Solar energy starts with the sun. Sunlight based boards (otherwise called “PV boards”) are utilized to change over light from the sun, or, in other words particles of vitality called “photons”, into power that can be utilized to control electrical burdens. Sunlight based boards can be utilized for a wide assortment of utilizations including remote power frameworks for lodges, media communications gear, remote detecting, and obviously for the generation of power by private and business sun powered electric frameworks. Utilizing sunlight based boards is an extremely useful approach to deliver power for some applications. The conspicuous would need to be off-lattice living. Living off-matrix implies living in an area that isn’t adjusted by the fundamental electric utility framework. Remote homes and lodges advantage pleasantly from sun based power frameworks. Never again is it important to pay enormous expenses for the establishment of electric utility shafts and cabling from the closest primary network passageway. A sun based electric framework is conceivably more affordable and can give capacity to upwards of three decades if legitimately kept up.
Other than the way that sun oriented boards make it conceivable to live off-lattice, maybe the best advantage that you would appreciate from the utilization of sunlight based power is that it is both a clean and an inexhaustible wellspring of vitality. With the appearance of worldwide environmental change, it has turned out to be more critical that we do whatever we can to decrease the weight on our air from the discharge of ozone depleting substances. Sunlight based boards have no moving parts and require little support. They are roughly fabricated and keep going for quite a long time when properly kept up.

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Last, however not minimum, of the advantages of sun oriented boards and sun powered power is that, when a framework has paid for its underlying establishment costs, the power it produces for the rest of the framework’s life expectancy, which could be as much as 15-20 years relying upon the nature of the framework, is totally free! For framework tie sunlight based power framework proprietors, the advantages start from the minute the framework comes on the web, possibly wiping out month to month electric bills or, and this is the best part, really winning the framework’s proprietor extra wage from the electric organization. How? On the off chance that you utilize less power than your sun oriented electric framework delivers, that overabundance power can be sold, some of the time at a premium, to your electric service organization!

There are numerous different applications and advantages of utilizing sun oriented boards to produce your power needs – beyond any reasonable amount to list here. Be that as it may, as you peruse our site, you’ll gain a decent broad learning of exactly how adaptable and helpful sunlight based power can be.
Watch that the sun oriented cluster isn’t being shaded somewhere in the range of 9am and 3pm by vegetation or building structures. Trim vegetation if vital. • Visually assess the sun based exhibit starting from the earliest stage harm. Sun oriented modules have a defensive glass front that can part from over the top stacking (more noteworthy then 50 pounds for every square foot), from hail (more prominent then 1″ going at 50 MPH), or from different causes, for example, vandalism. At the point when the glass breaks the module will commonly appear to be unique than the other sun based modules. Whenever broken glass is found, call for administration promptly and kill your framework.
• Check solar array glass surface for debris, dirt, or severe soiling from bird droppings. It is not necessary to clean the module glass, as seasonal rains should wash away most normal soiling, but you may choose to do so.
• To clean module surfaces. First verify there are no broken solar modules in your array. Then remain on the ground and spray the glass with water from a hose.
Safety measures:
• DO NOT clean during the middle of the day when the glass is hot. The thermal shock of cold water on hot, tempered glass could shatter the glass.
• Clean only at dawn or dusk when the module glass is cool. Solar modules have a protective glass front. Broken solar module glass is an electrical safety hazard (electric shock and fire). These modules cannot be repaired and must be replaced immediately. If you have a broken module turn your system off.
• DO NOT clean the solar modules if your inverter reads a “Ground Fault Error”. Call for service immediately if the inverter indicates a Ground Fault Error. Refer to the inverter manual for additional details.
• Annual Service should be performed by qualified service personnel only!
• Check all solar array wiring to confirm no loose connections or insulation wear.
• Check all module mounting to confirm all bolting is secure. Power Electronics.
• Check all wiring to confirm no loose connections or insulation wear

Solar Panel Installation Guide: the 5 Step Process
In excess of a million homes have officially gone sunlight based in the U.S., and numerous more mortgage holders are thinking about introducing sun powered. In case you’re in the market for sunlight based, you most likely need to realize what really occurs amid a sun oriented board establishment. There are five major advances that need to occur after you sign your sun oriented contract before the sun oriented boards on your rooftop can really control your home, and a ton of it is off camera. To demonstrate to you what you can expect, we’ve sketched out a basic five-advance guide for the average sunlight based establishment process. It’s in every case great to begin with a wide diagram. How to introduce sun based boards well ordered: what is associated with the sunlight based board establishment process? Introducing sun based boards doesn’t occur incidentally – there’s a procedure for what requirements to happen to prepare your boards to start controlling your home. Generally speaking, from the day you sign your agreement with your installer, it will commonly take somewhere in the range of one and three months previously your sun powered boards are lattice associated and delivering vitality for your home. We’ve delineated the five-advance sunlight based board establishment direct underneath:
1. Engineering site visit: the first step to getting your solar system installed:
After you sign your sun oriented contract (regardless of whether it be a rent, advance, money buy or influence buy assention), a designer will stop by your property to assess the electrical status of your home and guarantee everything is good with your new vitality framework. This architect will ordinarily work specifically for your installer, yet could likewise be an autonomous supplier shrunk by your installer. You can expect the designing site visit to happen not long after subsequent to marking with your installer. Amid the visit, the architect will assess the state of your rooftop to guarantee that it’s fundamentally solid. He or she will likewise take a gander at your electrical board – the dim box in your cellar – to check whether you’ll have to redesign it. On the off chance that you get notification from an installer that they have to redesign the electrical board that implies that your new sun powered boards will require more amps of flow and the ampere limit of your electrical box should increment. It ought to be noticed that this architect visit is not quite the same as a general site visit which is the point at which an installer assesses your property to consider framework estimate, rooftop compose, edge of rooftop, shading, and so on before any agreement is agreed upon. Furthermore, however a designer will normally stop by, at times the installer can take photographs of the property and direct their own estimations of the rooftop and the specialist will approve of closing down without doing his or her very own visit.

2. Allows and archives: the calculated printed material required for your sun powered board establishment:

Similarly as with any enormous monetary choice, introducing sunlight based boards includes a considerable measure of printed material. Fortunately, a large portion of this printed material is managed by the installer – in any case, it’s dependably a smart thought to realize what’s happening off camera of your sun powered establishment. One of the primary things you’ll be applying for will be state and bureaucratic sunlight based motivations, for example, the administrative ITC, neighborhood sun powered projects, clean vitality financing activities like PACE, government refunds and sun oriented sustainable power source declarations (SRECs). Notwithstanding applying for motivators, you should round out other printed material like building grants. These licenses are particular to where you live. For instance, certain states necessitate that a rooftop has three feet of clear space encompassing the sunlight based boards, while different zones of the U.S. will enable you to introduce boards over the whole surface of your rooftop. Your installer will know the limitations and prerequisites of the states in which they work, and can enable you to make sense of which grants you require – as a rule, the installer will round out this printed material for you. The time allotment for this progression is for the most part subject to what extent it takes your installer to get everything completed and submitted. In case you’re anxious to get your board framework up and running instantly, simply make a point to catch up with your installer to keep an eye on the advancement of your printed material.

3. Requesting hardware: picking the boards and inverters and getting your sun powered board establishment booked:

Now that you’re set up with the best possible printed material, your installer will be prepared to put in a gear request through their essential wholesaler. Now, you will have effectively settled on the gear your framework will incorporate – that choice happens before the agreement sign. In any case, in case you’re searching for counsel on gear determination, here are a few interesting points. The two essential parts you’ll have to assess for your framework are sun oriented boards and inverters. Your installer will probably prescribe a specific brand for each, and will also offer a couple of options. Strength, proficiency and style are the essential factors most property holders will use to analyze the different brands (other than cost). To be sure that you’ve picked the correct gear for your framework, invest some energy investigating microinverters versus string inverters versus control streamlining agents and investigate the best-appraised sun oriented boards available. Assessing your hardware choices can enable you to feel arranged for the requesting and shipment phase of the sun powered board establishment process. When the gear requesting process is finished, your property is added to your installer’s line. Your gear (boards and inverters) will probably touch base upon the arrival of your establishment, which can happen at whatever point your printed material is affirmed (ordinarily inside one to two months). Time until the point that introduce additionally relies upon what number of tasks your installer has in their line. On the off chance that conceivable, attempt to complete your sun based establishment in the winter when sun powered organizations aren’t as occupied.

Automatic Image Caption Generation is considered as one of the challenging research fields in Artificial Intelligence. The main task in Image caption generation is to take an image, analyze its visual content and then generate a textual description accordingly. Since this field needs both visual and textual understanding, it combines both Computer Vision (CV) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques 1.For the past five years until now, Automatic Image Caption Generation has been an area of interest for many researchers, since it has many useful applications based on image captions such as classifying images in separate albums, filtering harmful or violence images for kids, detecting cyberbullying from images, recognizing interest of people in social media platforms based posted images and much more. In this survey, we discuss the three main approaches used in automatic image caption generation in early work and recent work, and highlight their advantages and disadvantages.

Related Work:
Many papers were proposed to discuss different image caption generation approaches. We summarize the three main approaches in the below diagram, with the focus on the third approach, which is the recent work in the field.

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• Template based:
In Template based approach, automatic image caption generation follows a standard pipeline. First, computer vision techniques are used to extract the visual contents in the image such as objects, scenes and actions. Then, the generated words from the first step are combined to form a full sentence using NLP techniques (grammar rules, n-grams, etc.). Kulkarni et al 2 used CV techniques to extract the image attribute tuples (object, visual attribute, spatial relationships), and then the generated words are combined using n-gram based language models to get the final sentence. Elliott and Keller 3 made an explicit use of the image structure instead of using the image attributes like Kulkarni. They created a visual dependency representation(VDR) graph of the image to give a meaningful relationship between each region in the image. Template based image caption generation results in a correct and relevant sentence, since it highly depends on the visual contents. However, the approach is strictly constrained to the contents of the image, which will not give us any complex- generated sentences or understands the context of the image, and therefore it makes the generated sentence too simple and less natural than the human’s sentence.
• Retrieval Based:
This approach states that, given a query image, the caption is generated by retrieving one or a set of sentences that are pre-defined by humans. Ordonez et al. 4 proposed IM2TEXTMODEL, which retrieves a matching set of images to the query image from a web scale captioned collection, then they extract high level information about image content to perform re-ranking for the images and finally, choose the top four associated captions. Mason and Charniak’s approach 5 solves the problem in Ordonez’s approach of having noisy estimations of the visual content and poor alignment between images, by doing the re-ranking based on textual information. Retrieval based image caption generation usually results in a grammatically correct and fluent phrase, since the output depends on human-written sentences. However, using this approach will require large amount of training data so it can generate the correct relevant description. Also, this approach can’t adapt to new combination of objects that does not exist in the training set, and may result in irrelevant caption generation.

• Deep Neural Network based
The first two approaches were proposed in early work for image caption generation. However, recent work relies mostly on the concept of Deep Neural Networks (DNN). There are many approaches used in DNN , we mention here some of the important ones.

o DNN based on Multimodal training
In this approach, both visual and textual data are used for training the model. Therefore, for any
given image query, the representation of image-description is used to perform cross-modal retrieval. The approach first extracts the image features using a feature extractor , then these features are fed into a Neural Language model in order to predict the words. Kiros et al. 6 have used the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract the features of the image, then, Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) language model is used to train the model to generate the next word based on the previous words and image features. The used approach thereby is considered as a language-visual model(multi-modal).

o Retrieval based approach Augmented by DNN
This approach uses the method of Retrieval based and utilizes the use of Neural Networks to extract features from the images and generate phrases. Socher et.a 7 used a Deep Neural Network as a visual model to extract the features from images, and a Dependency Tree Recursive Neural Network (DT-RNN) as a compositional vector .After getting the multi-modal features, they are mapped into a common space to finally generate the caption. Karpathy et al. 8 then improved the sentence retrieval performance obtained in Socher’s paper, by using the fragments of images and sentence in mapping instead of mapping the entire image and sentence.

o Based on Encoder- Decoder framework
An Encoder – Decoder framework in neural network encodes an image into an intermediate representation, and then a decoder RNN takes the intermediate representation as input and generates a phrase word by word. Vinyals9 et al. used CNN to encode image features, and Long Short Term Memory RNN to decode the image features into sentences. Donahue 10 created a model that feeds the system both image and word features at each stage, making their model more flexible than Vinyal’s to be applied to a variety of vision tasks involving sequential inputs and outputs.
DNN provides a better understanding of the image and more realistic phrase generation than the template and retrieval based. It also does not depend on any existing sentences or images unlike early approaches.

In this survey, we have summarized the three main approaches used in image caption generation and highlighted their advantages and advantages. We conclude that using the Deep Neural Networks approach is the most efficient way to produce captions for the images, since it uses Deep learning algorithms to extract the features from the image and in generating the phrases. Most of the proposed research papers in this field involves generating a single language caption only. Therefore, generating multilingual captions for the image can be considered as one of the future directions for this research. Generating Arabic captions for the images can be also considered, since most of the papers proposed are for generating English captions only.

This paper will give summary of what de Gruchy talks about in his book “A Theological Odyssey”, and critically engage some of the themes that are highlighted on the summary not all of the themes will be engage on this paper.
John de Gruchy in this book “A Theological Odyssey” the esteemed South African theologian takes us on a journey through his life as a theologian. This is a book that traces his own growth and understanding of the formative role that theology could play in the church but especially in society as a whole in spite of different and changing historical contexts. With the celebration of his 75th birthday in 2014 this book forms part of a celebration and recognition of his creative output through the years amidst the lean and better times of the country and church of his lifetime (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 1).
In his prologue John de Gruchy introduces himself as theologian who realizes that theology is about more than writing books, de Gruchy argues that (2014, p. 2), “Doing theology is about more than thinking great thoughts or writing books and learned articles, it is a way of being in the world, of engaging reality, an on-going quest, a form of prayer, a performance located in a particular time and space, and shared with fellow travellers”. In a creative and honest manner all these distinctions are found in the different chapters, in which he reworked the main themes of his own theological history. These themes are The Church Struggle; Doing Theology in Context; In Dialogue with Dietrich Bonhoeffer; Liberating Reformed Theology; Democracy, Reconciliation and Restoring Justice; Christianity, Art and Transformation; Confessions of a Christian Humanist; Led into Mystery. At the end of each chapter there is a bibliography, which can help the reader to pursue some of de Gruchy’s theological insights further.
What intrigues in reading these chapters is John de Gruchy’s understanding of theology as something alive and never stagnant. A theology that is constantly in dialogue with the context: “Studying theology is a necessary and important academic activity in which we engage as we explore and excavate tradition, doing theology is a faith practice, a committed engagement, a way of being, a passion, a contemporary and existential engagement with the gospel in the world of daily reality” (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 39). His theology then also flows from the interaction with his conversation partners, living and dead: From Calvin to Bonhoeffer, from modern science to his own late son Steve.
The Chapter on the “Church Struggle” is full of important historical background, which forms the context for “Doing Theology in Context”. The history is presented from his own experience and participation. It is from this context that Bonhoeffer and Mandela’s legacy is looked at in Chapter 3, and questions asked regarding the future of liberation? De Gruchy presents Bonhoeffer as his main conversation partner through the years in the formation of his own integral theology.
Especially important, for those from a Reformed background is the Chapter on the liberation dimension of Reformed Theology. Reformed theology has the potential for creating a just and compassionate society, for critical solidarity, if the proponents are honest and willing enough to retrieve and transform their own traditions. In Chapter 6 de Gruchy shares his own reflections on the importance of an aesthetic dimension in liturgy, the retrieving of symbols, the importance of worship and creativity: “Beauty as conveyed through the arts can become a way of encountering God” (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 121). The unleashing of artistic creativity helps us to reflect on the God of justice and peace. It reminds us that truth, goodness and beauty is integral to our living in this world in relationship with God.
In retrieving the reformed traditions de Gruchy opens up a whole new scope on understanding what it means to be reformed and how want can be Reformed and a humanist (chapter 7). His rethinking and tracing less well-known traditions of Christian humanism helps the reader to rethink the implication of justice and incarnation. To become truly human is a journey, which can erase divisions: “There is a profound sense of human solidarity and compassion that ignores the boundaries of religion and race, culture and country” (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 142).
In this “Odyssey” one does not only read about our history and the events of the past decades, one also reads about the play of beauty and tragedy in life. This book contains insights not just on the realities facing a democratic society but also the realness of sorrow and loss, which invites us into the mystery of God and life (Chapter 5, 8). In chapter 8 he invites us to places of imagination where our certainties, all of a sudden in the face of tragedy, loses its certainness: “The way of ‘unknowing’ begins when it dawns on us that God is beyond our knowing, and therefore that the answers to ultimate questions are also beyond our grasp” (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 153). One is not led into an understandable system but into mystery.

De Gruchy ends this “Odyssey” with reflections towards the future, looking at specific moments in the Western Cape welfare and rethinking global responsibility and resources for the future. He helps the reader to understand that gospel language, like “peace” is not a cliché but something that all are invited to strife and hope for.
De Gruchy’s education:
De Gruchy received an education to which only the white, privileged population of South Africa were entitled. He matriculated high school and began his undergraduate studies at Rhodes University from which he received his Bachelor of Arts, with Distinction and in 1960 he received his Bachelor of Divinity degree from Rhodes, having achieved First Class Honors. He was ordained to the ministry in the United Congregationalist Church in 1961, the same year he married Isobel Anita Dunstan. While serving a congregation in Durban in 1963 de Gruchy was awarded the World Council of Churches Fellowship which enabled him to spend one year at the Chicago Theological Seminary (de Gruchy, 2014, pp. 4-5). It was in Chicago Theological seminary that de Gruchy was able to attend lectures given by Paul Tillich. In his thesis de Gruchy used Tillich’s understanding of anxiety and the fear of change in Tillich’s “Courage to Be” (Tillich, 1980), to reflect on the South African Christian church but de Gruchy’s real interest was in Bonhoeffer and what he might have said regarding the church situation in South Africa. This growing interest in Bonhoeffer would eventually lead him to doctoral studies. The seeds of a rich theological career having been sown, de Gruchy left Chicago to return to South Africa with a Master of Theology degree having graduated Summa Cum Laude. Beginning in 1964, he worked for four years as a pastor in congregations in Durban and Johannesburg. In 1968 he began his doctoral studies at the University of South Africa where he set out to answer Bethge’s lectures at the University of Chicago in the early 60s on “The Challenge of Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s life and Theology” (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 5).

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Critically Engagement:
He resumed his duties as pastor in 1964 working in the mid-sized United Congregationalist church in Sea View, a town just outside Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape. It was during this time that de Gruchy befriended Christiaan Frederick Beyers Naudé, a minister in the DRC and the founding director of the Christian Institute (CI). With Naudé’s encouragement, de Gruchy joined the CI in 1965 having already contributed to Pro Veritate,13 the ecclesiastical newspaper started by Naudé in 1962. Pro Veritate provided a public voice for those wishing to express opinions and concerns regarding apartheid, especially those anti-apartheid activists worshipping and working in the mainline Christian churches. The paper was published from 1963 until 1977 when the CI was banned having been declared an ‘affected organization’ by the government. De Gruchy’s name appears for the first time on the masthead of Pro Veritate in October of 1966 where he is listed as a member of the editorial staff. His work on Pro Veritate was the beginning of a long publishing career. It is possible that, at this time, he began to understand the power of the published word to effect positive change in the Christian church. Before de Gruchy was known as a theologian, he had been an active participant in public protests and anti-apartheid demonstrations while a student at Rhodes University and subsequently as a pastor in the Congregationalist Church. He recounts two such events which illustrate his understanding of the strong connection between the Christian church and the anti-apartheid movement that began to grow in earnest during the 1960s.

One of these events was an anti-apartheid protest in the City Hall where he saw his own minister, Basil Brown, sitting on the stage. De Gruchy recalled this event forty-seven years later in his book Confessions of a Christian Humanist where he remembered “that this made a considerable impression on me. But it was at Rhodes University that political sensitivities were sharpened. I recall the first anti-apartheid protest march in which Isobel and I participated, along High Street in Grahamstown in 1959. Hewson, one of the most saintly people I have ever met (a true model of holiness) was among its leaders. Early the next year, on 21 March, the Sharpeville massacre sent shock waves around the country. That was a critical turning point for me as it was for many others, but few in the evangelical fundamentalist camp seemed to take much notice. Indeed, evangelical fundamentalists in South Africa refused to get involved in opposing apartheid, and many of them openly or tacitly supported it. Ideologically, they had identified themselves as right-wing supporters of the status quo” (de Gruchy, 2006, p. 74).
Protests and demonstrations provided a means of expressing the anger and frustration felt by those who lived under the deadening weight of apartheid’s legislation but they did not provide much opportunity for theological dialogue, at least not the kind de Gruchy envisioned. He was convinced that the clergy in the mainline churches were lacking in theological depth. He was also convinced that, if there were a proper mean of engaging in dialogue, the church struggle against apartheid could be more effective. Pro Veritate provided de Gruchy with a sense of the possibilities of theological engagement but he knew that this was not the newspaper’s primary purpose. He also knew that there was no adequate forum in South Africa where theologians could grapple with the pressing issues of the time. One such pressing issue was the conflict between certain Christian churches and the apartheid state which evolved into a situation where two formidable institutions became locked in a battle for truth and the imaginations of the people they claimed to serve. How did one talk about this with other theologians and church members? Pro Veritate was a newspaper focusing on news from the churches and about the churches in South Africa. It also provided a means by which news about critical issues regarding the church struggle against apartheid could be brought to the foreground and disseminated efficiently and inexpensively. It gave a public voice to the private longings and hopes of the lay and clergy who were associated with the CI but it was not the academic journal de Gruchy believed was necessary for the intellectual debate to flourish in South Africa. For the time being, he would find a theological and ecclesiastical path to walk with the South African Council of Churches.
The South African Council of Churches’ (SACC) subdued and unassuming entry onto the ecclesio-political playing field gave little hint as to its future role in the antiapartheid movement. As Bernard Spong wrote in his history of the SACC, it was a ‘quiet birth’. It came into being without a fanfare of trumpets or any special form of celebration. The event is simply recorded in the minutes of the seventeenth biennial meeting of the Christian Council of South Africa, held in the Observatory Congregational church in Cape Town on May 29, 1968. Spong commented on the event and includes the text of the minutes to bring attention to the contrast between the simplicity of the motion and the magnitude of the SACC’s influence in the church struggle. Spong wrote: “Name of the Council: It was agreed that the name of the Council should be changed to The South African Council of churches” (Spong; Mayson, 1993, p. 2). It was as important to the churches of South Africa as the later establishment of the World Council of Churches’ Program to Combat Racism was to the world church.

These were humble beginnings for an organization that enjoyed the leadership of people like Manas Buthelezi, Desmond Mpilo Tutu and Beyers Naudé and it would go on to be a unifying and powerful force against apartheid. The year 1967 and the birth of the SACC marks the beginning of new level of commitment on behalf of the participating churches in the struggle against apartheid. With its first publication, ‘A Message to the People of South Africa’, it declared itself to be a Christian voice speaking on behalf of the victims of apartheid, both black and white (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 22). The document received a mixed reaction from the participating churches in the SACC. Some of the churches felt that the Message went too far while others felt it did not go far enough. It is the sentence like the following that caught the attention of the government and Afrikaner churches as it seemed highly critical of the claim that God had somehow ordained apartheid and their way of life. De Gruchy notes that, “The central theme of the Message was the rejection of apartheid as a false gospel (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 22).
From gloomy beginnings, a champion of the people rose to meet the challenge of apartheid. In the same year de Gruchy moved with Isobel and their three young children to Johannesburg, leaving his congregational work to serve as the SACC’s first Director of Studies and Communications. It is worth remarking, for the sake of emphasis, on the growing importance of the SACC’s new-found role as church advocate in the struggle against apartheid. While it may be difficult to measure de Gruchy’s influence on the burgeoning Council, it may be useful to consider the fact that he participated in the SACC at the highest level during the important first years following its inception. He was present in the organization as the new constitution with a clear mission statement was crafted and entrenched. It was during this time that the SACC’s message was clearly articulated and it fell to de Gruchy to disseminate this message to its member congregations. As the SACC’s first Director of Studies and Communications, de Gruchy was responsible for publicizing “A Message to the People of South Africa” to the member churches. De Gruchy was not a member of the drafting group of A Message but he was a signatory and he was later asked to co-author a book about A Message which was published in 1968. With the publication of A Message, the SACC had declared the ‘South African way of life,’ or apartheid, to be a false Gospel. It may seem strange that the church would confront apartheid on theological grounds as the term apartheid does not hold any theological meaning. However, it may be useful to remember that apartheid was a social and political system based on an Afrikaner self-understanding, along with a perception of the black majority that was allegedly based on the Christian biblical texts and theological tenets that had become popular in some parts of Europe. The SACC’s inaugural publication revealed the theological direction it would follow for the next twenty-seven years of its involvement in the church struggle. For de Gruchy and the churches that gathered under the new banner, it was a new way of engaging the Nationalist regime and apartheid. De Gruchy had committed himself to the struggle against apartheid in his time as a theology student and pastor; now the SACC presented a larger forum within which to explore theological possibilities for making inroads into the debate and critique of the Republic’s21 racist policies. His experience in the church and in the SACC suggested the need for proper theological discourse around the issue of the Christian churches’ role in the struggle against apartheid.
De Gruchy entered the theological debate in the 1960s at the same time the participating churches in the SACC began to explore new ways of working together to combat state-sponsored apartheid. Like most South Africans, de Gruchy was influenced and his theology shaped, to some extent, by apartheid. His contributions to theological research, particularly in the areas of Bonhoeffer Studies and Reformed Theology, are recognized internationally but South Africa is where he served as pastor and educator. It is for this reason that Bonhoeffer’s work, especially which treated the theological foundations of the Confessing church in Germany, resonated so strongly with him. He found in Bonhoeffer a theologian of considerable skill and compassion who chose to work within the Christian church as the place where God and God’s people meet. For de Gruchy, Bonhoeffer was a kindred spirit in his struggle to discern God’s will for the church within the context of national crisis (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 110).
In a letter to his friend Bethge, Bonhoeffer asserts that, “the church stands, not at the point where human powers fail, at the boundaries, but in the center of the village.” (Bonhoeffer, 1997, p. 367) This quote expresses the importance of the theological context in Bonhoeffer’s, and subsequently, de Gruchy’s theological method. It is a reminder that theology is done where we nurture and are nurtured in community. Theology ought not to be relegated to the realm of mystery where humanity can no longer answer its own questions. Bonhoeffer is suggesting that the church is not the provider of answers to the questions for which we have no mortal reply; God is not a convenient for lifting us out of the world but the One who throws us back into the world where God’s self-revelation intersects with humanity living in the heat of the moment.
De Gruchy, Barth and Bonhoeffer:
The similarities between de Gruchy’s situation in South Africa and Bonhoeffer’s in Germany are not lost on the reader of de Gruchy’s work but they must not be overemphasized. When de Gruchy read Bethge’s lectures on Bonhoeffer, helped shape de Gruchy’s exploration of the church’s proper theological response to apartheid. As de Gruchy wrestled with this question, his insights and conclusions helped the SACC formulate and hold a biblically sound, theological stance against apartheid, thereby avoiding the pitfall of becoming just another consumable item in the marketplace of political ideas that were available in South Africa at the time. It helped the Christian church claim its place in South Africa and speak against apartheid from an alternate perspective. Bernard Spong says this about de Gruchy’s contributions in his book entitled Come Celebrate written on the occasion of the SACC’s twenty-fifth anniversary: “at the 1981 National Conference, Dr. John de Gruchy was to point to the need for the supporters of the liberation movement in the church to ensure that they relied on God’s word and sought God’s Spirit or face the danger of “becoming indistinguishable from any other political movement.” It was this kind of constant reminder that helped the Council maintain that necessary balance, the “wary path between”, in personal and social Gospel. A balance that none would claim to have been complete throughout all its work and witness, but a balance that has provided the vision for what the Council should be about and the blueprint in its planning” ( Spong; Mayson; 1993, pp. 82-83).
De Gruchy is also a recognized Barth scholar. In 2000 he was awarded the prestigious Karl Barth prize. In the JTSA, Beyers Naudé (2000, p. 1) wrote in a brief tribute to de Gruchy that “No other person in South Africa deserves the Karl Barth Prize more than Prof. John de Gruchy”. Naudé’s tribute to de Gruchy echoed the sentiment of many Barth scholars. Lyn Holness recorded the event in this way: “Marking the centenary of Karl Barth in 1986, the prize was created in order to ‘honour outstanding works on the Theological Declaration of Barmen and the tradition created by it’. The jury reached its decision in favor of John de Gruchy in recognition of his vision in the transmission of this tradition, as well as of the theological impetus of Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Karl Barth in the ecclesiastical and social contexts of South Africa. The citation continues: Through his Reformed theology John W. de Gruchy has contributed with prophetic impulses to the overcoming of apartheid mentality as well as to the democratization of South African society and the renewal of his church, thus playing an outstanding role for a culture of international and intercontinental theological exchanges” (Holness, 2003, pp. 41-42). The citation begins, “Through his Reformed theology” This suggested that the jury recognized de Gruchy’s unique contribution to the reclamation of the Reformed tradition in South Africa. Barth was the pastor who became a theologian while Bonhoeffer was the theologian who became a pastor. This move from the university to the congregation placed Bonhoeffer in the midst of the faithful community struggling to find answers to the political questions of the day, questions that seemed to all but defy reasonable enquiry. De Gruchy remains both theologian and pastor and has done so throughout his entire career. His theology is grounded in the experience of the church, and of God’s people seeking the face of God in the other. His theological method pivots on the question by Bonhoeffer: ‘Who is Jesus Christ, for us, today?’ (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 54). It seeks to be a living critical engagement of events in a dynamic context rather than a snapshot, a static moment in time, frozen and immobile, ready for dispassionate examination. He worked alongside others in formulating a proper theological response to what some perceived as a heretical use of the Christian religion to support an oppressive political ideology.
Apartheid and the Church:
The question of identity has been part of South African social consciousness from the first time European sailors set foot in the Cape. Apartheid was the most pervasive and systematic attempt at defining identity in the history of the country and it was a theme that underpinned the theology that was done in South Africa. Beginning in 1948, the largely Afrikaner government took great pains to construct a national identity that would situate the white minority population firmly in the roots of the nation. The question of identity was no less important for the English-speaking population of South Africa. The term English-speaking refers to a small segment of the population whose origins are British. In terms of the church, the English-speaking churches are those whose roots are particular to Britain. De Gruchy explained: “A final consideration regarding the title ‘English-speaking churches’ is its exclusive character. It should include the Baptists, but it generally does not, especially after the Baptist Union withdrew from the South African Council of churches. It could include some of the Pentecostal churches, but their distinct character and lack of involvement in ecumenical groups and social issues excluded them. In some respects, Catholics and Lutherans have been in the vanguard of Christian witness and action in South Africa. Yet, because they are not of British origin, we cannot properly refer to them as ‘English-speaking'” (de Gruchy, 2005, p. 86). The English-speaking South Africans were a minority within the minority white population. It was difficult to find belonging within either the black majority or the larger white minority that supported apartheid.
Opposition to apartheid was always present and it had come to be expressed in different ways by the various Christian churches in South Africa. Often, at least within the Reformed tradition, individual congregations within the denominations were free to express their concerns in whichever way they chose. There was no real unified stance among the churches but the SACC served as a focal point for ecclesiastical resistance and opposition to apartheid. De Gruchy noted that the churches of the SACC provide a living example or model of a community in which black and contradict the policy, intention, and spirit of apartheid. Blacks and whites worked together in open defiance of the state’s discriminatory race laws but the disunity of the Christian church continued to hinder opposition. There was a general consensus among the member churches of the SACC and among the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC). This was made clear in Ottawa in 1982 when the WARC declared apartheid to be a heresy (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 27).
The WARC had taken a stand in opposition to the DRC’s position regarding apartheid. The English-speaking churches had, for the most part, spoken against racial separation but seemed to be slow to make any unequivocal or unified statements about where the churches ultimately stood. Theologians and clerics sought clarity while the Christian churches struggled for identity in the face of division and strife. The DRC, on the other hand, was more certain about its support of the minority leadership of the National Party and faced no such crisis of identity (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 24).
Division was not new to the Christian church. The Great Schism of 1054 divided the church into the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches. The Reformation of the sixteenth century further segmented the church. South Africa inherited a divided European church, and any move toward unity seemed to be further thwarted by apartheid. De Gruchy, in commenting on the history of division in the Christian church, lamented the fact that, “while it is painfully true that the divisions which separated Christians from one another in Europe were transplanted into South Africa, it is equally true, and more painful, that these confessional divisions have been exacerbated by separation along racial, cultural and ethnic lines. These issues, normally regarded as non-theological, must now be seen as equally confessional, because they have to do with the truth of the Gospel as much as those that, for example, traditionally separate Catholics from Calvinists. If the churches seriously begin to confess Jesus Christ as Lord in South Africa in terms that relate to the critical issues of our society, that is, the real issues which divide them, they will begin to discover their unity in a new way. There is a confessing movement in South Africa, and one which includes Christians from virtually all denominations who regard apartheid as a heresy and who strive for true justice and peace” (de Gruchy & Villa- Vicencio, 1983, p. 80). The ‘confessing movement’ to which de Gruchy referred was the status confessionis which was forming around the issue of church-sponsored apartheid. What were once non-theological issues were now being thrust upon the churches and were considered among those theological matters which concerned the Gospel message of equality and unity. De Gruchy’s concern was that the lack of a properly articulated theology, one that was able to challenge the theology of apartheid had created a situation in which the Christian church needed to confess its having rejected God’s rule of justice. De Gruchy’s assumption was that the Christian church, by seeking guidance from within a worshipping and contextually-relevant community, informed by the preaching of the biblical texts and celebrating the sacraments, would understand more fully God’s call to bear witness to God’s Reign of justice and grace. But the church had become divided over the issues of apartheid (de Gruchy, 2014, pp. 66-67).
De Gruchy was also concerned that the church, in its willingness to divide along political lines, had usurped the will of God for the church. Apartheid society meant an apartheid church. According to de Gruchy, nothing could be farther from the idea of the Reign of God. Apartheid had become part of the social landscape and the systematic separation of black, coloureds, asians, and whites was now official policy in the DRC. It appeared that the Nationalist government would need to maintain a hold on the political imagination of the country in the face of national and international criticism. Perhaps one of the ways to do this was nurture the nascent civil religion that would make it easier to accept minority rule as God’s plan for South Africa. A civil religion could also maintain the appearance of justice, allowing the English-speaking community to stave-off a critical examination of rather questionable social and economic structures that always favored whites over black.
Another pillar of the Reformation was the idea of the liberty of conscience. It implied that the ideal for any society was for a free church within a free society, unencumbered by the demands of the civil authority. There are two parts to Calvin’s conception of the liberty of conscience. First, as de Gruchy points-out, the role of the government is to cause the Christian church to respect the individual’s liberty of conscience. Second, the government must give way to the Sovereign Conscience. De Gruchy expressed this same idea by suggesting that, the sovereignty of God implies the liberty of conscience. Indeed, conscience, he maintained, can never be subject to man but always and ever to God Almighty. Humanity may enjoy liberty of conscience when it comes to matters of doctrine or teachings of the church that cannot be biblically substantiated but it is never free from God’s authority over humanity. At the same time, Calvin’s emphasis on the importance of the right of the individual conscience to assert itself under the Sovereignty of God cannot be overstated. De Gruchy took this notion one step further arguing, that ‘the struggle for liberty is not only declared permissible, but it is made a duty for each individual in his own sphere (de Gruchy, 2014, pp. 75-76).
De Gruchy raises the question, ‘Can a Christian within the Reformed tradition support the use of violence against an unjust government?’ This was a question that stayed with de Gruchy for many years. He supported the Calvinist proposition that condoned the Christian’s resistance to the tyrant. On obedience and authority, Calvin asserted that God restrains the fury of tyrants’ in two ways; “either by raising up from among their own subjects open avengers, who rid the people of their tyranny, or by employing for that purpose the rage of men whose thoughts and contrivances are totally different, thus overturning one tyranny by means of another. There have been many instances where theologians within the Reformed tradition supported the Christian’s right to resist an oppressive and unjust government
De Gruchy chose to stay in South Africa when many of those who were able to leave the country did so. He had quickly risen to prominence in the academic world and he would have had opportunities for employment outside South Africa. In a passage from his book Confessions of a Christian Humanist, he did suggest that leaving had been a possibility: “I, like many of my peers, never felt as our parents did that we belonged in some way to Britain, but were equally uncertain about belonging to apartheid South Africa. For that reason, and out of a fear for the future, many left to build their homes elsewhere. Those who could go but stayed, again like myself, and not least those who became conscientious objectors, did so because we had a sense of loyalty to South Africa in a much broader sense, and longed for the day when we could be proud of our country as other people were of theirs” (de Gruchy, 2006, p. 191). There were others in de Gruchy’s life who, at the time, realized that it would not be easy for an outspoken critic of apartheid to work with any real freedom in South Africa. There were enough academic opportunities outside South Africa for a theologian as capable as de Gruchy but he was, first and foremost, a South African. His call to serve the people of God in South Africa was a compelling impetus for his doing theology in the first place. The church community was where he found God active in the world and nowhere more so than in South Africa. Like Bonhoeffer, de Gruchy chose to contribute to his country from within while looking forward to the time when he could be proud to call himself South African.
De Gruchy described belonging as locating oneself within a larger, corporate narrative that knits together one’s own fragmented story with similar fragments of those with whom you share a nation.39 One such fragment is the story of black South Africans paying the cost of white privilege. De Gruchy lived in just such a privileged environment of the white European community. The question ‘What is my nation?’ was not easily answered. The question ‘Who is my nation?’ was more easily answered by white South Africans than by black, coloured, or asian South Africans. The expression ‘nonwhites,’ used to describe the black, coloured, and asian segments of the population was in use in South Africa until recently. When a group is described only in the negative it becomes difficult to assert a positive or historical place in the nation. It is as if the group has no history or land which they may call their own. De Gruchy was aware of the privilege of being able to trace his ancestry when so many South Africans could not. He recognized that it was a privilege to know where he came from and that there ” were many others who came to Cape Town as slaves in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, wrenched from the soil, families and communities in which they had been nurtured in East Africa and the Dutch East Indies” (de Gruchy, 2006, p. 10).

While de Gruchy may have lived the majority of his life as a privileged white person, he was keenly aware that his privilege came at a cost. Nelson Mandela, for example, was not so privileged. While de Gruchy was completing high school and preparing himself for university, Nelson Mandela, along with other African National Congress activists, was arrested under laws entrenched in the civil code that were relevant for black men and women, only (de Gruchy, 2014, p. 5). Again, a particular segment of the nation was identified by laws that applied to that segment alone. It is a way of segregating a population within a nation by describing who they are not, to the point of annihilation. De Gruchy was one of the few privileged white South Africans who both voiced his concerns and acted upon them. He had decided early on that the cost of white privilege was simply too high.
I believe de Gruchy’s theology is what I perceive to be his understanding of God’s reconciling work through Christ, as made manifest by the Christian community that worships, preaches and celebrates the sacraments together. I maintain that, for de Gruchy, Christology and ecclesiology are done together for they seem to be inseparable. The Christian church is the institution that exists for others. The church acts, not as refuge for the oppressed and marginalized in society, but as their advocate. De Gruchy developed and shaped his ecclesiology within this context. He rejects the idea that theology could provide a strategic process of compromise and he affirms instead the church’s duty to provide a critical and prophetic appraisal of the relationship between church and state, illuminated by biblical texts and guided by the principles and priorities of the Reign of God as made manifest in the church.
For anybody who would like to engage with the theology of one man’s lifetime this is a must read, especially for those who are convinced that theology is a constantly lively engagement with God in context. The words that act as a refrain right through all these different chapters and quests are justice, beauty, love, being truly human and restoration. All these are building blocks of his writings that still inspire and will keep on inspiring.

According to Merriam Webster online Dictionary (2009) methodology is the analysis of the principle of methods, rules and postulates employed by a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedure. The systematic study of method that are, can be or have been applied within a discipline. The chapter research methodology describe the methodological approaches employed to test research hypothesis, the discussion is mainly focused on various aspects such a study design. Selection criteria for respondents, study sites, sampling procedures, and simple size, construction of measuring instruments, pilot study or pre- testing and measures adopted during development of questionnaire and statistical techniques used for data analysis such as uni- vitiate and bivariate analysis, chi square, gamma analysis are discussed.
“Any set of individual or object having some common observable characteristics constitute a population or universe” (Dixon and Marry, 1957). Universe is any set of individual or a subjects having common observable characteristics constitute a population or universe..
A sample is any subset of units form a population. A subset is any combination of sampling units that does not include the entire set of sampling sampling units. That has been defined as the population. A sample may be one sampling unit, all but one sampling unit, or any number in between (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1992). The factors of time cost and physical limitations usually play an important role in social researches. Therefore it is more economical and efficient to base studies on simples rather to study the entire universe
ossible technical modification in it, Experts’ viewpoint regarding the questionnaire ensure its content validity (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1192).

Quantitative data was analyzed through various statistics techniques. In univariate/ descriptive and bivariate techniques. In univariate analysis such as frequency, percentage and measures of central tendency (mean, standard devotion) were used to describe the data. In bivariate analysis, relationship among different variable was examined through applying chi- square and gamma tests. The relative important of independent variable in explaining dependent variable was based upon multivariate analysis.
This revolutionary statistics analytical software system was called SPSS that stood for the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Nie, Hull and Bent (1968) developed SPSS out of the need to quickly analysis volumes of the social science data gathered through various methods of research techniques. The SPSS was used first time at Stanford University.
SPSS is the one of the most widely used software packages in the world of social sciences. It has been very crucial in facilitating the data of research using individuals as well as discrete units of analysis (Wellman, 1998). Father it is clear that SPSS technology has made difficult analytical targets easier by advances in usability and so data access and also enabling the researchers to benefit from the use of quantitative techniques in making decisions. It helps researcher to input the data on computer and can serve time from the laborious and exhaustive of an analysis.

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Univariate Analysis
It is defined as method for analyzing data on a single variable at a time. In univaraite analysis, each variable in any data set is explored separately. It also at the range of the values but as well as the central tendency measures of the values. It describe the pattern and tend of response to the variable, also describes the variable on its own. Descriptive/ univariate statistics interpret and summarize data also it describes individual variables.
Frequency distribution of different variables (Nominal variables Ordinal variables and interval variables) is done by identifying the lowest and highest values of the variable and then putting all the values of the variables in order form lowest to highest. Further, count the number of appearance of every values of the variable. It is a count of the frequency distribution with which each values occurs in the set of data. Frequencies distribution can also be presented in the form of percentage distributions and cumulative percentages. Descriptive data can be presented graphing, is a way of visual presenting of the data. Some researchers grasp the information into graphical form but it can be presented in a text format.
The mean is the most familiar average. It is defined as a obtained by dividing the sum of the all the observations. The mean gives indication of the magnitude of the observed values. The mean is usually denoted by placing a bar over the symbol used to represent the observation or the variable (Chaudhary, 1984). The mean was calculated with the following formula:-

X = the sum mean of a sample of size
? = Sum of observation
X =the responses obtained by all the respondents in a sample
N = Sample size
Bivariate Analysis:
Bivariate analysis is applied to see the relationship/association between the two variables. It is explained in other words, which is explained by one variable is pattern in such a manner that is variables is not randomly distributed in connection with the other variables. Bivariate analysis was used to find out association of socio economic characteristics and the respondents and their decision making power. In its general form, relationship simply refers to the degree to which it because easier to predict value for the predict variables if one knows case’s value on the independent variable. This measure of association helps to understand relationship. Chi- square and gamma statistics were used to check the association and testing hypotheses of association and causality as well.
Chi –Square Test:
Chi-square these is depended by symbol x2Chi–square is defined as, a statistical test used to compare the observed with frequencies with expected frequencies, it would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis also to determine the degree of independence (Fisher, 1928). One of the most general and useful way to observe the information about the social globe in the set-up of the table, there are many ways to show information related to their question. The formula for calculating chi-square (X2) is:

X2 = ?(fo-fe)2 /fe

Chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed (fo) and the expected (fe) frequency (data) (or the deviation, d) and divided by the expected frequency in all possible categories. ?- capital sigma tells to compute the fractions for every cell and then sum over all cells to get x2. The following steps are involved to computer the chi-square:
i. To find out the difference between each observed frequency and the correspondence expected frequency for each cell in the table.
ii. Square for each difference.
iii. Divided each squared different by the respective frequency.
iv. Add the resulting division.
There are certain assumption of chi-square. At first, data is random sample of population, secondly data on nominal, ordinal. Thirdly there is not any expected frequency less than 5 and at lastly there is not any empty cell in frequency.
Gamma Statistics:
Gamma test is defined as, the strength of association/relationship of the crosstabulated data when two variables are being measured at the ordinal level of measurement (Sheskin, 2007) there values range from -1 means (100 percent negative association), or (perfect) to +1 means (100 percent positive association), or (perfect agreement), and value of zero shows the absence of association in the variables. This test is also known as Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma test). It’s very close to Someres’D and to Kendall’s tau.
In descriptive statistics, Gamma test statistic is an index of association between two variables which measure on ordinal levels, Suppose, if two pairs of scores are examined, they must either be concordant, in the sense that the one ranked higher than the order on the first variable is also ranked higher than the other on the second variable, or discordant,

The value of a gamma test statistic, (T) depends on two quantities:

Gamma = Ns – Nd
Ns + Nd

Formula shows that the size and the direction of gamma whether its positive, are functions of the relative number of same order as (Ns), versus order (Nd) pairs. However, more Ns pairs make the gamma positive and more Nd pairs make gamma negative and the larger the difference between Ns and Nd, the largest the size of the coefficient (irrespective of sign).

Ns, the number of pairs of cases ranked in the same order on both variables (member of concordant pairs),
Ns, the number of pairs of cases ranked differently on the variables (number of discordant pairs).
Gamma indicates the results in follow

i Gamma = Ns – 0 = 1.0
Ns + 0

A gamma of 1.0 indicates that the relationship between the variable is positive, and the dependent variable. When Ns is zero, gamma will be -1.0 indicating a perfect and a negative association between the variables

ii Gamma 0 – Nd
0 + Nd = -1.0
When Ns= Nd, gamma will equal zero:

iii Gamma = Ns – Nd = 0 = 0.0
Ns + Nd Ns + Nd

A gamma of zero reflect no association between the two variables; hence there is nothing to be gained by using the variables to predict order the dependent variable


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