If the number of data values are too much, then it becomes very difficult to analyse. If the dimensions are too large and grows leaps and bounds it would be very hard to perform operations on those values. To get rid of this humongous problem, a matrix can be created to show the correlation between pairs of eye values. Patterns can then be obtained from the matrix which helps analyse the data. It removes all the clutter and allows for an efficient procedure of calculation. A new dimension of data can be brought into picture by an user performing the task. The values are displayed both horizontally and vertically in a matrix cell. Some kind of grouping is required to form a structure among the pairs of data.
For demonstration purposes, we have decided to use three common metrics in eye tracking: average fixation duration (M2), average saccade length (M3), and average task completion time (M4). Additionally, we used the similarity of transition matrices (M1) as a metric 11. A 3D transition matrix is computed based on all sub-scanpaths with three subsequent fixations. More precisely, the fixation labels were used to generate a 3D transition matrix by counting how often a particular label sequence occurred. Thereby, a 3D transition matrix was created for each scanpath, which was interpreted as a 1D vector. The similarity calculation is now reduced to calculating the Euclidean distance of two vectors.
For each metric, we calculate similarity values svMi for each pair of participants Pl,m (for a given stimuli s). We denote the similarity values as svl,m,M1, svl,m,M2, svl,m,M3, and svl,m,M4.
In total, for 20 participants, we will have 80 different values for one participant in the form of PlsvMi, where 1?l?20 and 1?i?4. Our visualization technique uses dimensional-stacked rectangular sub-grids, where we added a sub-grid in each matrix cell. The sub-grid contains the calculated similarity values svl,m,Mi. They are stored in clock-wise direction. There are many visualization techniques that can be used to show multi-dimensional data. In general, it is very easy to use a matrix-based visualization scheme for visual exploration as shown in Figure 1, but it becomes more challenging with an increasing number of attributes. This is in particular the case, if a larger number of matrices is involved, where each encodes the information of one metric. To overcome the problem of comparing several matrices, we introduced a matrix-based visualization that we used to explore the features extracted from eye movement data. A matrix cell is used to encode multiple similarity values, following the concept of dimensional stacking: embedding dimensions within other dimensions.
Distribution of attention can be understood by eye-tracking. It gives valuable information about your visitors who use the website. It can help us answer questions like what are users mostly looking at or focusing on, how long do they spend looking at a particular thing, the order in which they look at things, if you came back to look at something that you had already looked at. Eye contact is very important in communication. The way of gazing hints upon your cognitive processes happening in the brain. To look at a thing in the world, your eye has look at it for a minimum amount of time for the brain to process it. This is called a fixation (pauses of at least 0.1s). Looking at a particular spot happens during a fixation and you can concentrate with high accuracy only at one thing. To understand the complete scene, your eye has to fastly scan continuously for your brain to understand. This quick rapid movement is called as saccades. They are short lasting hops of about 2 degrees or more that take 0.03s to 0.12s. When your eye just follows a spot on a screen, it happens smoothly and is termed as pursuit movement. Fovea is the spot of highly accurate vision, makes an angle of 1 degree at the eye.
Gaze is faster when you want to target large sized items. Eye can be used as a replacement for mouse cursor on an interface. Since eye is not very accurate, the focus would be offset by a few pixels. It might be difficult to hit on the desired target. So, eye is combines with another or some form of modality like a speech signal confirming the target. A better graphic display can be created on the basis of real time eye movement data.