Introduction:, Inc., cooperating as Amazon is an American electronic exchange and conveyed processing association arranged in Seattle, Washington that was built up by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994. The tech goliath is the greatest Internet retailer on the planet as assessed by salary and market capitalization and second greatest after Alibaba Group similarly as total deals. The website started as an online book shop and later extended to offer video downloads/spilling, MP3 downloads/spouting, book recording downloads/spouting, programming, PC recreations, devices, garments, furniture, sustenance, toys, and decorations. The association in like manner conveys client equipment—Kindle tablets, Fire tablets, Fire TV, and Echo—and is the world’s greatest provider of cloud structure organizations. Amazon furthermore offers certain low-completed outcomes under its in-house stamp Amazon Basics.

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Amazon has disconnect retail destinations for the United States, the United Kingdom and Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India, and Mexico. In 2016, Dutch, Polish, and Turkish vernacular adjustments of the German Amazon site were furthermore propelled. Amazon in like manner offers all inclusive conveyance of a bit of its things to certain different nations.

In 2015, Amazon outflanked Walmart as the hugest retailer in the United States by promote capitalization. Amazon is the third most vital open association on the planet (behind just Apple and Alphabet), the greatest Internet association by salary on the planet, and after Walmart, the second greatest manager in the United States. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which endlessly extended Amazon’s quality as a square and-bond retailer


Our Vision is to be earth’s most client driven organization and to fabricate a place where individuals can come to discover and find anything they should need to purchase on the web.


1. Design of products and enterprises:

The layout of progressive yield is peddled in this crucial decision region of exercises organization. Amazon keeps an eye on this stress fundamentally through development. For example, the association uses impelled information and correspondence developments to ensure that its online retail benefits are capable and profitable for target customers. Such progressions are moreover used to help most outrageous capability of Amazon’s web business exercises.


The objective in this key decision area is to support nature of operational respect satisfy the wants for customers. Inc’s. Exercises organization approach incorporates incessant change tries in its online business. The association uses its progressive culture to help imaginative idea creation among specialists.


An objective of exercises organization is to upgrade age techniques and breaking point. In this key decision domain, Amazon applies expansive motorization to streamline its business shapes.

The receptiveness of advantages and markets is considered in this key decision zone of undertakings organization. By virtue of Inc., the highlight is on the crucial region of conveyance focuses or fulfilment centres. For example, Amazon must keep up dispersion focuses that are in a perfect world near the greatest possible number of customers of the online retail business.


In this key decision district, errands managers have the objective of upgrading the improvement of HR, materials, and information. Amazon keeps an eye on this objective through gainful configuration designs that line up with PC helped frames.

Human resource progression is the focus in this indispensable decision district. Amazon’s exercises organization uses a blend of in-house business techniques and untouchable work workplaces

The exercises organization stress in this key decision region is to streamline the store system to help various leveled objectives. Amazon does accordingly through robotization and engaging suppliers and buyers to get to a part of its IT assets.

In stock organization, errands organization’s accentuation is on keeping up perfect stock asking for and holding. Amazon keeps an eye on this indispensable decision locale through a finished stock using without a minute to save stock organization in a couple of districts.


Exercises chiefs think about widely appealing and at this very moment date-books to ensure that benefits satisfy promote needs. In this key decision region, Amazon relies upon the relationship of suppliers for its online retail business. For example, suppliers get to the association’s site to choose ask for levels and complete their transportation and movement designs in like way


This indispensable decision district underscores the unfaltering quality and dauntlessness of business frames. Inc’s. errands organization incorporates particular gatherings for keeping up imaginative assets. In addition, workers are much of the time arranged to keep up human resource capacity to satisfy the association’s prerequisites for its online business.
Advertising STRATEGY


Amazon is a worldwide online business association, using relationship with the web from various contraptions, for instance, phones and tablets, to empower its customers to scrutinize and purchase items quickly. These things are then passed on to the customer, using transport advantage associations. Amazon has built up a gigantic thing base, and offers almost everything, including:

• Kindle

• Books

• DVDs

• Mobile phones/tablets

• Gaming consoles and beguilement’s

• Clothes for men/women and children

• Jewellery

• Gardening gear

Amazon at initially started just with books and it is till date known as the most lifted book shop on the planet. This is the reason, Amazon in like manner exhibited Kindle. Leniently is a digital book follower from Amazon and the reason the appropriating market is having such a noteworthy change of changing over hard paper to automated eBooks because of effortlessness of scrutinizing by Kindle. As a result of achievement of Kindle, Amazon also introduced Kindly fire – its own specific tablet pc.


In the progressing past, areas, for instance, India court and all school stuff were constrained to close due to the nonattendance of trust when acquiring items on the web. In any case, the brand picture of Amazon enables it to have a far and wide closeness and the essential worry of the association is adequate to engage colossal R;D tries to secure the site. Amazon has customer advantage bases in a substantial number of the countries where it has an online proximity, with most bases being arranged in the differing states of the USA.


While Amazon has conveyed TV promotions, these are generally in the American market. Amazon uses generally internet publicizing, and they make some use of board and smaller techniques for advancing. Amazon in like manner uses advancing frameworks online with the objective that at whatever point you check something on Amazon, you will see a promotion for a comparable thing somewhere else on some other website.


Amazon is forceful with its expenses, and has little strategies for staying before its market peers. For example, if you are planning to buy a book, Amazon offers you another copy, or a used copy as well, add up to with assessing and condition.




In view of its underlying triumphs with books, Amazon directly has thing characterizations that join devices, toys, entertainments, home and kitchen, white items, dull hued stock and extensively more. Amazon has created as an overall E-business mammoth over the latest 2 decades.


Association’s solid CRM has made customer driven techniques remembering the true objective to carefully record data on customer’s obtaining conduct. This engages them to offer individual things, related things or bundle them as an offer, in light of slants appeared through purchases or things passed by.


Remembering the ultimate objective to isolate itself, association has made a couple of key co activities with various associations to offer dominating customer advantage. The most basic key tie ups are with co appointments providers who control costs. This contributes in a strong Value chain.


With its essential associates and in view of its Amazon fulfilment centres, Amazon has made a significant and sorted out movement mastermind remembering the true objective to make the thing open even at remote territories. It moreover has free of cost transport charges in particular geologies.


By using the arrangement of “Go worldwide and act close-by”, Amazon can fight with neighbourhood E-exchange associations through holding and by confining/coordinating with generation organize associations. The checking too is finished by neighbourhood taste.


Getting associations like,,, et cetera has wound up being a powerful and wage making advance for the E business goliath.



On account of wide transport mastermind and esteem wars Amazons edges are contracting, which is realizing even mishaps. In India, Amazon had lost $359 crs in the year 2013-14.


Amazon has pulled in negative notoriety by ideals of Tax Avoidance in countries like U.S and UK. A substantial segment of its pay is made from these settled markets.


In various making nations Amazon is so far endeavouring to make the business beneficial in this manner impacting the general profit of the social occasion coming to fruition into High commitment.


Amazon pushed the fire phone in the US which was a noteworthy tumble. Meanwhile, Kindle fire did not get as determinedly as Kindle did. In this way, there were a couple of thing tumbles which caused an engraving in Amazon’s significant pockets.



Amazon can think about its In-house checks in different thing orders. They can moreover isolate their publicizing. This will empower them to impact benefits in extremely forceful E-exchange to promote.


Augmentation basically in Asian and making economies will help Amazon in light of the fact that those are the business areas with low competition in E-exchange endeavours and are not splashed like made economies.


By getting E-business associations it can lessen the resistance level and similarly can use the particular furthest reaches of the other association.


By doing this Amazon can help the customers with drawing in with the brand, achieving augmentation in reiterate purchases and addition in loyal customer base.



Low section hindrances impact the present player’s business as more association infers exceptional competition, esteem wars, contracting edges and setbacks happening into investigating the sensibility of the players.


Not having clarity on the issues related to FDI in multi stamp retail, has been a noteworthy hindrance in the achievement of the E-exchange players in various making nations.


India has Snap arrangement and Flipkart who are adjacent business retailers and are taking without end larger piece of the market. Likewise, there are various adjacent players who take eats from the bit of the general business thusly making it hard for a noteworthy player like Amazon to make benefits.

CONCLUSION is an open asserted association, which bases on labourers and extraordinary organizations. It is amass arranged created symptom. Amazon’s site offers the ability to show a sweeping extent of stock. Productive and easy to investigate help and FAQ pages have the impact in smooth shopping learning. Building a customer bunch holds customers coming back to the site. It furthermore empowers clients to identify with the brand. Amazon has made an ardent customer base of millions, as a result of a particularly viable web buying foundation and momentous customer advantage. With some controlling eagerness for standard Web districts, casual trade from customers, the straightforwardness of correspondence using email and choices, for instance, favouring assertions, has made a champion among the most understood home-shopping goals today. in like manner should have a perpetual customer feedback program where they could exchange see on the organizations and things most needed to be increased online by customers. Top level organization social occasions should be begun to ensure destinations are proficient.

Introduction:- Incident reaction could be a crucial component of each associations security. It gives the security net for when the unavoidable happens and other controls fail. A great incident reaction group will moreover have subject matter specialists who can direct your whole organisation’s security procedure.
The below mentioned list of roles and duties that are utilized when building an Incident Response plan at an employer. Each environment is special, so you’ll ought to inquire about your own prerequisites and after that tailor a design or plan that meets your requirements. For the most part, the types of duties and roles that ought to present in an IR work are:
1. IR Officer.
2. IR Manager.
3. IR Assessment Group.
4. Remote IR Facilitator and
5. IR caretaker.
Now, we will look into the responsibilities of the above stakeholders while incidents occurring in an Organization.
1. Incident Response Officer:- This officer is the IR champion that has extreme responsibility for the activities of the IR group and IR work. This officer ought to be an official level representative such as a CISO or other such corporate agents. It would be exceptionally useful in case this person has coordinate reporting access to the CEO and may be a peer of other C-level officials.
2. IR Manager:- This officer is the person that leads the endeavors of the IR group and arranges exercises between all of its individual teams. Regularly, this officer would get beginning IR cautions and be capable for actuating the IR group and overseeing all parts of the Incident Response process, from disclosure, appraisal, remediation and finally determination. This person reports to the IR Officer.
3. IR Assessment Group:- This team people is composed of the distinctive regions adjusted by the Incident Response group. This permits the ability from each critical discipline to weigh in on categorizations and severity choices once an incident has been distinguished. It is exceptionally useful to have agents from Security, IT, Application Support and other commerce zones. In the occasion of an occurrence, the Incident Response Manager would assemble details of the occurrence from the affected location, begin tracking and documentation and after that enact the Evaluation Group. This group would then examine the points of interest’s of the occurrence and based on their ability and information of the commerce, would then be able to allot a beginning seriousness. This group reports to the Incident Response Manager.
4. Remote IR Facilitator:- This officer role could be alloted to capable and qualified people that are found in other geographic regions. These people eventually report to the Incident Reaction Manager but in their geographic locale, they are recognized as Incident Response pioneers. This will permit these collaborators to oversee the endeavors of neighborhood caretakers during an occurrence. This setup is exceptionally valuable, particularly for organizations that have workplaces in different time zones. In case an Incident Response Supervisor is located in the US but an occurrence happens in a Malaysian department, it’ll be helpful to have a nearby security pioneer that’s able to coordinate endeavors and give status upgrades to the Incident Manager. This way, in any case of the time zone the proper activities will be invoked instantly.
5. IR caretaker:- These people are the technical specialists and application support agents that would be called upon to help within the remediation and determination of a given occurrence. They report to the IR Manager or to the Remote IR Coordinator(s) based up on their region(s).
Conclusion:- Once you have been capable to recognize the right partners that will form your group, you may have to be give an activity system they’ll be able to utilize when carrying out their duties. Think of this “activity framework” as a set of preparing wheels that will direct your Incident Response group.

The automotive industry is one of the booming business in United States. The industry has
shown tremendous growth rate in recent years with latest innovation in design process, supply
chain, manufacturing process, and value being offered. The leading company in automotive
industries are GM, Toyota, Honda, Ford, BMW, and Porsche. However, due to increasing
demand, unpredictable customer desires, and expectations has triggered automotive industry in
designing and manufacturing process. This report analyses the operations and manufacturing
process of GM in the United States automotive industry. In this report we will compare
competitive advantage of operation strategy for GM against his two rivals Toyota Motors and
Honda Motors. TM has revolutionized the manufacturing processes with the development of just
being-in-time. Where HM has recognition through its product quality and ingenuity in
manufacturing design.
Operation strategy:
General Motors Company is primarily in automotive business originating in US and sells
automotive products globally. GM designs, manufactures, and sells cars, trucks, and
SUV’s/crossovers. GM manufactures and sells automotive parts, the GM financing company is a
subsidiary that also provides automotive financing services to clients and end-users. The US is a
part of subsidiaries of General Motors Company, which is known as a General Motors North
America (GMNA). The General Motors South America is not reported along with the international operations under the subsidiary General Motors International (GMI).

Process Design:
In process designing GM have product focus rather than functional focus. GM designed vehicles
makes an emotional connection with their customers, that’s what they believe while designing it.
The exterior and interior part of a vehicle is designed in such a way that customer starts
growing relationship with their vehicles and it grows further and further. GM’s most of the
global passenger car brand is different from one another and from other brands available in the
marketplace. GM’s global vision is look ahead and believe that the design is in forefront of
global change and if this trend continues, then 70% of vehicle portfolio will be replaced within
the next three years. GM’s global structure allows the design team to make new vehicles with the
help of dedicated people who are focused to use new technology and tools to bring them into the
market. Our diversity is unmatched which helps in fueling creativity process. Their mission is
every new product they develop it has to be home run, so each one is a great vehicle. GM was
the first global automobile manufacturing company to single out automobile design. GM and
GM design have balance in between practical and design principles, adapting to latest technology
trends and needs while maintaining a preserving an architectural masterpiece. GM design is the
first and largest global automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEM) design function.

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GM have Something call Tree to create in designing. From challenges come great opportunities
and great discoveries.

Capacity Planning:
In automotive industries, power enjoyed by company plays an important role in the
whole supply chain settings and agreements. Despite extraordinarily complexity, GM believes
that working with suppliers improve mutual performance which has edge over significant
progress and in overall results. Today’s complex, competitive, and dynamic automotive market
trends require automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to balance their demand-
supply equation.GM manufactures, assembles, sell and service products at various facilities
around the world These facilities are typically designed to produce particular models for
particular geographical markets. No single facility is designed to manufacture our full range of
vehicles. GM’s automotive operations are dependent upon continued ability of suppliers to
deliver the systems that GM need to manufacture the product the use of JUST-IN-TIME
manufacturing process allows GM to maintain minimal inventory quantities of systems. The
global automotive industry is highly competitive and overall manufacturing capacity in the
industry far exceeds demand. GM maintains 300 facilities, including 150 manufacturing plants
operations in 30 countries. GM supply/Demand totally depends on suppliers on time efficiency.
GM supplier business council consist of 12 suppliers and they meet on monthly basis with GPSC
leadership team. Localization play an important factor in GM’s supply strategy as, when we
build where we sell and buy where we build. GM vehicles are more competitive because of
pricing benefits and built to suit local unique requirements that drives customer enthusiasm and
brand loyalty with minimal inventories.

Water erosion is the detachment and removal of soil material by water. The method could also be natural or accelerated by human action. The rate of erosion could also be very slow to rapidly intensive depending on the soil, the natural landscape, and atmospheric condition. Water erosion is a two-way process involving the detachment and removing and moving of soil particles. Water erosion usually happens when raindrops hit the soil surface and they create displacement in soil particles. Water erosion causes loss of surface soil, reduced crop yields, damaged infrastructure, weed dispersal, and silting of dams and natural waterways. The average annual direct cost of water erosion to dryland farming in Western Australia is estimated to be $10 million, however, the costs are much higher in years of severe summer storms.Scour is engineering form of erosion therefore, scour is the process of removal of material from a stream bed by the erosive action of flowing water. The result in a local lowering of the stream bed below the natural average level and subsequent enlargement of the flow cross-sectional. Scour is distinguished from degradation therein as the latter is not the local phenomenon. once the incoming sediment load to a reach of the sediment river is a smaller amount than the transport capacity of the watercourse, the flow picks up the material from bed and banks thereby lowering the bed level of the river a long stretch. This method is termed degradation. Whereas scour is due to increased turbulence during a small reach, degradation is because of deficient sediment provide in relevance transport capacity over a long reach.

Bridge scouring is the main factors in this era, failure of bridge design and collapse occurs when there is the worst design of piers and foundation has used. Scouring is a slow process and it usually starts near the foundation area of bridge structures and weather condition may cause of this problem. When a sediment stream is partially obstructed by hydraulic structures like bridge piers, abutments, spurs etc., scour happen within the vicinity of the structure. To emphasize the fact that the lowering the bed level happens only within the vicinity of structures. The term used local scour is commonly used in this connection. Local scour around bridge piers happen because of the flow pattern within the area adjacent the pier changes radically causing an area increase within the sediment transport capacity. This cause the development of the scour hole around the pier, that in turn changes the flow pattern. Constriction of the flow at the pier additionally leads to increase the rate within the entire which of the river at the bridge site leading to scour. Especially if the width blockage is large, this form of scour is known as construction scour. The estimation of scour depth around bridge pier is a major concern of a civil or a bridge engineers. The estimation of scour depth leads to the design of too shallow a foundation and consequent exposure of the foundation endangering the safety of the bridge. Therefore, knowledge of the anticipated maximum scours depth for design discharge is important for good and solid design of the foundation of the bridge piers and abutments.

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Scour near coastal structures has been the topic of analysis efforts for several years. To adequately study this problem, researchers should address the various effects of waves, wind, tide, currents, and storm surge on both the structure itself and the bed on which the structure resides. Among the foremost common are issues related to toe scour at, the base of piles, toe scour at vertical seawalls and especially scour at horizontal pipelines.

Another Pivotal problem which often confronts the civil engineer is excessive erosion or scouring at the outlet end of culverts. Nature’s methodology of keeping erosion under control on mild slopes is to spread the runoff over a wide area. of the watershed that the flow depths are shallow and resistance to flow rather high. usually, the main road embankment crossing a watershed disrupts the drainage set up of nature therein the runoff from a large space is funneled to culverts where the flow is targeted within a small space. This concentration of flow into a culvert will suddenly increase the scouring ability of the flowing fluid at the culvert outlet since the flow has been accelerated. The accelerated flow must travel a long way before it will distribute again over a wide space when it has passed through the culvert. As time elapses, erosion or scoring will increase, and scour control becomes more difficult and costly. it’s no longer realistic to think about only the initial cost of a culvert and ignore future maintenance.

Literature Review:
A hydraulic or infrastructure is mostly studied to produce a practical measure to solve an identified problem when problem identification subsequent stages are determined by a series of choices and actions culminating within the creation of a structure or structures to resolve the problem. Aspects which will influence the ultimate outcome of the design process need to be assessed. Additionally, to hydraulic, geotechnical and engineering characteristics, phenomena such as social conditions, economics, environmental impact, and safety needs also influence the design process. Within the scope of the Dutch Delta works, systematic analysis with respect to the prediction of the formation of scour holes was conducted by the Dutch Ministry of Transport, construction and Water Management and Delft mechanics. When the catastrophic flood disaster in 1953, the Delta plan was formulated to protect the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta against future disasters. Dams with large-scale sluices were planned in some estuaries. The severe scour that was expected necessitated the acquisition of a far better understanding of the scour process.

Bridge scour has been a topic of interest and importance to people from the time of the earliest civilization. Most likely the initially recorded references to the topic appear in the Leonardian manuscripts. In modern time, the first systematic studies of bridge pier scour were undertaken in Germany at the Zeuner laboratory by Engles in the early 20th century (Rose and Ince,1957). Later, a significant study of scour at piers and scour countermeasures was undertaken at the Chatou laboratory by Chabert and Engeldinger (1956). Their wonderful information was the first to Illustrate the vital distinction between clear water and live bed scour. At about a similar time, Laursen and others published results from the comprehensive investigation of bridge scour at The Lowa Institute of Hydraulic analysis, (Laursen and Toch, 1956; and Laursen, (1962,1963). Perhaps the most important contribution of the Lowa studies was the conception of adapting Straub’s (1934) solution to scour in the long rectangular contraction to the case of local scour at piers and abutments. Another earlier U.S.A scour studies of note were conducted at Colorado State University by Shen et al. (1966,1969) on the pier scour and Liu et al. (1961) on scour at abutments. Garde et al. (1961) and Gill (1972,1981) additionally created a necessary contribution to data of scour at abutments. Meanwhile, Lacey (1930,1934), blench (1969) and others were incorporating methodology of estimation of local scour in the development of the regime theory of flow in alluvial channels. In Canada, the Canadian Goods Road Association published practical guidelines on bridge hydraulics, (Neill 1964,1973, and 1987). Here are some examples of bridge failure mechanisms.

Figure 1 Bridge Failure Mechanisms

Figure 2 Bridge Failure Mechanisms
Factors Influence Scouring:
The geomorphic, flood flow transport, bed sediments and bridge geometric factors that may affect the depth of scour at any structure foundations like bridge piers, Culverts, pipelines. According to Grahams in 1983 these are the main reason for scouring at any infrastructures.

• Geomorphic Factors:
Geomorphic Factors influencing bridge to scour are often divided into catchment characteristic and river characteristics. Generally, these influences are more important and useful for general scour instead of for localized scour. The catchment characteristic includes climate factors and the geography, vegetation and soil characteristics of the catchments. These factors are of primary importance because they determine the water and sediment transport rates at the bridge site. Also, the potential for debris accumulating at bridge foundations and exacerbating any scour depends on the type and quantity of vegetation within the catchment. The scour of floating woody debris that accumulates on a bridge in bank erosion. each flow and solid in mountainous regions have also been cited as significant sources of woody debris to waterways. Similarly, aggradation problems were experienced following a serve storm in 1994 at several bridges on the highway which follows the shore of Lake Wanaka in New Zealand (Case Studies D.3a to D.3d). Rivers in flat regions are typically alluvial, with wide channels incorporating flood channels and having fine bed materials. Similarly, aggradation problems were faced in 1994 storm in different bridges on the highway towards Lake Wanaka in New Zealand.

Figure 3 Debris Flow Effect at Bridge

Figure 4 Bank Erosion New Zealand
• Flood Flow Transport Factors:
Transport factors relate to water transport, sediment transport, and debris transport. they’re significant roles for determinant general scour and localized scour. The water flow is characterized for scour functions, using a flood flow hydrograph, the spatial and temporal distributions of fluid velocity and flow depth. Consideration of sediment transport determines whether conditions are the live bed or clear water scour. below live-bed conditions, the sediment transport rate and bed from characteristics are important factors. Bridge scour will be much increased by the accumulation of floating debris at bridge foundations.

Not all bridge scour issues are rainfall influence. Volcanic activity may result in large floods which might transport large quantities of debris and sediment. On Christmas Eve,1953, the railway bridge over the Whangaehu Rivers near Tnagiwai (North Island, New Zealand) failing once a lahar caused by the unexpected release of a large volume of water from the crater lake on Mount Ruapehu. the amount of water discharged from the lake has approximately estimated at 2 million cubic meters, the resulting flood hydrograph having a very steep rising and producing a flood.

Figure 5 Floating Debris Effects at Bridge Piers
• Bed Foundation Sediment:
Bed-sediment factors at waterways in which infrastructure sites like bridges, culverts, pipelines, Creeks including particle size distribution and for noncohesive sediments, the partial distribution of sediment sizes, each areally and vertically. Scour at structure especially at bridges supported on cohesive soils is extremely complicated phenomena. The scour condition of fine-grained soils can’t be evaluated based on grain size characteristic due to the complicated physiochemical interaction between colloidal particles, the effect of pore water pressure, and the result of preloading. Not only do most of these factors vary significantly with time at a specific site, but they vary from part of a site to a different part, and from one site to a different site, even within the same deposit of fine-grained soil. Bedrock level determines the probably limit for bridge foundation depth. Bridge foundation on the rock is often subject to scour if the rock is erodible. According to figure given below limit of scouring exceeding 2meter in siltstone and shale layers under the spillway at Saylorville Dam on the Des Moines Rivers, near Johnston Lowe USA.

Figure 6 Flooding USA 1993
The siltstone cap-rock was thought to protect the underlying sedimentary rock. The cut across the rock layers occurred because of the results of the first-time flow through the spillway during flooding in 1993. The process of scour in soft rock is caused also by weathering and abrasion. According to Figure and analysis, 1.7(b) shows scour of weathered ignimbrite within the river channel downstream of a spillway on the Aniwhenua Barrage. The jointed, weakly-commented ignimbrite blocks fail by plucking under pressure gradients established by the flow. Scour depth of two to three meters have been recorded.

Figure 7 Weathered Effects New Zealand

Figure 8 Failure of Railway Bridge New Zealand
The main objective of this project is to promote studies and analysis leading to practices and system of soil conservation and environmental protection. one in all the main step towards researching this objective is the identification, selection, and use of the appropriate methodologies is a prerequisite for the development of soil conservation practices that are adapted to specific agroecological and socioeconomic conditions, for sustainable agriculture in countries around the world.

Most of the world’s soil formed in sediments deposited over geological time by water erosion or through the action of glaciers and volcanic eruptions. the issues with soil erosion are found in its consequences. soil erosion, accelerated relative to natural rates by human activities, reduces crop productivity and cause damage resulting from sediment transport and deposition. Sediment damage to water resources is of increasing importance, significantly in developed countries like united states. The aim of this project primarily with erosion processes, significantly in the terms of definition and measurements, with a goal of predicting and controlling erosion. The quantification of the forms, rate, and extent of erosion has been the primary goal of soil erosion-related research worldwide. As a result, more is known is concerning the erosion process than the results of water erosion.

This research is determining to scour or erosion in different waterways structures like Bridges, Culverts, Creeks, and Pipelines. In this general and very significant issues usually happened after a natural disaster including Flooding, Weather effects, Cyclones etc. My research is based on different factors of scour and their methods that how we can protect any waterways structures from erosion also known as scouring. There are pivotal methods that’s lead to protect waterways structure in any kind of heavy rainfalls and other natural way impact sources. The aim of this research being an Engineer is very important and useful. Strong infrastructure with the reliable design is the main key is a success for any Engineer, especially Civil Engineer which mostly deals with infrastructures like Railway, highway, bridges, Dams, Sewerage lines, and Culverts etc. There is the number of different structures that deal with natural waterways, but my research is based upon following waterways structures which usually damaged the cause of scouring. There is three main natural waterways structure that includes.

• Scour at Bridge Piers
• Scour at Culverts
• Scour at Pipelines
According to details given above these are the key focal point in my research work. Successful Design structure in natural waterways is the main and very important initial step for Engineers. Scour usually starts when you have not enough strong foundation of structures and it can be caused by your design failure as well. Weather condition is also very important in waterways structure especially in a hill station, as most of the time rain falling land sliding, flooding usually happened. Designing engineers need to consider these natural disasters while preparing a structure design. Civil engineers also need to consider cost and their liability factors to success the structures life. Scouring is a slow but continuous process when the water starts removing sand and backfilling material from the vicinity of foundation then structures start getting weak and damage. Secondly, reinforcement of material their strength and bonding are a very important factor to control erosion in natural waterways structures. We can use different types of material to control erosion according to site condition and requirement. In this research, I will discuss different approaches and method to control water erosion for waterways structures like bridges, culverts, and pipelines.

Scour at waterways structure is very common now a day, especially when you have not enough rigid material near the foundation of structures. In Rural area of some countries including India, Nepal etc. As they have faced a high rate of floods due to rainfalls and weather condition factors. In the rural area, they used gravel material around culverts to resist erosion, but during the flood and intensive acceleration of flow this ductile material not able to resist.
The significance of Study:
This study will contribute;lr=;id=SoIA3P1zLAEC;oi=fnd;pg=PR11;dq=method+to+protect+scouring+at+bridge+piers;ots=SLmbVuP5pB;sig=Bg1qRGVUgfdMe7Xt-8u_B5DC-Ng#v=onepage;q;f=true;lr=;id=1TK7dEOIM4gC;oi=fnd;pg=PR5;dq=objective+of+research+in+erosion;ots=jXJfWqNeWI;sig=QRa9tMm7X91IsH7qcv0RZC57GHg#v=onepage;q=objective%20of%20research%20in%20erosion;f=false

Lev Vygotsky was a Soviet psychologist, who affected with his theories the instructive action and contributed with them to the modern educational processes and curricula. Vygotsky’s theory, known as social constructivism, emphasizes that learning takes place through the communication of the individual with the social environment. He expresses the socio-focused perspective of development, according to which the social context determines the content and the direction of development, and mediates, in order for the individual to appropriate the collective perceptions. According to his theories, learning takes precedence and leads to growth and this idea is the basis for his educational suggestions.
Since the ancient times education was vital aspect for the formation of societies as well as for the personal identity of individuals. In any case, with the progression of time education differentiated in terms of its form and consequently in terms of its practices. This implies that these days “it is important for children and young people to develop an understanding of the complexity of contemporary life in order to be enabled to participate fully and democratically as informed, critical and responsible members of the many overlapping communities and interest groups that constitute contemporary society” (Wells, 2000).
Vygotsky’s innovative ideas about teaching and learning process:
The traditional behavioral model of teaching defined educators as “transmitters” and students as “receivers” of knowledge (Moore, 2012) with the teaching procedure being “teacher-centered”. On the contrary, Vygotsky’s views adopted components from the constructivist model, suggesting that teachers ought to be active participants in the learning communication, while the teaching process should be like a dialogue (Moore, 2012) with continuous interaction between the teacher and their students.
Additionally, Lev Vygotsky in his educational theory expressed some reflections on how teaching and learning processes should be dealt with, in order for these to be improved. About the role of the classroom, it is described as a “collaborative community”, where every one of the members (both the teacher and the students) cooperates for the common good and the benefit of all, and therefore, learning is achieved through the interaction of individuals. The activities that the participants take part “must allow diversity and originality”, which is effortlessly reasonable, since classrooms are complexities consisted of a lot of different people and all of them should have equal opportunities through learning. Regarding with the results of these activities, these cannot be predicted in advance, since they depend on students’ different reactions and interactions in the classroom. Besides, it is indicated that the “curriculum is a means not an end”. In particular, the curriculum defines the aims and the goals of education, thus teachers and students should have it as a motive to explore new teaching and learning methods, rather to follow it as a scripture without alternatives. (Wells, 2000)
Lev Vygotsky in his theory also points out the students’ micro-group collaboration, where peers inform, explain and mediate in a guiding way new knowledge. This dialectical interaction creates the dynamics of the “Zone of Proximal Development”, which is defined as the distance between the actual developmental level determined by the ability to solve a problem individually and the potential developmental level determined by the ability to solve a problem by adult guidance or through collaboration with more capable peers.
Critical reflections on Vygotsky’s perspectives:
While reading about the educational theories communicated by Lev Vygotsky in the early 20th century, I was quite impressed of how innovative was his ideas for that time period and how contemporary some of them may sound even today. “Vygotskyan theory … calls for an approach to learning and teaching that is both exploratory and collaborative. It also calls for a reconceptualization of curriculum …” (Wells, 2000). Personally, I strongly support the point of view according to which the teaching and learning processes can be achieved through inquiry from students, even in the narrow boundaries of a school classroom. In such cases, the teacher’s role is to be the “scaffolding”, by providing their students “with helpful frameworks or guidelines to make it easier for them to structure their thoughts …” (Moore, 2012).
Concerning the curricular formulation, it is unfortunate that most of the times curricula are oriented towards the transfer of knowledge and skills, without paying attention to the “needs and aspirations of the recipients”, impeding the alternative ways of teaching and learning, instead of facilitating them (Wells, 2000). To my mind, curricula that are designed independently from the educational processes in school classrooms and which do not count the demands of the contemporary societies cannot be helpful for the students and do not give them the opportunity to cultivate their personal identity.
However, in spite of its modern and innovative approach, the Vygotskyan theory faces some challenges in practice. It is almost edgy the way that Lev Vygotsky approaches the learning procedure, since he divides it into the “scientific learning”, which is “learned through deliberate instruction in school” and into the “everyday learning, which is “acquired outside the classroom setting and typically held in an ‘unreflecting way'” (Moore, 2012). Moreover, according to Moore the scaffolding technique, despite the fact that it is very useful pedagogic technique, when it is overly used it turns into a “mechanism”, which limits the free and critical thought of students, by putting them on prescribed paths of knowledge, which most of the times are determined by the state curriculum.
To conclude, I tend to believe that the Vygotskyan educational theory can be a very useful tool both for the educators, who create curricula, in order to improve the educational systems so that students to have better learning opportunities, and for teachers and students during the teaching and learning process, to have better results in the school classrooms. As Lev Vygotsky claimed in his theory, “pedagogy should be aimed not so much at the ripe as at the ripening functions”. … “Teachers do make a difference” (Moore, 2012).


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