Introduction:

Solar energy starts with the sun. Sunlight based boards (otherwise called “PV boards”) are utilized to change over light from the sun, or, in other words particles of vitality called “photons”, into power that can be utilized to control electrical burdens. Sunlight based boards can be utilized for a wide assortment of utilizations including remote power frameworks for lodges, media communications gear, remote detecting, and obviously for the generation of power by private and business sun powered electric frameworks. Utilizing sunlight based boards is an extremely useful approach to deliver power for some applications. The conspicuous would need to be off-lattice living. Living off-matrix implies living in an area that isn’t adjusted by the fundamental electric utility framework. Remote homes and lodges advantage pleasantly from sun based power frameworks. Never again is it important to pay enormous expenses for the establishment of electric utility shafts and cabling from the closest primary network passageway. A sun based electric framework is conceivably more affordable and can give capacity to upwards of three decades if legitimately kept up.
Benefits:
Other than the way that sun oriented boards make it conceivable to live off-lattice, maybe the best advantage that you would appreciate from the utilization of sunlight based power is that it is both a clean and an inexhaustible wellspring of vitality. With the appearance of worldwide environmental change, it has turned out to be more critical that we do whatever we can to decrease the weight on our air from the discharge of ozone depleting substances. Sunlight based boards have no moving parts and require little support. They are roughly fabricated and keep going for quite a long time when properly kept up.

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Last, however not minimum, of the advantages of sun oriented boards and sun powered power is that, when a framework has paid for its underlying establishment costs, the power it produces for the rest of the framework’s life expectancy, which could be as much as 15-20 years relying upon the nature of the framework, is totally free! For framework tie sunlight based power framework proprietors, the advantages start from the minute the framework comes on the web, possibly wiping out month to month electric bills or, and this is the best part, really winning the framework’s proprietor extra wage from the electric organization. How? On the off chance that you utilize less power than your sun oriented electric framework delivers, that overabundance power can be sold, some of the time at a premium, to your electric service organization!

There are numerous different applications and advantages of utilizing sun oriented boards to produce your power needs – beyond any reasonable amount to list here. Be that as it may, as you peruse our site, you’ll gain a decent broad learning of exactly how adaptable and helpful sunlight based power can be.
Watch that the sun oriented cluster isn’t being shaded somewhere in the range of 9am and 3pm by vegetation or building structures. Trim vegetation if vital. • Visually assess the sun based exhibit starting from the earliest stage harm. Sun oriented modules have a defensive glass front that can part from over the top stacking (more noteworthy then 50 pounds for every square foot), from hail (more prominent then 1″ going at 50 MPH), or from different causes, for example, vandalism. At the point when the glass breaks the module will commonly appear to be unique than the other sun based modules. Whenever broken glass is found, call for administration promptly and kill your framework.
Optional:
• Check solar array glass surface for debris, dirt, or severe soiling from bird droppings. It is not necessary to clean the module glass, as seasonal rains should wash away most normal soiling, but you may choose to do so.
• To clean module surfaces. First verify there are no broken solar modules in your array. Then remain on the ground and spray the glass with water from a hose.
Safety measures:
• DO NOT clean during the middle of the day when the glass is hot. The thermal shock of cold water on hot, tempered glass could shatter the glass.
• Clean only at dawn or dusk when the module glass is cool. Solar modules have a protective glass front. Broken solar module glass is an electrical safety hazard (electric shock and fire). These modules cannot be repaired and must be replaced immediately. If you have a broken module turn your system off.
• DO NOT clean the solar modules if your inverter reads a “Ground Fault Error”. Call for service immediately if the inverter indicates a Ground Fault Error. Refer to the inverter manual for additional details.
WARNING WARNINGS WARNING
• Annual Service should be performed by qualified service personnel only!
• Check all solar array wiring to confirm no loose connections or insulation wear.
• Check all module mounting to confirm all bolting is secure. Power Electronics.
• Check all wiring to confirm no loose connections or insulation wear

Solar Panel Installation Guide: the 5 Step Process
In excess of a million homes have officially gone sunlight based in the U.S., and numerous more mortgage holders are thinking about introducing sun powered. In case you’re in the market for sunlight based, you most likely need to realize what really occurs amid a sun oriented board establishment. There are five major advances that need to occur after you sign your sun oriented contract before the sun oriented boards on your rooftop can really control your home, and a ton of it is off camera. To demonstrate to you what you can expect, we’ve sketched out a basic five-advance guide for the average sunlight based establishment process. It’s in every case great to begin with a wide diagram. How to introduce sun based boards well ordered: what is associated with the sunlight based board establishment process? Introducing sun based boards doesn’t occur incidentally – there’s a procedure for what requirements to happen to prepare your boards to start controlling your home. Generally speaking, from the day you sign your agreement with your installer, it will commonly take somewhere in the range of one and three months previously your sun powered boards are lattice associated and delivering vitality for your home. We’ve delineated the five-advance sunlight based board establishment direct underneath:
1. Engineering site visit: the first step to getting your solar system installed:
After you sign your sun oriented contract (regardless of whether it be a rent, advance, money buy or influence buy assention), a designer will stop by your property to assess the electrical status of your home and guarantee everything is good with your new vitality framework. This architect will ordinarily work specifically for your installer, yet could likewise be an autonomous supplier shrunk by your installer. You can expect the designing site visit to happen not long after subsequent to marking with your installer. Amid the visit, the architect will assess the state of your rooftop to guarantee that it’s fundamentally solid. He or she will likewise take a gander at your electrical board – the dim box in your cellar – to check whether you’ll have to redesign it. On the off chance that you get notification from an installer that they have to redesign the electrical board that implies that your new sun powered boards will require more amps of flow and the ampere limit of your electrical box should increment. It ought to be noticed that this architect visit is not quite the same as a general site visit which is the point at which an installer assesses your property to consider framework estimate, rooftop compose, edge of rooftop, shading, and so on before any agreement is agreed upon. Furthermore, however a designer will normally stop by, at times the installer can take photographs of the property and direct their own estimations of the rooftop and the specialist will approve of closing down without doing his or her very own visit.

2. Allows and archives: the calculated printed material required for your sun powered board establishment:

Similarly as with any enormous monetary choice, introducing sunlight based boards includes a considerable measure of printed material. Fortunately, a large portion of this printed material is managed by the installer – in any case, it’s dependably a smart thought to realize what’s happening off camera of your sun powered establishment. One of the primary things you’ll be applying for will be state and bureaucratic sunlight based motivations, for example, the administrative ITC, neighborhood sun powered projects, clean vitality financing activities like PACE, government refunds and sun oriented sustainable power source declarations (SRECs). Notwithstanding applying for motivators, you should round out other printed material like building grants. These licenses are particular to where you live. For instance, certain states necessitate that a rooftop has three feet of clear space encompassing the sunlight based boards, while different zones of the U.S. will enable you to introduce boards over the whole surface of your rooftop. Your installer will know the limitations and prerequisites of the states in which they work, and can enable you to make sense of which grants you require – as a rule, the installer will round out this printed material for you. The time allotment for this progression is for the most part subject to what extent it takes your installer to get everything completed and submitted. In case you’re anxious to get your board framework up and running instantly, simply make a point to catch up with your installer to keep an eye on the advancement of your printed material.

3. Requesting hardware: picking the boards and inverters and getting your sun powered board establishment booked:

Now that you’re set up with the best possible printed material, your installer will be prepared to put in a gear request through their essential wholesaler. Now, you will have effectively settled on the gear your framework will incorporate – that choice happens before the agreement sign. In any case, in case you’re searching for counsel on gear determination, here are a few interesting points. The two essential parts you’ll have to assess for your framework are sun oriented boards and inverters. Your installer will probably prescribe a specific brand for each, and will also offer a couple of options. Strength, proficiency and style are the essential factors most property holders will use to analyze the different brands (other than cost). To be sure that you’ve picked the correct gear for your framework, invest some energy investigating microinverters versus string inverters versus control streamlining agents and investigate the best-appraised sun oriented boards available. Assessing your hardware choices can enable you to feel arranged for the requesting and shipment phase of the sun powered board establishment process. When the gear requesting process is finished, your property is added to your installer’s line. Your gear (boards and inverters) will probably touch base upon the arrival of your establishment, which can happen at whatever point your printed material is affirmed (ordinarily inside one to two months). Time until the point that introduce additionally relies upon what number of tasks your installer has in their line. On the off chance that conceivable, attempt to complete your sun based establishment in the winter when sun powered organizations aren’t as occupied.

INTRODUCTION:
According to Merriam Webster online Dictionary (2009) methodology is the analysis of the principle of methods, rules and postulates employed by a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedure. The systematic study of method that are, can be or have been applied within a discipline. The chapter research methodology describe the methodological approaches employed to test research hypothesis, the discussion is mainly focused on various aspects such a study design. Selection criteria for respondents, study sites, sampling procedures, and simple size, construction of measuring instruments, pilot study or pre- testing and measures adopted during development of questionnaire and statistical techniques used for data analysis such as uni- vitiate and bivariate analysis, chi square, gamma analysis are discussed.
UNIVERSE:
“Any set of individual or object having some common observable characteristics constitute a population or universe” (Dixon and Marry, 1957). Universe is any set of individual or a subjects having common observable characteristics constitute a population or universe..
THE SAMPLE:
A sample is any subset of units form a population. A subset is any combination of sampling units that does not include the entire set of sampling sampling units. That has been defined as the population. A sample may be one sampling unit, all but one sampling unit, or any number in between (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1992). The factors of time cost and physical limitations usually play an important role in social researches. Therefore it is more economical and efficient to base studies on simples rather to study the entire universe
ossible technical modification in it, Experts’ viewpoint regarding the questionnaire ensure its content validity (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1192).

ANALYSIS:
Quantitative data was analyzed through various statistics techniques. In univariate/ descriptive and bivariate techniques. In univariate analysis such as frequency, percentage and measures of central tendency (mean, standard devotion) were used to describe the data. In bivariate analysis, relationship among different variable was examined through applying chi- square and gamma tests. The relative important of independent variable in explaining dependent variable was based upon multivariate analysis.
USE OF SPSS
This revolutionary statistics analytical software system was called SPSS that stood for the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Nie, Hull and Bent (1968) developed SPSS out of the need to quickly analysis volumes of the social science data gathered through various methods of research techniques. The SPSS was used first time at Stanford University.
SPSS is the one of the most widely used software packages in the world of social sciences. It has been very crucial in facilitating the data of research using individuals as well as discrete units of analysis (Wellman, 1998). Father it is clear that SPSS technology has made difficult analytical targets easier by advances in usability and so data access and also enabling the researchers to benefit from the use of quantitative techniques in making decisions. It helps researcher to input the data on computer and can serve time from the laborious and exhaustive of an analysis.

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Univariate Analysis
It is defined as method for analyzing data on a single variable at a time. In univaraite analysis, each variable in any data set is explored separately. It also at the range of the values but as well as the central tendency measures of the values. It describe the pattern and tend of response to the variable, also describes the variable on its own. Descriptive/ univariate statistics interpret and summarize data also it describes individual variables.
Frequency distribution of different variables (Nominal variables Ordinal variables and interval variables) is done by identifying the lowest and highest values of the variable and then putting all the values of the variables in order form lowest to highest. Further, count the number of appearance of every values of the variable. It is a count of the frequency distribution with which each values occurs in the set of data. Frequencies distribution can also be presented in the form of percentage distributions and cumulative percentages. Descriptive data can be presented graphing, is a way of visual presenting of the data. Some researchers grasp the information into graphical form but it can be presented in a text format.
MEAN
The mean is the most familiar average. It is defined as a obtained by dividing the sum of the all the observations. The mean gives indication of the magnitude of the observed values. The mean is usually denoted by placing a bar over the symbol used to represent the observation or the variable (Chaudhary, 1984). The mean was calculated with the following formula:-

?x
X=
N
Where
X = the sum mean of a sample of size
? = Sum of observation
X =the responses obtained by all the respondents in a sample
N = Sample size
Bivariate Analysis:
Bivariate analysis is applied to see the relationship/association between the two variables. It is explained in other words, which is explained by one variable is pattern in such a manner that is variables is not randomly distributed in connection with the other variables. Bivariate analysis was used to find out association of socio economic characteristics and the respondents and their decision making power. In its general form, relationship simply refers to the degree to which it because easier to predict value for the predict variables if one knows case’s value on the independent variable. This measure of association helps to understand relationship. Chi- square and gamma statistics were used to check the association and testing hypotheses of association and causality as well.
Chi –Square Test:
Chi-square these is depended by symbol x2Chi–square is defined as, a statistical test used to compare the observed with frequencies with expected frequencies, it would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis also to determine the degree of independence (Fisher, 1928). One of the most general and useful way to observe the information about the social globe in the set-up of the table, there are many ways to show information related to their question. The formula for calculating chi-square (X2) is:

X2 = ?(fo-fe)2 /fe

Chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed (fo) and the expected (fe) frequency (data) (or the deviation, d) and divided by the expected frequency in all possible categories. ?- capital sigma tells to compute the fractions for every cell and then sum over all cells to get x2. The following steps are involved to computer the chi-square:
i. To find out the difference between each observed frequency and the correspondence expected frequency for each cell in the table.
ii. Square for each difference.
iii. Divided each squared different by the respective frequency.
iv. Add the resulting division.
There are certain assumption of chi-square. At first, data is random sample of population, secondly data on nominal, ordinal. Thirdly there is not any expected frequency less than 5 and at lastly there is not any empty cell in frequency.
Gamma Statistics:
Gamma test is defined as, the strength of association/relationship of the crosstabulated data when two variables are being measured at the ordinal level of measurement (Sheskin, 2007) there values range from -1 means (100 percent negative association), or (perfect) to +1 means (100 percent positive association), or (perfect agreement), and value of zero shows the absence of association in the variables. This test is also known as Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma test). It’s very close to Someres’D and to Kendall’s tau.
In descriptive statistics, Gamma test statistic is an index of association between two variables which measure on ordinal levels, Suppose, if two pairs of scores are examined, they must either be concordant, in the sense that the one ranked higher than the order on the first variable is also ranked higher than the other on the second variable, or discordant,

The value of a gamma test statistic, (T) depends on two quantities:

Gamma = Ns – Nd
Ns + Nd

Formula shows that the size and the direction of gamma whether its positive, are functions of the relative number of same order as (Ns), versus order (Nd) pairs. However, more Ns pairs make the gamma positive and more Nd pairs make gamma negative and the larger the difference between Ns and Nd, the largest the size of the coefficient (irrespective of sign).

Ns, the number of pairs of cases ranked in the same order on both variables (member of concordant pairs),
Ns, the number of pairs of cases ranked differently on the variables (number of discordant pairs).
Gamma indicates the results in follow

i Gamma = Ns – 0 = 1.0
Ns + 0

A gamma of 1.0 indicates that the relationship between the variable is positive, and the dependent variable. When Ns is zero, gamma will be -1.0 indicating a perfect and a negative association between the variables

ii Gamma 0 – Nd
0 + Nd = -1.0
When Ns= Nd, gamma will equal zero:

iii Gamma = Ns – Nd = 0 = 0.0
Ns + Nd Ns + Nd

A gamma of zero reflect no association between the two variables; hence there is nothing to be gained by using the variables to predict order the dependent variable

x

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