons.
Wilcox on signed-rank test : It is test use to determine the median differences between the related groups in the population.
Table 3: Pre and post treatment analysis of parameters, pain (VAS), disability (DASH), and change (GROC) and shoulder active range of motion within control group.

Variable Rank Median Z-value P-value
Negative Positive Pre Post Difference
Vas 10 0 9 3.5 -6 -2.9 0.004
Dash 10 0 43.4 29.15 -14.1 -2.8 0.005
GROC 0 10 -3 5 8 -2.8 0.005
Arom-abd 0 10 90 142 48 -2.8 0.005
Arom-flex 0 10 105 142 41 2.8 0.005
Arom-er 0 10 42.5 65 23.5 2.8 0.005

A Mann-Whitney U test was done to determine whether there is any difference between the pain scores in the post intervention for control and experimental group.

Table 4: Intergroup comparison of post treatment analysis of parameters, pain (VAS), disability (DASH), and change (GROC) and shoulder active range of motion, experimental versus control group.
Mann-Whitney U 20.500 28.500 29.000 36.000 30.500 36.000
Z -2.424 -1.631 -1.632 -1.061 -1.478 -1.061
p-value .023 .105 .123 .315 .143 .315

Median score for VAS (-6 for Control and -7 for experimental) was found to be statistically significantly different for both control and experimental group U=20.5, z=-2.42, p= 0.023. However, all the other variables did not show any statistical significant difference in the median scores.
VAS in the experimental group as compared to control group: Ten patients were assessed to find the difference in the pain before and after the intervention. For all the 10 patients, who were in experimental group, the intervention decreased the pain, i.e. the test determined that there was a statistically significant median decrease in the pain scale (-7), when the patients were given the intervention (1.5) when compared to the pre test (9), z=-2.836, p

My name is Milky Datta and I was born on 2nd November 2000. I am from Karnal(Haryana) India. My father is a reputed businessman and my mother is a businesswomen as she runs a boutique.
I have an excellent academic record. I have got 10 CGPA in my 10th class and 93.6% with non-medical stream in my 12th class. I have got many certificates from various institutions and organizations as I am good in academics. I was selected as the Head Girl of my school in the year 2018 and experience of being a Head Girl was outstanding. My result for 12th class was released on 29th May 2018 after which I joined coaching classes for the Pearson Test of English Academic and appeared for the exam on 19th July 2018 for the first time and scored overall 71 ;with 69 in listening, 68 in reading, 78 in writing and 59 in speaking.
Australia is dynamic, energetic and safe country with friendly and harmonious society. The Australian approach to vocational and technical education is now recognized as among the best and most innovative in the world. It enjoys an international reputation for excellence in all areas of education and training. Australian universities are widely recognized for excellence in many disciplines. Facilities for teaching, training and research in Australia are world-class in terms of state-of-the-art laboratories and classrooms, outstanding libraries and modern technology. The biggest advantage in Australia is that it offers country-based research that is spread all over the continent. All these points provoked me to choose Australia for higher studies to gain educational experience.
The reasons for choosing Fed Uni are the small class sizes, larger training span and academic experts along with passionate and approachable teachers. It is ranked no. 1 in Victoria for student support. I was delighted to know about its diverse student population. And when I came to know about the personalized teaching and supportive environment, I just decided to go for Fed Uni.
“Whenever we look around us, whatever we find there is just because of technology: the biggest innovation of mankind”.
Skimming by this quote made me to pursue my carrier in information and technology. Since my childhood, I have a keen interest in computers and technology. The IT world is an endlessly complex one that is continually changing, with each advance bringing with it countless new possibilities to benefit mankind and the societies that we live in. I will be granting myself the best possible chance to prepare myself for a future career as an information technology professional. There are many job opportunities in my mother country and in the world associated with the IT professionals. These key points encourage me to choose IT as my career option.
After getting a bachelors degree, my future plan is hold a post graduate degree from reputed Australian University and then to do a job back to my mother country. After holding an Australian post graduate degree, I will be able to get a good job here in India as it will add more weight to my profile both in terms of qualification and exposure. I will come back to my home country (India) close to my parents after completing my studies and will have a great job.

Gender and community development is a process towards sustainable way of community development incorporating all the gender with equal participation and involvement. In context of rural Kenya, women and girls play an important role, largely unpaid role in generating family income, by providing labour for planting, weeding and harvesting crops. When we see the social inclusion index, women are lagging behind in education dimension index, economic index, women have less access to control over resources, benefit, and opportunities including land, assets, credit and household income.
Therefore, this paper argued that the link between gender equality and community development go both ways and that each direction of the relationship matters for policy making.
Higher income and improved service delivery both essential elements of broad economic development that contribute to greater gender equality. That is why the rise in global prosperity in the past quarter century has seen the unprecedented narrowing of gender gaps on many education and health outcomes as well as in labour market opportunities.
More women than men now attend universities across the world. And women make up over 40% of the world’s labour force. But not all gender gap has shrunk or are shrinking with the rising incomes. Poor girls and those who live in remote areas or belong to excluded groups are less likely to attend primary and secondary education than boys in the same circumstances.
Women continue to cluster in sectors and occupations characterised as ‘female’- many of them lower paying. Women are more likely to be the victims of violence at home and suffer more severe injuries. And almost everywhere, the representation of women in politics and in senior managerial positions in business remains far lower than that of men.
Understanding which of these gaps respond to economic development and why they do so is relevant to policy because it helps shines the light on the gender gaps that need attention. The disparities between men and women or girls and boys that shrinks as countries get richer, differences in access to education for example need less policy attention through gender, less than those that are more persistent, such as differences in wages, Agricultural productivity and societal voice.
The reverse relationship- from gender equality to community development- also matters for policy for two reasons. First, gender equality matters in its own rights, because of the ability to live the life of one’s own choosing and be spared from absolute deprivation is a basic human right, to be enjoyed by everyone, whether one is male or female.
Because development is a process of expanding freedoms for all people, gender equality is core objective itself. Just as lower income, poverty, and greater access to justice is part of community development, so too is the narrowing of gap in well-being between males and female.
Second, greater gender equality can enhance economic efficiency and improve other development outcomes. Evidence from growing set of micro-economic studies points to three main channels for greater gender equality to promote growth in the following manner.
Gender equality can have a large impact on productivity, especially with women now representing large shares of the world’s workforce and university graduates. For countries to be performing at their potentials the skills and talents of these women should be applied to activities that make best use of those abilities.
But this is not always the case. Women’s labour is too often underused or miss-allocated because they face discrimination in markets or social institutions that prevent them from having access to productive inputs and earning the same incomes as men. The consequence economic losses.
The food and Agriculture Organization estimates that equalizing access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase Agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5 to 4 percent. Since women in these regions produce between 60-80 percent of food crops, yet continue to face social barriers and inequalities that prevent them from realizing their full economic potential, which is diversely affecting the economic growth of the country and development. Eliminating barriers preventing women from entering certain sectors or occupations would have similar positive effect, increasing output per worker by 13 to 25 percent.
These gains are large in the 21-century’s integrated and competitive world, where even modest improvements in efficiency of resources use can have significant effects on growth. In a world of open trade, gender inequality has become costlier because it diminishes a country ability to compete internationally-particularly if the country specializing in exporting goods and services that men and women workers are equally suited to produce.
Industries that rely more on female labour expand more in countries where women and men are more equal. In a globalized world, then, countries that reduce gender-based inequalities, especially in secondary and tertiary education and in economic participation, will have a clear advantage over those that delay action.
The rapid aging of the world’s population implies that fewer workers will be supporting growing numbers of elderly in decades to come, unless labour participation increases significantly among the groups that participate less today – mainly women.
In developing countries and regions with rapid aging demographic structures like China and Eastern Europe, encouraging women to enter and remain in the labour force can dampen the impact of shrinking working-age populations.
Women’s economic empowerment and greater control of resources also increases investments in children’s education, health and nutrition, boosting future economic growth. Evidence from a range of countries such as South Africa and Brazil shows that increasing the share of the households that women control, either through their own earnings or cash transfers changes spending in ways that benefit children.
Improvement in women’s health and education can also benefit the next generation. Better nutritional status and higher education levels of mothers are associated with better child health outcomes- from immunization rates, to nutrition, to child mortality. Mother’s schooling is positively linked to children is educational attainment across a broad set of countries. In Pakistan, children whose mothers have a single year of education spend extra hour studying at home every day and receive higher test scores.
Women’s lack agency – evidence is domestic violence has consequences for the children cognitive behaviour, and health as adults. Medical research from developed countries has established a link between exposure to domestic violence in childhood and health problems in adulthood.
Numerous studies also document how witnessing violence between one’s parents as a child increases the likelihood that women experience violence from their own partners as adult and that men penetrate violence against their partners.
Across countries and cultures, men and women differ in agency- that is, ability to make choices that lead to desired outcomes- with women usually at a disadvantage. When women and men do not have equal chances to be socially and politically active and to influence laws politics and policy making – institutions and policies are more likely to systematically favour the interests of those with more influence. So, the institutional constraints and markets failures that feed gender inequalities are less likely to be addressed and corrected, perpetuating gender inequality over generations.
Women’s collective agency can be transformative for society as a whole. Empowering women as political and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of arrange of voices. Female suffrage in the United States led policy makers to turn their attention to child and maternal health and helped lower infant mortality by 8-15 percent.
Several studies have also examined the relationship between gender equality and economic growth at aggregate level. Using cross-country data. It provides considerable evidence that gender equality matters for many aspects of growth.

Things have changed for better but not for all women, and not in all domains of gender equality. Progress has been slow and limited for women in every poor country, for those who are poor a mid greater wealth, and for those who face other forms of exclusion because of their disability, ethnicity and sex orientation. Whether companions between men and women in the same countries, the progress in some domains is tempered by the sobering realities that many women face in others as discussed below.
Severely disadvantaged population: a cross and within countries, gender gaps widen at lower incomes and in the poorest economies, gender gaps are larger. The benefits of economic growth have not occurred equally to all men and all women for some parts of the society.
Household poverty can mute the impact of national development and the differences are often compounded by other means of social exclusion, such as geography and ethnicity.
Sticky domains: improvements in some domains of gender equality- such as those related to occupational differences or participation in policy making -are bound by constraints that do not shift with economic growth and development.
Gender disparities endure even in high-income economies despite the large gains in women’s civil and economic rights in the past century. These outcomes are as a result of slow- moving institutional dynamics and deep structural factors that growth alone cannot address.
Reversals: external shocks-sometimes economic, sometimes political, sometimes institutional – can erase hard -earned gains. In some instances, improvements in gender equality have been reversed in the face of unexpected shock that revealed or worsened institutional or market failures. The shock affect both males and females, but multiple factors shape their impact on gender differentials – among them, the source and type of shock, economic and institutional structures and social norms.
Even when the shocks do not have differential gender impacts, the absolute welfare losses for both men and women can be substantial. In particular, adverse circumstances early in life, as in the critical first three years, can have irreversible long-term effects.
Less voice and less power: some domains of gender equality where progress has been slowest fall in the domain of women’s agency- women’s ability to make decisions about earned income or family spending reflect. Their control over their own lives and immediate environment, trends in domestic violence capture intra-household gender dynamics and asymmetric power relations between men and women and pattern in political voice can measure inclusiveness in decision making, exercise of leadership and access to power.
Less control over resources: many women have no say over household finances, even their own earnings. The demographic health survey shows that women in rural areas are not involved in household decisions about spending their personal earned income.
Less control over the resources and spending is partly are flection of large differences between men and women in the assets they own. In many communities in Kenya, land ownership remains a restricted to men only. Customary laws disadvantage women in land ownership, and they can only acquire land through marriage. Marriage is the most avenue to women to own land, but husbands usually own it, while wives only have acclaim to its use.
While the property rights for women have slowly begun to improve in Kenya, legislation has often proved insufficient to change observed practices.

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A bouzahr, Carla 2003, Global Durden of maternal death and disability- British Medical Bulletin 67.
Allandrf, Keera 2007, Do women’s land rights promote empowerment and child health in Nepal.
Baird , Sarah, Jed Friedman and Norbert Schady 2007, Aggregate income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing world.
Benneria, Lourdes, 2005, Changing employment patterns and the information of jobs.
Deere , Carmen Diana and Cheryl R, Doss 2006, gender and the distribution of wealth in developing countries.
Baniera ,Oriana, and Ashwimi 2011, does gender inequality hinder growth?
Makinsey and Company Inc 2007, Women matters- Gender diversity, A corporate performance driver.
Thomas, Duncan 1990, Intra-household Resources allocation.
World Economic Forum 2010, Global gender gap report.
World development report 2012


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