Introduction:
Over the life cycle of the well, its reach a time where the reservoir pressure drop and artificial lift system must be implemented to recover the remain fluids from the ground. However, beam pump is the most common artificial system used over the world and it’s mainly covers 70% compared to other systems used. This type of artificial lift system assembly used to convert the rotation movement from the motor to a reciprocating motion by a beam and crank, this motion transferred to the downhole pump assembly by the sucker rod. The pump consist of barrel, plunger, travelling and standing valves. Their functionality are based on mechanical movement up ; down which help creating a pressure difference through the valves and helps fluids to be lifted up to the surface.

Aim:
Although, every mechanical device movement has a potential to fail at any time, the aim of this project is to investigate and evaluate the different types of pump failures and the way to minimize it.

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Objectives:

1. Study and evaluate the different types of pump failures.

2. Investigate and analyze the way to minimize the failures.

3. Collect data from MUK field on any solutions implemented and the achieved results.

4. Evaluate the effects on any mechanical devices used to reduce the failures

5. Identify the risks and challenged on those pumps and mechanical protection devices

Literature Review:
A beam pump is the over ground drive for a reciprocating piston pump in an oil well. It is used to mechanically lift liquid out of the well if not enough bottom hole pressure exists for the liquid to flow all the way to the surface. The arrangement is commonly used for onshore wells producing little oil. Beam pumps are common in oil-rich areas. Depending on the size of the pump, it generally produces 5 to 40 liters of liquid at each stroke. Often this is an emulsion of crude oil and water. Pump size is also determined by the depth and weight of the oil to remove, with deeper extraction requiring more power to move the increased weight of the discharge column (discharge head).

At the bottom of the tubing is the down-hole pump. This pump has two ball check valves: a stationary valve at bottom called the standing valve, and a valve on the piston connected to the bottom of the sucker rods that travels up and down as the rods reciprocate, known as the traveling valve. Reservoir fluid enters from the formation into the bottom of the borehole through perforations that have been made through the casing and cement (the casing is a larger metal pipe that runs the length of the well, which has cement placed between it and the earth; the tubing, pump, and sucker rod are all inside the casing).
When the rods at the pump end are travelling up, the traveling valve is closed and the standing valve is open (due to the drop in pressure in the pump barrel). Consequently, the pump barrel fills with the fluid from the formation as the traveling piston lifts the previous contents of the barrel upwards. When the rods begin pushing down, the traveling valve opens and the standing valve closes (due to an increase in pressure in the pump barrel). The traveling valve drops through the fluid in the barrel (which had been sucked in during the upstroke). The piston then reaches the end of its stroke and begins its path upwards again, repeating the process.

This movement of up and down in a piston has a potential of a failure. As any mechanical device in the worlds has this ability and chance to fail, also there are many ways to reduce or minimize those failures. I am going to show in this project all the possible ways.

Introduction:

Juvenile crime is and has been a relevant topic in New Zealand and the world for many years, and I was interested in what, when, where and why juveniles commit crimes, therefore I chose the topic of “Juvenile crime in New Zealand”. My main research inquiry question is “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?” My key questions are: “How are juvenile offenders sentenced in New Zealand and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?”, “What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, “What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, and “Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?”

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How are juvenile offenders sentenced and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?

According to Te Ara’s website, depending on the circumstances, different procedures are utilised to punish juvenile offenders, including warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim, a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. If the case is more serious, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court. “In 2014, 43% of offenders were dealt with through alternative action by Police Youth Aid (for example, written apologies, community work, reparation and counselling.” In the “Youth Justice Indicators Summary Report” written by the “Ministry of Justice” in April 2018, it discusses becoming part of the Youth Justice System, being part of the system, and reappearing in the system. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a date of publishing included, and the spelling and grammar are correct. This source is a government source, therefore it is less likely to be biased.

According to justice.govt.nz’s website, almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. “In 2017, youth were most often charged with burglary (25%), theft (19%) or robbery (15%) offences as their most serious offence”. In 2017, and 600 youth (32%) were given a sentence or order. The most common out of these were ‘monetary, confiscation, or disqualification’, which accounted for 22%, (or 129 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017, and also, ‘supervision or community work’, which accounted for 19% (or 111 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017. ‘Supervision with residence’ (96 youth), ‘education and rehabilitation programmes’ (12 youth), ‘supervision with activity’ (87 youth), are included as other orders. Out of the small amount of youth who were sentenced in court and received an adult sentence to serve fully (36 youth), most of them were given home detention or imprisonment for highly serious offending.

Brinley McIntosh, author of the HMA article “Reducing recidivism rates among young offenders”, discusses the attributes of juvenile offenders, group work among juveniles, CBT with juvenile offenders, and inspiring juvenile offenders. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a listed author, there is a date of publishing included, and the sources in the website are cited.

According to Bennett (2009), “Current literature around young offenders and recidivism rates shown that in NZ there is a core group of young offenders that continue to reoffend despite going through the youth justice system.” This tells us that sentencing is ineffective for preventing reoffending in New Zealand. To address the rate of recidivism, in 2010, the Young Persons and Their Families Amendment Bill put forward and carried out adjustments in the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act (1989) to make way for harsher sentences (either residence or community based) for young offenders and also their families. This amendment elongated the length of time young offenders were able to be sentenced to supervision and/or residence orders, and also made way for requested parenting education programmes for both: young offenders who are parents, and also, those who are parents of young offenders. They needed to do this to inhibit offending and also reoffending. This tells us that these individuals come from violent and/or poor etc. households, which may influence their recidivism greatly.

According to McIntosh, the amendment also highlighted the requirement for mentoring, rehabilitation, and support for young offenders as well as their families, which are used as preventative measures towards recidivism. Subsequently, there was a powerful push towards developing and implementing programmes that lower recidivism rates of young offenders by aiming at criminogenic needs, and also promoting and teaching prosocial skills. McIntosh claims that there is only a small amount of controversy in the literature that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and its variants are the most successful treatment for reducing recidivism among youth offenders. McIntosh also claims that the most economical and effective way to give interventions to young offenders in residential facilities is in a group layout.

I disagree with this statement because to me, imprisonment seems like it would be the most effective preventative measure for recidivism among juvenile offenders. I believe this because it would essentially “keep juveniles off the streets” and give them fewer opportunities to re-offend. I also think that when juveniles are participating in training, education, or employment, the fewer opportunities these people should have of offending, as “idle hands

are the devil’s playthings”, meaning if an individual is not occupied, they have a higher chance of getting into trouble.

According to an infographic summary by the Ministry of Justice, in 2017, the majority of juveniles (78%) had charges proved, most acted in accordance with plans agreed at Family Group Conferences, and a third of them were given orders for their offending, including 129 confiscation, disqualification, or monetary orders, 111 supervision or community work orders, 96 supervision with residence orders, 87 intensive supervision or supervision with activity orders, and 36 adult sentences for serious offences. The amount of juveniles charged in court has decreased by 25% since 2013 and by 5% since 2016, (possibly because in recent times juveniles have fewer opportunities to offend, which may be because they are participating in training, education, or employment), and only accounted for under 3% of all individuals charged in court in 2017.

What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?

According to https://www.justice.govt.nz, “there have been very large reductions in the number of… young people aged 14 to 16 who offended (…down from 14,183 to 5,188 young people).” I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise. In 2016/17, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the third most common was European/Other with 131 cases. In 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the third most common was European/Other with 504 cases. From 2008 to 2017, the percentage of M?ori juvenile offenders rose over that decade, from 49% to 64%. The number of juveniles charged with theft, burglary, or assault has been decreasing since 2013, which may be surprising to some, but the number of juveniles charged with robbery has increased since 2015 to 2017, which may not be surprising to some. This could be due to the stigma in New Zealand regarding juvenile crime. It has been said that the youth justice

system is ‘racist’ towards M?ori, which I agree with. Nonetheless, the amount of juveniles charged has decreased significantly among all ethnicities over the decade spanning from 2008 to 2017. The changes are as follows: M?ori changed from 2,421 to 1,197 individuals (a decrease of 51%) European changed from 1,749 to 426 individuals (a decrease of 76%), and Pasifika from 501 to 174 individuals (a decrease of 65%). Theft is different to robbery because theft is taking property that doesn’t involve interaction between people. An individual simply takes property that they do not own. Comparing robbery and theft, robbery is where an individual takes property that involves interaction between people but involves intimidation, coercion, and/or force. Burglary, in comparison to both robbery and theft, is where an individual enters a residence or building while intending to commit a felonious crime, such as theft. Burglary doesn’t require interaction between individuals or property to be stolen. From 2008 to 2017, the number of juveniles charged in court had significantly declined (from approximately 160 per 10,000 juveniles), to approximately 60 per 10,000 juveniles), and the overall juvenile offending rate decreased 63% between 2009/10 and 2016/17, from 761 per 10,000 individuals to 285 per 10,000 individuals. It may be thought that the rate of juvenile crime is increasing but in fact, the rate is actually decreasing, which I am surprised about, and may be to other people’s surprise. During that time, the decrease in the offending rate has been much larger for European/Other (74%) than for Pasifika (61%), or M?ori (59%). The age ratio of juvenile offenders has greatly stayed the same since 2013, whereof the offenders aged 14-16, 24% of those were 14 years old, 32% were 15 years old, and 41% of those were 16 years old. I am not surprised about the age ratio.

What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?

In New Zealand in 2016/17, the percent by offence division if the most common type/s of crime among young people aged 14 to 16 are as follows (in descending order): The highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at

16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and finally, robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.

I think that theft is so high because many youths have chances to thieve, rather than have opportunities to commit other crimes. Although theft is less serious than, for example, violent crimes because people’s lives are not definitely in danger throughout a theft, they are throughout a violent crime.

The “Youth Justice Statistics 2014/15” (about England and Wales), composed by the “Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice” on the 28th of January 2016, discuss, for example, moving through the Youth Justice System, proven offences by juveniles and measures of crime underwent by juveniles. According to Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice, In England and Wales, in the year ending March 2015, the key types of juvenile offence were; violence against the person (24%), theft and handling (17%) and criminal damage (12%). Additionally, there were 2,000 sexual offences in the same year in which a young person was cautioned or sentenced, which accounted for 2% of all juvenile offences.

Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?

According to Te Ara’s website, regarding the law, young people are those who are aged 14–16. “…They can be charged and prosecuted for an offence and dealt with by the youth justice system. Those aged 17 and over are treated as adults in the general court system.”

I think that this age is too young to get treated like an adult and go to adult prison/s and I think the age should be raised to 18. I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, by answering the previous inquiry questions, I have been able to answer my main research inquiry question: “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”. Research proves that juvenile crime is caused by financial hardship (Scientific studies have shown that it is not just a juvenile’s brain that turns them

into a criminal, but also poverty that changes an innocent juvenile into an inveterate criminal. If teens see that others such as their friends are more financially stable and richer than them,
so they eventually begin to look for illegal ways to tide themselves over, and once they start offending, they are usually small crimes such as theft to accomplish their daily costs, but as time goes on, they re-offend and continue to re-offend. Peer pressure is another major cause of juvenile crime as surveys conducted show that teens that are friends with criminals have a higher likelihood to become eventually a criminal themselves, as it is reasonably natural for the individuals to be affected by the criminals. Teens prefer committing crimes in groups because it can be more exciting and also lowers their likelihood of getting caught offending.

I believe that one way to combat peer pressure and also juvenile crime is to make sure that juveniles’ friends are not negatively influencing the juveniles.

Additionally, a lack of care from family is another major cause of juvenile crime as neglected juveniles are more likely to become criminals because they become violent and angry when they lack love and affection that they feel they deserve from the family. They then use their negative power to commit crimes. Furthermore, bullying is another major cause of juvenile crime. Bullying is a crime and it also fuels other crimes. Multiple studies show that juveniles who bully others tend to become criminals later in life. Abusive behaviour promotes juvenile crime and juveniles who demonstrate abusive behaviour or are in a group of friends who demonstrate abusive behaviour find themselves committing crimes. A few cases have been reported where the victims of bullying become criminals only for the purpose of retaliating on society. Lastly, drug and alcohol abuse are also major causes of juvenile crime. It is a crime to consume drugs or alcohol as a minor, and it also causes various other crimes. Juveniles’ judgement is impaired when they abuse drugs or alcohol, which raises their likelihood of committing crimes, such as property damage or public disorder. When a juvenile becomes intoxicated, their judgement and reasoning become obscure, causing them to commit a crime that they might not have wanted to commit initially. In 2017 specifically, the highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and the lowest percentage was robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.

I think that the age of 17 is too young and too harsh to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I believe that the age should be raised to 18.

The research indicated that overall, depending on the circumstances, different techniques are utilised to penalise juvenile offenders, of example, including warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim,

a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases either in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. But for more serious occurrences, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court. Almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. Studies show that in 2017, the most prevalent charges given to juveniles were confiscation, monetary, or disqualification. Research suggests that overall, sentencing is not effective for reoffending, because studies show that in New Zealand there is a main group of juvenile offenders that continue to offend regardless of being dealt with by the youth justice system. Research shows that in 2017, the most common ethnicity of juvenile offenders in New Zealand was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the third most common was European/Other with 131 cases. Compared to 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending in New Zealand was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the third most common was European/Other with 504 cases. Research also shows that in 2017, the most common age of offenders in New Zealand was 16 years old (41%), the second most common age was 15 years old at 32%, and lastly, the third most common age was 14 years old at 24%. These statistics did not surprise me. Additionally, compared to 2013, the age ratio has largely stayed steady. In 2016/17, the most common type of youth crime in New Zealand was theft at 26%, the second most common type of youth crime was ‘other’ at 20%, and the third most common type of youth crime was unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%. When compared to England and Wales, in 2015, the most common type of offence was violence against the person (24%), followed by theft and handling (17%), and then criminal damage (12%). Lastly, during my research, I have found that juveniles (concerning the law) are those aged 14–16.

Introduction:-
Supply authorities are under obligation to their customers to maintain the supply voltage between certain limits. Tap changers offer variable control to keep the supply voltage within these limits About 96% of all power transformers today above 10MVA incorporate on load tap changers
as a means of voltage regulation.
Defination:-
A tap changer is a device fitted to power transformers for regulating of the output voltage to required levels. This is normally achieved by changing the ratios of the transformers on the system by altering the number of turns in one winding of the appropriate transformer/s according to these two equationS ;
Turns ratio = secondary winding turns (Ns)/ primary winding turns (Np).
Secondary voltage = (supply voltage or primary voltage) / Turns ratio. The tap changer basic function is that it removes or connects some portion of the winding to the load side or source side. Reasons of using tap changer:- The main reason lays on voltage control and regulation of a transformer which can be explained in these states :-
1-To Supply a desired voltage to load.
2- To counter the voltage drops due to load variation.
3- To counter the input supply voltage changes on load.
4- To perform the mission of regulation of active and reactive power flows so that we can obtain a good profile system by tapping.
Location of taps:-
The tap changer is placed on high voltage side because of many factors :-
1) The HV winding generally wound over LV winding hence it
is easier to access the HV winding turns instead of LV winding.
2) Because of high voltage the current through the HV winding
is less compared to LV windings, hence there is less “wear” on the
tap changer contacts. Due this low current, in on load tap
changer the change over spark will be less. .3) the isolation & cooling methods is more accessable in this position.
Basic arrangements of tapped windings:-
Chosing the arrangement of taps depends on the system design& operating
Requirements & transformer system.
These arrangements are applicable to two winding transformes &autotransformers& phase-shifting transformers (PST). Where the tap winding are placed.
A)Linear arrangement is generally used on power transformers with moderate regulatig ranges up to a maximum of 20%. The tappd turns are added in series with the main winding and changes the transformer ratio. The rated position can be any one of the tap positions.
B) Reversing change over selector tap winding is added to or subtracted from the main winding so that the regulating range can be doubled or the number of taps reduced. During this operation, the tap winding is disconnected from the main winding but the main disadvantage of disconnecting main winding is the greatest copper losses occur.The rated position is normally the mid position or neutral position. C) The double reversing change-over selector avoids the disconnection of tap winding during the change-over operation. In phase-shifting transformers (PST) this apparatus is called the advance-retard switch (ARS).
D) Single a coarse change-over selector tap winding is connected either to the plus or minus tapping of the coarse winding. During coarse selctor operation, the tap winding is disconnected from the main winding.the copper losses in this method are lower compared to the two bove methods but it remains as aloss.The main disadvantage is the places higher demands on insulation materialand requires a larger number of windings. E) The multiple coarse change-over selector enables multiplication of the regulating range. It is mainly used for industrial process transformers (rectifier/furnace transformers).
Types of tap changers:-
There are two main types of tap changer
1)No Load Tap changer (NLTC) or De-energized Tap Changer (DETC)
No load tap changers are used in situations in which a transformer ratio does not require frequent changing, it is frequently employed in low power , low voltage transformers in which tap point is changed manually by hand and connected to anew tap terminal(tap point) to regulation requirements.In some systems , tap changing can be done using rotary or slider switch,it can mainly seen in solar power & wind projects, modulation of taps in this type costs less ,As it initially is separated the transformer from the system then regulating taps position in addition to cooling of NLTC is mainly done by natural air.

2)On Load TAP Changer(OLTC) or En-energized Tap Changer
Most of generating stations ,Substation system having Power Transformer with
On Load Tap Changer. Not only in Generating Station Transformer also in
Distribution system Transformer too.
This type is operated under load on conditions without moving transformer away of the system , which means they can change tapping position with transformer load current flowing. Some of the manufacturer’s requirements for this type of tap changer are: reliability, lowest cost, minimal maintenance, dielectric strength, electrical and mechanical life expectancy, overload and fault current capability.

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This type may be generally classified into
a)mechanical tap changers
b)thyristor-assisted tap changers
c)solid state (thyristor) tap changer
these systems usually posses 33 taps ( one at centre which represents _rated tap_ and sixteen to increase and decrese the turn ratio) and allows for ±10% variation (each step providing 0.625% variation) ,this can be achieved by using automatic system, this operation costs more due to copper losses due to step urgent modifying of voltage ; current level while remaining loading. The common way for cooling this type is using oil…

On load tap changer structure:-
1. Selector Switches
These switches select the physical tap position on the transformer winding and
remain load current to not break.
2.reactors
are used in the circuit to increase the impedance of the selector circuit and limit
the amount of circulating current due to this voltage difference.

3. Vacuum Switch
This device performs the duty of a circuit breaker.
that makes and breaks current during the tap changing sequence.
4. Bypass Switch
This switch operates during the tap changing sequence but, at no time, does it make or. break load current, though it does make
before break each connection.
Operation of On load tap changer using reactor method :-
This method employs an auxiliary reactor to assist tap changing. The switches for the taps and that across the reactor(S) are connected as shown. The reactor has a center tapped winding on
a magnetic core. The two ends of the reactor are connected to the two bus bars to which tapping switches of odd/even numbered taps are connected. When only one tap is connected to the reactor the shorting switch S is closed minimizing the drop in the
reactor. The reactor can also be worked with both ends connected to two successive taps. In that case the switch ‘S’ must be kept open. The reactor limits the circulating current between the taps in such a situation. Thus a four step tapped winding can be
used for getting seven step voltage on the secondary according to the table of switching).
The advantage of this type of tap changer are:

1. Load need not be switched off.
2. More steps than taps are obtained.
3. Switches need not interrupt load current as a alternate path is
always provided
The major objection to this scheme seems to be that the reactor is in thecircuit always generating extra loss.
1-Tap-changer transformers are used in a power system to influence the voltage profile as well as the distribution of power flow
2-Tap changer is always placed in HV side.
3-basic arrangement of tapped winding for (2 -winding/Auto)transformer:-
-linear arrangement
-Reversing change over selector
-double reversing change-over selector
-single acoarse change over selector
-The multiple coarse change-over selector
4-The main types of tap changer is:
Off load tap changer/on load tap changer
5-OLTC is used for high voltage systems modification ; NLTC is used for Low voltage systems modification.
6-NLTC is mainly used in solar ; wind projects.
7-on load tap changing is controlled via automatic system at afew seconds.
8-off load tap changing is controlled manually by hands.

Introduction.
Study 1
The first study embarks on the study of anxiety by delving into the primary causes of anxiety namely fear and stress. The normal person has an adequately coordinated response to the two conditions of stress and fear while an individual with an anxiety disorder exhibits an excessive and supernormal tendency to get their stress and fear senses aroused. The condition is also coupled with feelings of apprehension, uncertainty, and fear that persist over a normal duration an individual may take. The research also classifies the anxieties by the types and the characteristic symptoms and the causes or side effects they have on the victims. To highlight a few of the biological causes of anxiety, aspects of age, gender and medical conditions are some of the most dwelt on factors that cause anxiety.
Study 2
The second article discusses the structural mechanism of the body and its intricacies plus the role the brain plays in managing and controlling anxiety disorders. One of the fundamental basis of the research is that the biological disorder has a genetic component hence the reason why psychiatric disorders are associated with hereditary genes that are passed from one generation to the next. The article also identifies some of the classes of anxiety diseases like panic disorder and phobias. The gene element manifests during the early stages of birth of patients as babies exhibit different reactions to stimulation or conditions of stress than others. In that sense, the research makes a deduction that babies who have extra sensitive temperaments are at a greater risk of developing anxiety-related conditions later in life. In general, individuals who have such reactive senses to conditions of stress and pressure tend to develop anxiety-related disorders and suffer pathological levels of anxiety.
Methods
Study 1
The first study used survey method and relied on other previously conducted studies on the topic of biological causes of anxiety. Some of the sources relied on are from credible sources like food and drugs association and the Institute of medicine. Some of the reports reviewed included the study conducted on war veterans and the percentages of the soldiers who suffered anxiety related causes after the war I Afghanistan.
Study 2
The second study employed a sample frame analysis. The sample size chosen for the research involved fifty chosen people with anxiety disorders and another a hundred and twenty for control purposes. The selected groups were then administered with questions and retrospective questionnaires. The answered questionnaires were then collected, and a total of one hundred and eighty-nine were returned and further investigations conducted by the research team.
Results.
Study 1
The generalized study one revealed a significant level of the population suffering anxiety-related disorders. The most common among the classes of the disorders revealed as generalized anxiety disorder at its prevalence ranges to five percent of the population. The signs associated with the victims varied from one person to the next, but crosscutting effects were seen as the constant state of worry. The other symptoms include the victims becoming overly perfectionist and too unsure of themselves. Most of the patients also show some sense of restlessness easily irritable and occasional disturbed sleep.
Study 2
The study two indicated that the assessments of the relationship between childhood experiences as a biological factor that come into play as the causal agent of the anxiety-related condition. The findings from the questionnaires indicate the higher level of trauma during childhood stages of the conditions like family feuds, sexual abuse, illnesses and other factors.
Discussion.
The first study recognizes the fact that anxiety disorders are caused by a combination of both biological, psychological and environmental factors. In most instances, exposure to conditions of stress at an early stage in a person’s developmental process makes them more susceptible than the rest of the population. It also traces the incidences of attacks to a person’s genes through establishing the fact that high chances of a relative of the patients having differed the conditions of stress and anxiety. Further, other classes of the condition such as obsessive-compulsive disorder are most likely to affect the females than they are to the males indicating a higher prevalence to other genders. To a wider scope, other risk factors may expose a patient to conditions of pressure and anxiety-like traumatic events. The events that trigger anxiety like incidences of terror attacks cause and exposes people to conditions that make them vulnerable and susceptible to attacks.
Finally, the study on the veterans shows that exposure to conditions of war exposed a person more to the conditions of anxiety compared to other factors of biological nature. To rectify some of the mentioned conditions of anxiety, cognitive behavioural therapy alongside another medical procedure can be employed. The therapy sessions can help reduce incidences of suffering in pre-exposed children to conditions of anxiety with critical points in all the process being placed on the identification of the sources of anxiety in specific subjective patients. Psychological education and general enlightenment about anxiety can help people cope with the various conditions.

References
https://www.umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/anxiety-disorders Study 1
Naomi M. Simon et al. (2004) Anxiety Disorder Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder Patients: Data From the First 500 Participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) Study 2.

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