i

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled ‘TECHNOLOGY READINESS
AND ADOPTION OF E-GOVERNANCE SERVICES IN HARYANA’
submitted by Sourabh Bhatt, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
Degree of Master of Philosophy in Commerce is completed under my
supervision. It may be sent for evaluation.

SUPERVISOR
Prof. Tejinder Sharma
Department of Commerce
Kurukshetra University

ii

CANDIDATE DECLARATION
I, Sourabh Bhatt declare that all the material embodied in this dissertation
entitled “TECHNOLOGY READINESS AND ADOPTION OF E-
GOVERNANCE SERVICES IN HARYANA” has been collected by me and
has been cited in the text and body of this work wherever required.

Dated:
Place:
______________________
Signature of Candidate
Name ________________

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Perseverance, inspection and motivation have played a key role in success of
any venture.
At this level of understanding it is quite difficult to understand the wide
spectrum of knowledge. Without proper guidance and advice making this study
was a difficult task for me.
There is always a sense of gratitude which one should express to others for the
helpful and needy services that render during all phases of life.
I would also like to do so as I really wish to express my gratitude towards all
those who have been helpful to me in getting this mighty task of research to a
successful end.
First of all, I would like to thank the almighty God who has always guided me
to work on the right track of my life. Next to him, are my parents who have
given me full support and guided me to do the best. I also want to express my
appreciation to Anmol Sheoran, Vikas Keorak, Neeraj Bindra and my friends.
I am thankful to Professor Tejinder Sharma Department of Commerce,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra under her supervision I completed my
research work.

Sourabh Bhatt

iv

LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Title of Table Page No.
1.1 E-government imperative
1.2 E-government projects 16
1.3 E-government services 19
3.1 Variables for adoption of e-governance and technology
readiness
36
3.2 Statistics of total reliability 40
3.3 Reliability Statistics 41
3.4 descriptive statistics of variables 41
3.5 District wise sample profile 45
3.6 Classification of respondent on the basis of age 45
3.7 Classification of respondent on the basis of qualifications 46
3.8 Classification of respondents on the basis of gender 46
4.1 Descriptive statistics of variables 47
4.2 Bartlett’s Test 50
4.3 Communalities 52
4.4 Initial Eigenvalues 53
4.5 Component Score Coefficient Matrix 55
4.6 Rotated component matrix 58
4.7 Rotated component matrix(Factor-wise) 59

LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph no. Title of Graph Page No.
1 Digital profile of India 11
2 eTaal (sector wise transactions) 17
3 Top five sectors and its transactions 18
4 Bottom five sectors and its transactions 18

v

CONTENTS
Chapter Description Page No.
1 Introduction 1-21
2 Literature Review 22-34
3 Research Methodology 35-46
4 Analysis and Interpretation 47-64
5 Conclusion and suggestion 65-66
6 Limitation 67
Bibliography 68-71
Appendix 72

1

TECHNOLOGY READINESS AND ADOPTION OF E-GOVERNANCE IN
HARYANA
Introduction
In the era of information and technology, everyone is using technology-
based services to save his time. It brings out a fundamental transformation in the
nature of the interaction between company and customer. The use of technology
is increasing in the usage of fields of work. Likewise, in the government sector,
work is now performed with the technology-based system. India is a country with
demographic dividend and largest democratic country. So it is most important for
the government to connect with its citizen. It is not easy in physical form to
connect with all citizen therefore technology is a plays important role in the
relationship between government and citizen.
E-governance is important with the help of information
and technology government functioning is now becoming more efficient and
effective and also increasing the productivity of governance related activity. E-
governance performs the function in order to simplify, more accountable,
responsive, transparent, governance system. E-governance is a new path
between citizen and government. It comprises the decisional process and also
helps to do activity in the faith of public affairs. The main purpose of focusing
governance is to improve the administrative process as well as the delivery of
public services citizen.
Technology Readiness Index
The technology-readiness construct refers to people’s propensity to
embrace and use new technologies for accomplishing goals in home life and at
work(parasurman,2000).TRI is construct with the factors of enabler and inhibitor
and they indicate the -overall state of mind toward use of new technology. In the
year 1994 Kotler developed the “triangle model” of interaction between company-
customer-employee. After that, parasurman developed the “pyramid model”. In
the pyramid model, the interaction between company customer-employee
transforms with technology. Now in the present era, companies uses the
technology in every stage of marketing. Likewise customers also change their

2

behavior according to interaction with technology services. Widespread use
technology and interaction in working environment effect on the photographic
condition. It is easy to assess with the help of technology readiness index.
There has been done a lot of research in the past regarding technology and
services but this research is mainly focused on the behavior of the consumers
with regard to the same psychological factor. This psychological factor nature is
not stable. In the tri focus on the mindset of consumer.TRI is not measure the
knowledge and competence. Further research by parshurman and by his
associated researchers around the world has demonstrated the relevance of the
construct in a range of contexts, both among consumers and professionals, in
areas including products, services, online government, learning, and healthcare.
Technology Readiness has proven to be a stable characteristic that does not
change easily for an individual. TR has two dimensions that are motivators and
two that are inhibitors

Motivator contributor
Optimism: A positive view of technology and a belief that it offers people
increased control, flexibility, and efficiency in their lives.
Innovativeness: A tendency to be a technology pioneer and thought leader.

3

Inhibitors
Discomfort: A perceived lack of control over technology and a feeling of being
overwhelmed by it.
Insecurity: Distrust of technology and scepticism about its ability to work properly

TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL
Davis proposes a theory of actual system use. Actual system use
depends on user motivation to use the system. Actual system of use depends on
system feature and capabilities. These feature and capabilities stimulate the
actual system to use
Theory of reasoned action
This theory was developed by Fishbein and Aizen. According to them, the actual
behavior depends on behavior intention. Behavior intention is concluded of
subjective norm and attitude toward behavior. The theory describes that the
attitude of a person towards a behavior may be positive or negative form, a given
behavior. Subjective norm is created with normative belief and motivation to
comply.
Theory of reasoned action is useful to predict the actual behavior of a person.
Davis uses this model to develop the technology acceptance model. Davis takes
changes in the theory of reasoned action. According to him, a subjective norm
could not consider predicting the actual behavior of a person because it is a least
understood aspect of TRA MODEL and not have any theoretical status.

Davis explained that the user is motivated by three factors:
Perceived
Usefulness
Attitude Toward
Using
Perceived
Ease of use
Actual use

4

Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude toward the system.
Attitude is the main component to accepting or reject the system use. Attitude is
be created by two major beliefs. First, perceived ease of use and other is
perceived usefulness. Both the factor influences with system characteristics.
Perceived usefulness: The degree to which an individual believes that using a
system would enhance his or her job performance
Perceived ease of use: the degree to which an individual believes that using a
particular system would be free of physical and mental effort.

Although there are many definitions of e-Governance, the objectives of
governments are indisputable: maintaining collective security, administering
justice, providing the institutional infrastructure of the economy and ensuring that
vital social capital is enhanced through improvements in health and education
and through strong families and communities (Dawes et al. 1999). A more
comprehensive definition of e-Governance proposes changes of government in
two related aspects: 1) transformation of the business of governance i.e. reducing
costs, improving service delivery and renewing processes; 2) re-examination of
the functions and processes of democracy itself (Aicholzer and Schmutzer 2000).
E-Governance : Conceptual Framework
E-governance refers using information and communication
technology by government to deliver public services. The e-governance activity
result benefits are less corruption increased transparency, greater convenience,
revenue growth and cost reduction.

5

Motives of e-governance
• Empowering people through information
• Delivery of better public services.
• Increasing transparency and accountability.
• Improving efficiency in governance activities.
• Enhancing the interface between government, citizen and other stakeholders.
E-governance needs all levels of government but the most important at the local
level due to being closest to general people. E-governance is an administrative
reform. E-governance makes maximum impact on the citizen. It refers also to
construct good governance. E-governance has to be comprehensive: it is not all
about IT. Comprehensive e-governance reforms cover (1)the process, (2)
preparedness and the technology (3) the people. India has 29 different states
with different level of e-readiness. So it is important to assess the readiness. Of
different areas, because a uniform policy cannot be implemented in all states and
also create difficulty at the last point may be failed. E-governance is not about
computer and internet. Instead it is about transforming the function of government
offline to online interactive between citizen government and other stakeholders.
The four pillars of e-government are
1. People
2. Process
3. Technology
4. Resource
Table :1.1
E-government imperative
Process Simplicity Efficiency Citizen
centrity
Sustainability
People Vision Leadership Commitment Competency

6

Technology Architecture Open standard Reliability Scalability
Resource Holistic Efficient Services
oriented
Cost efficient
Every government has core objective of the welfare of its citizen. A
government can perform so many functions like safeguarding the legal right of
citizen, equality process of public services and economic growth. With the help of
e-governance, government can performing easily these activities it is imperative
to the creation of general awareness toward e-governance among the citizen. In
the initial stage of ICT coming in the government sector but it’s used are at very
small scale because it was thought that the computerization of governance create
problem and not suitable for these a like activity. Another fact that government
employee had reluctant toward using computer and ICT. After some time it was
concluded that new technology is very user friendly.ICT sector creates
opportunities of employment and improving the process of governance after the
time ICT is a symbol of faster and better communication, efficient storage
processing of data and exchange and utilization of information to its user by
citizen, government and another stakeholders. To the use of computer and
increasing internet connectivity is motivating to use e-governance practices.
Using of ICT in governance, the governance process are going to re-engineering
it creates very healthy results in governance practice in way of more and
qualitative better decision and accountability and better utilization of resources.

According to the World Bank,
“E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information
technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing)
that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other
arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends:
better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with
business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or
more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less

7

corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or
cost reductions.”
UNESCO defines e-Governance as
“Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative
articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations. E-
Governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the
electronic medium in order to facilitate an efficient, speedy and transparent
process of disseminating information to the public, and other agencies, and for
performing government administration activities.”
Type of interactions in e-governance:-
Governance function interaction between different stakeholders in governance.
• Government to Government: the using of ICT services in governance. The
interaction with government on horizontal desk i.e. different government agencies
and also function with vertical like national, international agencies as well as
between different levels with an organization. It helps to achieve efficiency,
productivity in the performance of work of government.
• Government to Citizen: G2C interaction specifically for delivering public
services with efficiency and effectiveness: now, the availability and accessibility
of government public services are confirmed with e-governance. It gives
opportunities to citizen to interact with the government without any hassle. There
are various electronic mediums available to the citizen to connect with
government. All medium are citizen friendly.
• Government to Business: the government also interacts with the business
houses through electronic channels. Various legal practices are followed by the
government in electronic mode. It helps to save time, cut red tape, increase
operation efficiency, improving ease of doing business .all the activities like
licensing permit procurement are now in electronic mode. It creates a healthy
business environment.

8

• Government to Employees: the government is the biggest employer like
other organization employee interact with the government now electronic basic.
Use of ICT tool helps to interact with government quickly and efficient and
increases their level of satisfaction.
E-Governance model
Prof. Dr. Ark Halachmi in his paper, namely E-Government Theory and Practice:
The Evidence from Tennessee (USA) has given five important models of e-
governance, which can be used as a guide in designing e-government initiatives
depending on the local situation and governance activities that are expected to
be performed. These models are
E-Governance Models

1. Broadcasting Model: The model describe the use of information and
communication technology for reaching a wider public domain for the purpose of
advertising the various government schemes due to they become more
empowered to exercise their rights and responsibilities. It is useful for in
displaying in governmental law and regulation and making available information
to the public regarding government decision.
type of
interaction
in e-
governance
goverment
to
goverment
goverment to
citizen
goverment
to business
goverment
to
employee

9

2. The Critical flow Model: in the model emphasis on critical value information.
The role of this model channelized the information to a targeted audience with the
help of information and technology. This model is to focus on information content
and user-oriented Application of the model is applied on To make available
Research studies, enquiry reports, Impact studies commissioned by the
Government or Independent commissions to the affected parties in this
information of critical value (which by its very nature will not be disclosed by
those involved with bad governance) is channelized to targeted section into the
public domain through use of ICT. The targeted audience have include media,
affected parties, opposition parties, judicial bench, independent investigators or
the general public. This model is more focused in terms of its information content
and intended users. Due to the critical aspect of information, this model exposes
weakest aspects of governance and decision-making process inform people
about failure in specific cases and bad governance and build up momentum for
concerted action. At the same time, it builds pressure on concerned government
organizations/institutions and individuals to take into cognizance the opinions and
interest of masses in the decision-making mechanism. Examples: Wiki leaks,
Global Transparency International, India Central Vigilance Committee etc.

3. Comparative Analysis Model: this model ensures the best practices in e-
governance media. The main purpose of this model is to set a benchmark of
government activities and help for evaluating the other government activities. The
evolution is very important the affect of services and issues of services can be
measured. Due to inefficiency in services can reduce and new feature can be
introduced.

4. E-Advocacy Model: It is based on setting up a planned, directed flow of
information to build strong virtual allies to complement action in the real situation.
It builds the momentum of real-world processes by adding the opinions and
concerns expressed by virtual communities. Virtual communities come together
because they share similar viewpoints or idea or concerns or issues and these

10

communities, in turn, join together to support real-life group activities for
concerted action.

5. The Interactive Service Model: This model opens the government door for
direct participation of citizens in governance and increase the transparency in
decision-making processes through the use of ICT tools. Government services
are directly available to peoples in an interactive manner and also opening
interactive Government to the consumer to government (G2C2G) channels in
various aspects of governance. For examples is Grievance Redressal Portal,
online passport etc.

Government of India initiative
Digital India initiative taken by the government of India for forwarding
minimum government and maximum governance .the fundamental feature of any
good governance is to deliver maximum services with efficiency and
effectiveness. The main purpose of the platform is to maximum the transparency
and accountability and creates a good government to citizen interaction
environment.
a) The objective of digital India
• To modernize the Indian economy
• To improve Indian society
• To re-engineering the quality of governance through information and
communication technology
b) The function of digital India
• Design a bridge to reducing the digital divide
• Create digital inclusion

11

The Digital Profile of India
It is all about the Smartphone, mobile phone connections, and internet user. India
has become the second largest market of smart phones. It gave to India a huge
potential in use of self-service technology in e-governance. The following trend
describes the huge amount of consumption of digital product and services.

Digital India
It is initiative of the government of India to modernize the Indian economy and
empower the Indian society. It is a good tool in the adoption of good governance.
It is the use of digital technology for quality of governance. This programmed
empowers all citizens by enabling the universal access to good and services.
Digital India is also made for bridging the gap of the digital divide and financial
inclusion and also helps in improving the quality the city of life. The use of digital
India in various sector like infrastructure, identity, inclusion, job, industry, make in
India, policy, startup, health, agriculture, literacy, education, skilling, services,
payment, security, open data, and democracy.

Electronic governance
The UN e-government development survey is the only global initiative to measure
and track how the e-governance practices in the country. According to the UN
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Smart phone user( in mn)Mobile phone (in mn)internet user(in mn)
Digital profile of INDIA
Jun-14Mar-18

12

report looks at how e-government can practice in a country with the condition of
sustainable development. In this survey, India got 0.5669 scores in EGDI score.
But this is just above the whole world EGDI score.
With comparing of other nation in Asia, India has no such e-government practice
are followed. Like in South Korea scored 0.9150 and India is got low score than
Sri Lanka and Iran. In the sub-index, India does high rank. Also with e-
participation index, India got 12 places. In the e-participation index have three
component’s-decision making, e-information, and e-consultation.
Different application under Digital India
AADHAAR
Aadhaar identity platform is one of the most important component of ‘Digital India’,
all the citizen of India is provided this unique aadhaar number. It is also a large
house of biometrics-based identification system. The use of Aadhaar in much
directive welfare services like as social and financial inclusion, public sector
delivery reforms, managing fiscal budgets, increase convenience and also
promotes people-centric governance. According to the date now the number of
digital identities is 1.21Billion. It will be wide enough to eliminate dual and fake
identities. It may be used as a basis/primary identifier to roll out several
Government welfare schemes. These programmer ensure for effective and
efficient service delivery thereby promoting good governance. Aadhaar is also
back by parliamentary law.
Website. Https://uidai.gov.in/beta/

BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money)
Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is an app that makes payment transactions
simple, easy and quick using Unified Payments Interface (UPI). It is initiative of
NPCI(National Payment Corporation of India). This app is available in 13
languages. According to the data monthly BHIM-UPI transaction cross the high
level of 190 Million transactions with a worth of $3.92Billion in April 2018. It gives

13

services regarding direct bank to bank payments instantly and collects money
using a Mobile number or Payment address. Bharat Interface for Money app is
currently available on Android and it can be downloaded from Google Play store,
for smart phones.
Website. Http://www.npci.org.in/
CROP INSURANCE MOBILE APP

With the help of this Crop Insurance mobile app farmer now calculate the
Insurance Premium for notified crops based on area, coverage amount.
Without any help from middlemen. It can also be used to get details of normal
sum insured, extended sum insured, premium details and subsidy information of
any notified crop in any notified area. So Crop Insurance mobile app is very
important for providing basic knowledge to farmers regarding Crop Insurance.
The awareness among can be increase with the help of Crop Insurance mobile
app.
Website.http://mkisan.gov.in/downloadmobileapps.aspx
DIGILOCKER
This application launched on 1 July 2015. DigiLocker is started by Indian
Government programme aimed at transforming India into a digitally empowered
society and knowledge economy. DigiLocker ties into Digital India’s visions areas
of providing citizens a shareable private space on a public cloud and making all
documents/certificates available on this cloud. Targeted at the idea of paperless
governance, DigiLocker is a platform for issuance and verification of documents
; certificates in a digital way, thus eliminating the use of physical documents.
Website.https://digilocker.gov.in/
eNAM
The government of India launched the national soil health card scheme in
February 2015. through this initiative, all the information regarding soil health with

14

now be delivered through the digital medium. In this regard a mobile-based
application has been launched namely soil health card. The Electronic National
Agriculture Market (eNAM) is a mobile-based application. This application help
the farmer finds the better marketplace to sell their commodities. In this regarding,
a unified national market is created through the electronic network. The eNAM
Portal provides a single window service for all APMC related information and
services. This app has lots of features like commodity arrivals and prices, buy
and sell trade offers and provision to respond to trade offers, among other
services.
Website. Http://www.enam.gov.in/NAM/home/index.html

epathshala

Developed by NCERT, ePathshala is a platform for students for showcasing and
disseminating all educational e-resources including textbooks, audio, video,
periodicals and a variety of other printed and non-printed materials through the
website and mobile app. The platform tackles the dual challenge of reaching out
to geographical distance and bridging the digital divide, offering a comparable
quality of e-content. All the concerned stakeholders such as students, teachers,
educators, and parents can access e-books through multiple technology
platforms i.e. mobile phones (Android, iOS and Windows platforms), and tablets
(as e-pub) and on the web through laptops and desktops (as flipbooks).
Website.http://epathshala.nic.in/
UMANG
UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New-Age Governance) is one of the
common, online unified platform and mobile app with of access to all government
services. It is envisaged to act as a consumer service center, which will integrate
200 applications which will offer around 1,200 services of various government
departments of the Centre, states and local bodies, and even some important

15

utility services from the private sector. Its primary aim is to reduce inconvenience
faced by users in managing multiple mobile apps and facilitate a one-stop-
solution.
Website.https://umang.gov.in

DIRECT BENEFIT TRANSFER (DBT)
The primary function of DBT is to deliver direct social assistance to the original
beneficiary. DBT was initiated with the aim to reform Government delivery system
by fundamental transformation the existing process in welfare schemes for
simpler and faster flow of information/funds. This also helps in detecting fraud
and deduplication cases. DBT will bring efficiency, effectiveness, transparency,
and accountability in the Government system and deliver confidence of citizen in
the governance. Use of modern technology and IT tools will help in the dream of
MAXIMUM GOVERNANCE MINIMUM GOVERNMENT.
Website.https://dbtbharat.gov.in/
MEGHRAJ
In order to utilize and harness the benefits of Cloud Computing, Government of
India has embarked upon an ambitious initiative – “GI Cloud” which has been
named as ‘Meghan’. The focus of this initiative is to accelerate delivery of e-
services in the country while optimizing ICT spending of the Government. This
will ensure optimum utilization of the infrastructure and speed up the
development and deployment of eGov applications.
Website.https://cloud.gov.in/index.php

E-governance in Haryana
Haryana is one of the small states of Indian Union with only 1.37% area (44,212
sq.Km) and 2% of the population (around 2.4 million) of India. Located in an
economically well-off area of the country, the population has the per capita

16

income matching with some of the developed countries of the world. However,
the diversity of wealth distribution makes the state a home for the large
population, which lives at the subsistence levels. The e-governance projects are
being implemented in the state by the Central as well as the state government.
Some of the e-governance projects implemented by the state are shown in
Table 1.2
E-Governance projects
Sr.
no
Pillar of scheme Instrument
1 Broadband Highways SWAN,NOFN,NKN,
Rural/Urban Wi-Fi,Cloud
Computing, NII(National
InformationInfra)
2 Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity NOFN, CCIP Policy
3 Public Internet Access Programme CSC, Post Office, Mass IT
Literacy NOFN
4 -Governance – Reforming Government
through Technology
? eOffice, ERP, HRMS,
IVRS, Aadhaar based eKYC
Services, IT Cadre
5 eKranti – Electronic delivery of services 250+ eServices (G2C, B2C,
B2B, G2B, etc), Poerals,
Apps (Portals, Mobile),
ISMO
6 Information for All MyGov Haryana, eServices,
State Portals, Websites,
Cyber Security Policy, etc
7 Electronics Manufacturing Incubation Centres, IoT,
STPI, IIIT, ITIR, etc

17

eTaal.
Electronic Transaction Aggregation ; Analysis Layer (eTaal) is a public service
developed by India’s National Informatics Centre to measure the impact of
various e-governance initiatives at national and state levels. In the context of
Haryana, various sectors are under the e-governance project. The following
diagram describes the volume of e-transactions occurring. This helps us to
understand the pattern of the e-governance practices. In that particular sector is
most dominant in the diagram. This describes that in social and welfare sector
are now easy with e-governance.

TOP FIVE SECTOR TRANSACTION
In Haryana, these are the five most top sectors in regarding the transaction. In
this diagram, it declares that the in the social and welfare pension sector is the
very top in this. Also simultaneous utility and bill payment, transport sector is now
growing in the e-transaction. The other sector, integrated financial management
? 0.00188? 0.71115? 0.02597? 0.00097? 0.00012? 0.04064? 2.15997? 0.27327? 0.00159? 2.93809? 0.20998? 1.02753? 0.01412? 0.00002? 0.00119? 0.00000? 0.27104? 0.00000
? 15.92068
? 0.23312? 6.22385? 0.00242? 9.10967
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Volume (in Cr.)

18

services are some excess quantity compare with grievance sector.

BOTTOM FIVE SECTOR IN E TRANSACTION
In Haryana, these are the five most bottom sector in regarding the transaction. In
this chat, it declares that the in the skill development sector is the very last in the
list. Also, simultaneously RTI Police sector is low in the e-transaction. The other
sector, the election is some excess quantity compare with RTI police and skill
development. But in the bottom five sector educations is the top transaction.

Welcome to Antyodaya-SARAL!
Aligning with Digital India’s vision of faceless, paperless and cashless
service/scheme delivery model, Antyodaya-SARAL aims to transform citizen
024681012141618
Social Welfare ; Pension
Utility Services and Bill Payment
Transport
Integrated Finance Management Services
Grievance
Volume (in Cr.)
Skill Development
RTI
Police
Election
Education
Volume (in % with bottom five sector)

19

service delivery in Haryana through complete digitization of over 380+ services.
The vision for Antyodaya-SARAL is a unified platform to deliver and track
Government-to-Citizen (G2C) services/schemes across the state. Two of the key
components of the Antyodaya-SARAL are as follows:
Antyodaya-SARAL Portal:
• A Single Service Delivery Portal for Citizens
• Ability to avail services/schemes from anywhere at any time
• Live to track of the status of service requests
• Timely delivery of services/schemes
• Complete digitization of citizen services/schemes
Antyodaya-SARAL Dashboard:
• A Service Delivery Accountability Portal for Departments
• Review departments based on performance (Based on RTS compliance,
customer rating and delays)
• State-wise and District-wise view of department performance
• Escalation to officers on pending file requests
• Would help in process re-engineering of services/schemes that are not
performing well
Table: 1.3
E-government services
# Service Category Name of Service Servic e No. Designate d Officer Time Limit Service Delivery
1
Ration Cards
(Food ;
Supply
Department)
1. Issue of New RationCard 1.a
Food
Inspector
/AFSO
15 days Currently
Manual ;

Automating
under Smart
ration Card
based PDS

2. Issue of Ration
Card on receipt of
surrender
Certificate
1.b 07
days
3. Issue of Duplicate RationCard 1.c 07 days
1.d 07

20

4. Inclusion of family member name in RationCard
days Project
5. Deletion of family member name in RationCard
1.d 07 days
6. Change of Address with sameJurisdiction 1.e 03 days 7. Change of Address including change ofFPS 1.f 03 days 8. Issue of SurrenderCertificate 1.g 01 days
2 Certificates
(Revenue)
9. Issue of SCCertificate 2
Tehsildar
07 days
Computerized
at e-
DISHA
Centres
HARCIS
10. Issue of BC
Certificate 2 07
days
11. Issue of OBC
Certificate 2 07
days
12. Issue of
Resident/Domicile
Certificate
3 07
days
13. Issue of
Tapriwas/Vimukt Jaati
Certificate
2 07
days
14. Issue of Income
Certificate 3 07
days
15. Issue of Rural Area
Certificate 3 07
days
3 Sub Registrar (Revenue)
16. Registration of
Property / Land
(HARIS Related Services)
10 Tehsildar 01
day Computeriz ed /HARIS
4 Land Records
(Revenue)
17. Sanction of
MutationofLand (All kindof Mutations available in HALRIS)
11
Tehsildar
15
days Computeriz ed
/
HALRIS 18. Providing Copies of
Land Records (HALRIS Related Services) 12 05
days
5
Transport
Regulatory
(Registering ;
Licensing
Authorities)
19. Issuance of
Learner’s Driving
License (Sarathi Related Services)
4
SDO
(Civil)
05
days
Computeriz ed
/ Sarathi and
Vahan
20. Issuance of
Permanent Driving
License (Sarathi Related Services)
5 07
days
21. Renewal of Driving
License 5 07
days
22. Issuance of
Duplicate Driving
License
5 07
days
23. Endorsement of new
Class in Driving
License
5 07
days
24. Issuance of
Conductor Driving
License
5 07
days
25. Registration of New
Vehicles (Vahan
Related Services)
6 07
days
26. Transfer of Ownership of Vehicle 6 07 days
27. Issuance of NOC 6 07 days
28. Issuance of 6 07

21

Duplicate R.C. days
6
Power
Electricity
Connections
29. Release of New Electricity Connection 7
SDO
(Electri-
city)
08 days Partially
Manual /
Computerized
30. Release of
Temporary Electricity
Connection
8 08
days
31. Enhancement of
Electricity Load 9 08
days
7 Public Health
Engineering
32. Providing New
Water Connection 13
SDO
(PHED)
12
days Partially
Manual /
Computerized 33. Providing of
Sewerage Connection 13 12
days
8 Birth & Death
(Health & MCs)
34. Issuance of Birth Certification (after registration) 14 EO (MC)
– U/ MO
(PHC) – R
07 days Partially
Manual /
Computerized 35. Issuance of Death
Certification 14 07
days
9
Building Plans
( MCs /
HUDA )
36. Approval of Building Plans 15 EO(MC) /
HUDA
21 days
Currently
Manual
Partially

22

Chapter 2
Literature Review

Parasuraman (2000) Identified a scale to measure people readiness with technology
and discuss the scale psychometric properties. The study found four dimensions of
technology readiness. Namely optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity.
This analytical study based on primary and secondary data. The data were collected
from 1000 respondents through questionnaire and telephone interview. The statistical
tool applied were factor analysis, ANOVA. it’s observed that people gernally optimism
about technology and also experience insecurity.
Larasti et al (2017) examined the readiness and acceptance of ERP in SMEs. The
variables studied were namely perceived of usefulness, perceived ease of use,
optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity. This study was based on
primary data. The questionnaire was the data source. The sample size was 222 and
statistical tools were used are t-test R – square and least square. The result showed
optimism influence to perceived ease of use, perceived of usefulness influence
intention to use and intention to use influence significantly to actual use.
Elliott et al (2008) identified to assess technology readiness between American and
Chinese students. The factors studied were culture, optimism, innovativeness,
discomfort, and insecurity. The data were collected from 468 students by
questionnaire. This sample area was Chinese and American university. The statistical
tool applied in the studies was t-test. The study concluded that Chinese student has
low technology readiness with a comparison to American student and culture was an
important factor in that.

Burba et al(2012) examined the behaviour and perception of independent insurance
agent in the Midwest in regarding the use of social media. The study attributes were
age gender and experience of respondents. The study was based on primary data
which were from 189 respondents through questionnaire . The statistical tool were

23

applied such chi square, ANOVAs. The study found that demographic characteristics
as gender, age and experience were not associated with the behaviours and
perception in regarding social media. The TRI(p= .517) result show that the use of
social media support to run the business effective. The study revealed that inverse
relationship in TRI and age of respondents and use of social media support to a
business for effective working.
Lin (2006) investigated the relationship among Technology Readiness, perceived
service quality, satisfaction and behavioural intentions in regard with SSTs.. The 36-
item technology readiness index (TRI) was adopted from Parasuraman (2000) and
20-item SST-QUAL scale was adopted from Lin and Hsieh (2005) for measuring
service quality of SSTs. The final sample contained 436 usable responses. Data was
analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM).Participants included in the
study were 61.5 percent women with the overall sample age ranging from 17 to 65.
Results indicated Technology Readiness influenced perceived SST service quality
and behavioural intentions, while perceived SST service quality had a positive impact
on customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions toward SSTs.

Lin (2007) examined influence of technology readiness on satisfaction and
behavioural intentions toward self-service technologies. For the measuring of
consumers technology readiness, the 36-item technology readiness index (TRI)
developed by Parasuraman (2000) was used. Customer’s satisfaction with SST
(SST-SAT) was measured with the three-item American Customer Satisfaction
Index (ACSI) scale used. The data was collected through the questionnaires and
get response of 413 respondents. In regard with SST a wide range included in
that including banks, railway, airlines, rapid transit systems (subway), stock
exchanges and cinemas. The data were analyzed with the help of confirmatory
factor analysis and cronbach alpha the results show that technology readiness
was an important driver of SST-Satisfaction and positive relationship between TR
and SST-SAT. The study concluded that, the higher a customer’s technology
readiness as well as satisfaction shall higher when using SSTs. Second,

24

technology readiness influenced positively and significantly on SST behavioural
intention.

Liljander( 2006) analysed the relationship between technology readiness and
customer’s attitudes towards using SST for airline check-in, adoption of self-
service check-in, and evaluations of a new self-service check in on the Internet.
The study was focused on the following variables namely perceived service
quality, satisfaction and loyalty. The data was collected through questionnaire
and from the respondents was 688. The data was analysed through confirmatory
factor analysis. The study concluded that positive relationship between
technology readiness and customers’ attitudes towards using SSTs for airline
check-in, and on customers’ evaluation of the focal airline’s Internet check-in
service.

Godoe and Johansen(2012)investigated the relationship between the
dimensions of TRI (Technology Readiness Index) and the specific dimensions of
TAM (Technology Acceptance Model). The data was collected through
questionnaire and from s are 186.The study were sample is be further divided
into two subgroups based on the respective technology of interest. Out of them
123 respondents used electronic health recorded to hospital work on a daily basis,
and remaining 63 respondents they used an instant messaging (IM) system. The
study questionnaire based on TRI developed by Parasuraman (2000) and the
technology acceptance model (TAM) as introduced by Davis (1989). At the last, a
combination of the two models in TRAM comprises a comprehensive view. The
study concluded that adoption of new technologies depend individual as well as
system specific factors. According to the study an integration of psychometric
constructs and system-related experiences was future-oriented ,innovative, and
useful
Venkatesh et al (2014) found a model of e-Government portal use. This study
examined he various individual characteristics, namely demographics and
personality, as predictors of e-Government portal use. The data were collected

25

through questionnaire and total number of respondents was 311.the data
analyzed through factor and regression analyses.. The study applied descriptive
statistics and correlations. The results of the model were demographic
characteristics and personality variables were significant predictor of use of e-
government portal but all demographic variables like age was not predict e-
Government portal use. The study revealed that Big Five personality variables,
namely conscientiousness, extraversion and openness to experience, and PIIT
were found to predict e-Government portal use.

Rose and Fogarty(2010) investigated the readiness of mature consumers to use
technologies and more specifically, online banking technologies (SSBT’s). The
various variable were studied in this study were attitude toward specific
technologies, level of technology anxiety, and consumers’ capacity and
willingness to adopt. Based on their scores on the TR scale consumers can be
classified into taxonomy. The primary date was collected by questionnaires and
total number of respondent was 2076. Cluster analysis technique was applied for
determine distinctive segments followed by multiple discriminate analysis to
examine group differences. In this study various statistical tools applied such as
Bartlett’s test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sample adequacy 0.805.
The findings from this study will greatly assist service provides to understand the
likely adoption of technologies when targeting the mature market. The mature
consumer market was heterogeneous and should not be viewed as one market.

Sandberg and Wahlberg(2006) examined number of theory derived propositions
that may serve as a basis for forthcoming empirical studies of such acceptance
with SBs in rural areas. The various models were developed like The Unified
Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), The Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM).and The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) The TRA
model was central to the research on ICT acceptance. But this model has
successively been developed to include elements that were specific to the
acceptance of technology. Notable is that the development has re the perceived

26

usefulness of the technology is crucial to the acceptance of the ICT technology.
The acceptance of the ICT technology is hampered by a lack of result
demonstrability.

Lin and chang (2011) the current study aims to fill these research gaps by
developing and testing an extended technology acceptance model that integrates
the direct and moderating role of TR. The data was collected through
questionnaire and total number of respondents were 410. Data was examined
through structural equation modeling (SEM)and hierarchical moderated
regression analysis. The Results derived from the study that customer TR
enhances perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward use, and
intention to use and also show that TR attenuates the positive relationship
between perceived ease of use and attitude toward using SSTs

Lin and Hsieh(2012) explored the replicate, refine, and cross-validate the TRI
scale across contexts and cultures according to psychometric procedures to
increase the TRI’s generalizability and applicability. There fined 16-item TRI scale
demonstrates sound psychometric properties based on findings from various
reliability and validity tests, as well as scale replications employing several
samples. The four dimensions remain stable across techniques and samples,
while the utility of the refined scale increases due to ease of application.
Measurement invariance analyses across demographic groups, industries, and
cultures provide further support for the superior stability of the refined TRI.

Lai (2008) examined the state of technology readiness of professional accounting
students in Malaysia, their level of internet self-efficacy, assess their prior
computing experience, and to explore if they are satisfied with the professional
course that they are pursuing in improving their technology skills. The data is
collected through questionnaire and total number of respondents were 110.the
statistical tools for analysis the data is t-test and cronbach alpha. The Findings

27

Based on the technology readiness index of Parasuraman and Rockbridge
Associates Inc., the survey found that professional accounting students were
neither highly techno-ready nor highly techno-resistant towards new technologies.
The respondents were then classified into five categories, explorers (5 percent),
pioneers (42 percent), skeptics (38 percent), paranoids (13 percent), and
technology laggards (2 percent). Overall, the survey founded that the
respondents had moderate level of internet self-efficacy and computing
experience.

Ho and ko (2008) investigated whether self-service technology (SST) can positive
effect on customer value (CV) and customer readiness (CR). In addition, it is
proposed to inspect the effects of CV and CR in customers’ continued use of
Internet banking. The data is collected through questionnaire and total number of
respondents were 771. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to examine
the data. SST characteristics (i.e. ease of use, usefulness, costs saved, and self-
control) demonstrated positive effects on CV and CR. CR is positively related to
CV. Furthermore, customers are willing to use Internet banking when CV and CR
are high.

Curran and Meuter(2005) examined the factors influencing the consumer
attitudes toward, and adoption of self-service technologies (SSTs). The data were
collected through questionnaire and from 120 respondents total number of
respondents are 120. The data were analyzed through structural equation
modeling. A comparison of the results of the model tests on the three
technologies provides evidence that different factors influence attitudes toward
each of these technologies and offers an explanation of the varying degrees of
acceptance found among consumers. This research has demonstrated that
multiple factors need to be considered when introducing technologies into the
service encounter and that the salient factors may vary among technologies and
their stages in the adoption process.

28

Son and han (2011)examined how each dimension (optimism, innovativeness,
discomfort and insecurity) influences consumer usage pattern after the adoption
of the technology-based service and also investigated how usage pattern affects
overall customer satisfaction and, consequently, continued use intention. The
data is collected through questionnaire and total number of respondents are
269.the data is analyzed through structural equation modeling. The descriptive
study is also used for the analysis the data. In that means, standard deviations,
and correlation matrix of all measurement items. He article investigates the entire
process of how TR affects behavioural outcomes such as consumer satisfaction
and continued use intention through usage patterns after the adoption of
technology.

Tsikriktsis (2004) tested Parasuraman and Colby’s (2001) taxonomy of
technology readiness. Their taxonomy (originally developed based on a U.S.
sample) was replicated with a U.K. sample. This study’s replication partially
supports their taxonomy of five types of customers based on their technology
beliefs. The data were collected by interview from 400 in U.K. Data were
analysed with the help of factor analysis. The study concluded that there was
both similarities and differences between the two segmentations. Specifically, the
four segments (clusters) identified in the U.K. population have similar technology
readiness characteristics with four of the five segments identified in the U.S.
population. The only segment identified by Parasuraman and Colby (2001) that is
not represented in the U.K. population is that of paranoids.

Chang and Kannan (2006) examined the adoption of wireless technology and
services by employees of governmental agencies, measured by their technology
readiness index (TRI), and examine how the measurement of TRI can help
segment users into groups and understand their propensity to adopt wireless

29

technology. The data is collected through questionnaire and total number of
respondents were 102. The correlations among these factors were also
investigated using descriptive statistics and t test. The findings reveal that among
the group using wireless technology for work, the measures of “discomfort” and
“insecurity” are much lower than before, indicating a positive impact of technology
use on user technology readiness and comfort with technology.
Massey et al (2007) examined the relationship between TR and usability in an
online service context. The data were collected through questionnaire from 169
respondents. The data were analysed through structural equation modeling. The
usability scale addressed five main categories of site design intended to increase
the usability of online service sites: content, ease of use, made-for-the-medium,
promotion, and emotion. The results showed that that customer segments vary in
usability were requirements and usability evaluations of specific online service
interfaces are influenced by a complex interaction between site type, access
method, and TR customer segment.
Suki and Ramayah (2010) identified the factors influenced to users’ acceptance
of e-Government services and its causal relationships using a theoretical model
based on the Technology Acceptance Model. The data were collected through
questionnaire and total number of respondents was 200.the data is analyzed
through structural equation modeling. The results indicated that the intention to
use e-Government services/system was influenced were perceived usefulness,
ease of use, compatibility, interpersonal influence, external influence, self efficacy,
facilitating conditions, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control,
and intention to use e-Government services/system.

Meng et al (2010) investigated the measurement invariance of the TRI across
American and Chinese consumers. Data were collected using two independent
convenience samples. The data were collected through questionnaire form 468
respondents and total number of respondents are 468.the data is analyzed
through structural equation modeling. The questionnaire contained the 36 items
comprising the Technology Readiness Index Scale, as well as 4 items assessing

30

demographic characteristics, for a total of 40 items. The measurement
equivalence testing was conducted through a multigroup comparison method.
Model-fit assessment was conducted through chi-square, RMSEA (root mean
square error of approximation) and RMR (root mean square residual), as well as
multiple fit indices of GFI (Goodness of Fit Index), CFI (Comparative Fit Index),
IFI (Incremental Fit Index), NNFI (Non-Normed Fit Index), and NFI (Normed Fit
Index).The find that study suggested that the TRI was a cross-culturally valid
measurement scale for American and Chinese consumers. The four TRI
dimensions do exist for both consumer groups.
.
Rhee et al (2007) examined the interaction between students’ technology
readiness and learning-goal orientation on his/her preferences for enrolling in
courses which include online instructional elements. The data was collected
through questionnaire from 643 respondents. The questionnaire included the 36
items comprising the Technology Readiness Index Scale. The data were
analyzed through exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.
The study found that more study who are more technology ready do place higher
utility on enrolling in mixed classes, but that learning goal orientation did not
influence this decision.

Khanh (2014) investigated the influence e-government implementation and the
factors influencing citizen adoption in Vietnam. The data were collected through
questionnaire from 643 respondents . The data were analyzed through structural
equation modeling. The factor studied were governing ,social ,technical and also
Diffusion of innovation model The result showed that if the citizen will adopt E-
government services and thereby aiding by governments influenced the adoption
of e-government services of citizen.

Matthing et al (2006) explored the factors of technology based services they
create innovativeness and effectiveness among customers. The data were
collected through the Swedish National Technology Readiness Survey (SNTRS).

31

The SNTRS included 1,004 randomly selected respondents who were
representative of the adult population (18 years or older) of Sweden in terms of
age, gender, education, and geographic. The study found that the TR was a
useful tool for identifying users who exhibit both innovative attitudes and
behaviours and also show that users with a high TR were highly creative as
reflected by the quantity and quality of new service ideas.
Be´langer and Carter (2008) analyzed the impact of trust and risk perceptions on
one’s willingness to use e-government services. . The factor studied were are
governing use intentions, trust of the Internet, trust of the government, disposition
to trust and Perceived risk The data were collected through questionnaire from
243 respondents. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling.
Results indicated that disposition to trust positively affects TOI and TOG, which
in turn affect intentions to use an e-government service. TOG was negatively
affected perceived risk, which affects use intentions as well.

Alzahrani et al (2016) identified the critical factors influencing citizens’ trust in e-
government adoption from citizens’ perspective. The factor studied were technical,
individual characteristics, government agency and risk factor. The data is
collected through exploratory studies. The data were analyzed through literature
review. This paper provides a critical and systematic review of the current
literature on citizens’ trust in e-government, with a particular focus on the most
critical factors influencing citizens’ trust in respect of the adoption of e-
government. The study revealed that several studies have been conducted in the
area of trust in e-government limited consideration paid to citizen’s aspects of
trust (such as personality, culture, gender, experience, education level, beliefs
and value of systems)

Hujran et al (2015) developed an integrative research model by extant
Technology Acceptance Model through the incorporation of a set of social,
political, and cultural constructs: trust, perceived public value, and national

32

culture. The factor studies were governing use intentions, trust of the Internet,
trust of the government, disposition to trust, perceived value, behaviour intention
and Perceived risk. The data was collected through questionnaire from
respondents 413. The data was analyzed through structural equation modeling.
The study found strong evidence that citizen attitude toward using e-government
services was the most significant determinant of citizen intention to adopt and
use e-government services. Citizen attitude, was turn, is jointly determined by
perceived public value and perceived ease of use.
Lee and kim (2006) developed a model of Internet-based information systems
(IIS) implementation in b2c electronic commerce based on IS implementation and
technology innovation–implementation studies. The study suggested that eight
factors, comprising the characteristics of IIS technology innovation, organizational
factors, and IS related factors, affect the implementation success of IIS. IIS has
three dimensions: volume, sophistication, and information contents. The data was
collected through questionnaire and total number of respondents companies are
120. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results
shows that multivariate regression analysis reveal that compatibility and IS
infrastructure were key determinants of the extent of IIS implementation (in terms
of volume, sophistication, and information contents).

Horst et al (2006) identified the role of risk perception and trust in the intention to
adopt government e-services the data were collected through questionnaire from
238 respondents. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling.
The variables studied were perceived usefulness of e-services, risk perception,
worry, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, trust and experience with
e-services. The perceived usefulness of electronic services significantly predictor
by risk perception personal experience perceived behavioural control and
subjective norm. The revealed that trust in e-government was the main
determinant of the perceived usefulness of e-government services.

33

Parasuraman and Colby (2014) analyzed the technology readiness index (TRI
1.0), develop the TRI 2.0 and compare TRI 1.0 to TRI 2.0. This study based on
four basic TRI components. The data were collected through questionnaire from
878 respondents. The data were analyzed through factor analysis, descriptive
statistics and chi-square. The result showed that was update the original TR
index (TRI 1.0) and produce a more concise and contemporary scale. TRI 1.0
assess with 36 statements but after update TRI 2.0 would total statement also
just 16. The availability of TRI 2.0 will hopefully accelerate (1) practical
applications of the TR construct (e.g., examining a TR-based segmentation of the
target market before full-scale introduction of a cutting-edge technology for
serving customers) and (2) inclusion of the TR construct in scholarly
investigations (e.g., as a moderator of the link between perceived benefits of a
new technology and its actual adoption/use).

Taylor et al (2002) found to make strategic decisions related to technology in e –
Insurance market. The study focused on single medium sized insurance or
financial services provider of Middle West of United States. The data is collected
through questionnaire and total number of respondents were 734. The
questionnaire included the 36 items comprising the Technology Readiness Index
Scale. The data was analyzed through structural equation modeling. As
conclusion of the study, many agent in e-insurance market were found optimistic
innovative with respect to TRI.

Devis et al (1989) assess the behaviour of people toward computer with their
attitude, subjective norm, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and
related variable. The data were recollected through questionnaire from 107
respondents. The data were analyzed through cronbach alpha and factor
analysis. The concluded from study is computer used by people is mainly
assessed by the behaviour intention. Intention use of computer is mainly affected
by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use is secondary determinant of
behaviour intention

34

Kanat and ozkan (2009) identified the salient factors related with citizens’ low
adoption of G2C services. This study focused on subjective norms, perceived
behavioural control, attitude variables. The data were collected through
questionnaire from 396 respondents. The data is analyzed through structural
equation modeling.

35

Chapter 3
Research methodology

3.1 Objective of the study
The primary objective of the study is to assess the technology readiness
and adoption of e-governance services in Haryana. Which is dependent on
psychometric properties of individuals. Specifically, the objectives of the study
are stated as under:-
a) To study the factors leading to acceptance of e-governance services.
b) To study the effect of demographic variable adoption of e-governance.
c) To assess the relation between inhibitor and contributor of technology
readiness.
3.2 Research methodology
Keeping in view the objectives of the study, an exploratory cum descriptive
research design has been used for the study. The research methodology can
be segregated into three stage:
a) Developing a questionnaire
b) Sampling
c) Primary data collection and analysis
The above mention stage has been explained at length in the following
discussion.
a) Developing questionnaire
The primary data required for the all three objectives of the
study was collected through a modified version of standardised questionnaire.
It has modified and developed in the following stage:
1.) Identifying variables and developing first draft
2.) Pilot survey
3.) Finalizing the questionnaire

36

4.) Data validation
This stage can be explained as under:
i) Identifying variables and developing first draft
The technology readiness and adoption of e-governance in youth of
Haryana is dependent upon a large number of factors. On the basis of
literature, thirteen variable were identified, which include individualism and
collectivism, long and short orientation, trust, perceived public value, perceived
ease of use, attitude , behaviour attention, optimism, innovativeness,
discomfort, insecurity, satisfaction, external help. The relevant literature source
of these variable are shown in table 3.1

Table 3.1
Variables for adoption of E-governance and Technology Readiness and
Adoption
IC1 Individual performance is not important as much as group
performance.
IC2 Achieving goal in group is more important than achieving at
individual level.
LS1 Encourage for tradition performance.
LS2 Non-monetary benefits are not necessary to excel.
LS3 Non-personal attributes make little difference in target
achievement.
TR1 E-government portal and/or Ministry’s website(s) are secure
enough to make us feel comfortable.
TR2 The digital platform protects me from any kind of problem
regarding to use the apps and website.
TR3 Digital platform are now a emerging phenomenon and safe
environment to access government services.

37

TR4 In general, I think e-governance digital platform are
trustworthy.
PPV1 Using digital platform to access government services is now
going efficient.
PPV3 The transparency of government gets enhanced by using
digital platform.
PPV4 I think the digital platform is adding value to public.
PEOU1 Getting information about now to use digital platform to access
e-government services is easy for me.
PEOU2 The digital platform easily provides the information that I want
to obtain.
PEOU3 My interaction with e-government services websites and apps
are clear and understandable.
ATT2 I am satisfied with benefits which are provided by the digital
platform to access the government services.
BI1 I often use digital platform to access the egovernment
services.
BI2 I feel ushered to use digital platform to assess the e-
government services.
BI3 In future I shall keep on using digital platform to assess the e-
government services.
PPV1 Using digital platform to access government services is now
going efficient.
PPV2 In my opinion the e-government services and digital platform is
convenient to use.
BI4 The decision of using digital platform to access e-government

38

services is risky.
OPT1 E-government apps and websites are helpful for improving
quality of life.
OPT3 E-government apps and websites gives people more
information about the government services.
OPT4 E-government apps and websites makes me more productive
in my personal life.
INN1 I am the first one in my group to using digital platform.
INN2 I can manage to use/operate e-government services without
help from others.
INN3 I am aware about new e-government services of my interest.
DIS1 I am not satisfied with the kind of technical assistance which
are provided by the digital platform operators.
DIS2 I have to face certain problems to identify the authorised digital
platform to access e-government services.

SAT1
Using digital platform to access government services is fulfilling
expectation.
EX1 Do you pay money to middlemen for obtaining benefit of digital
government services
EX2 You usually take help of middlemen for operating digital
platform to access government services.
PEOU4 The digital platform is user friendly to interact with me.

39

The first draft of questionnaire contained 42 statements. Multiple items were
generated for each component (Jacobi, 1978; Churchill, 1979) to reduce chances
of skewness (fornell 1996). A first draft, there were 34 statements for the
adoption of e-governance, and 16 statements for technology readiness.
These items were measured on five point scale so that the respondents could
make better discrimination with either “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”.
ii) Pilot survey
A pilot survey was under-taken on 60 respondents to know their level of
understanding and for making rectification in questionnaire. After the pilot
survey, 3 statements were deleted and 13were modified in term of the
language. Reliability (cronbachs alpha) was found to be .714. Which is quite
acceptable (Nunnally, 1978)

iii) Finalizing the questionnaire
The draft questionnaire was finalized after pilot survey. The final
questionnaire consisted of 4 sections. The first section had 4 questions relating
to demographic profile of the respondents. The responses to these questions
were taken at nominal scale,

the second section contained questions about 10 various type of
apps/websites. The third section contained questions about various frequently
used e- governance app/websites. Response to these questions were taken at
nominal scale.

The fourth section contained 34 statements finalized after the pilot
survey pertaining to different variable identified for the study. The respondents
were asked to state their opinion about statement on a 5-point likert scale, from
strongly agree to strongly disagree.

40

iv) Data validation

The reliability of all variable was checked both individually as well as in
totality. The reliability of the questionnaire was checked in different stages. To
make it sure that the data collected was reliable and could be analysed further
Cranach’s alpha value were computed in three stages, firstly after collecting
data from 60 respondents and frequently after collecting the data from 150 and
241 respondents. The result is shown in the table: 3.2.
Table :3.2
Statistics of total reliability
Stage No of respondents Cranach’s alpha
I 60 .67
Ii 150 .78
Iii 241 .71
(Source: primary data)

As per recommendation of nunnaly (1978), de vellis (1991),
spector (1992) and kent (1999) it may concluded that the reliability coefficient
are within the acceptable level of exploratory research, like the one being
concluded.

i) Reliability check on the basis of variable

The reliability of the entire variables embodied in the questionnaire was
checked both individually as well as in totality by applying Cronbachs
alpha. The results of reliability test of responses from all the
241repondents have been shown in the following table:

41

(Source: primary data)
Kline (1998) recommended the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient alpha is
the most efficient measure of reliability and should always be computed.
Moreover, it should always be greater than 0.7 when items are selected for test.
So, Cranach’s alpha reliability analysis was concluded on all variables which
were selected earlier for the study. The Cronbach’s alpha value was found to be
0.796, which is good value indicating reliability of the scale. The contribution of
each statements to reliability was also computed, the result are shown in
table:3.3.
Table :3.4
Descriptive Statistics of Variables
Variable Scale
Mean if
Item
Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item
Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Squared
Multiple
Correlation
Cronbach’s
Alpha if Item
Deleted
IC1

140.10 159.142 .235 .346 .794
IC2

139.81 163.892 .121 .364 .798
IC3

139.86 163.290 .153 .266 .796
LS1

139.64 166.697 .052 .271 .799

Table :3.3
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha
Cronbach’s Alpha Based
on Standardized Items N of Items
.796 .812 39

42

LS2

140.32 162.975 .163 .240 .796
LS3

139.95 163.755 .160 .201 .796
TR1

139.67 161.095 .271 .335 .792
TR2

139.59 159.269 .381 .345 .788
TR3

139.40 159.648 .419 .472 .788
TR4

139.43 160.610 .365 .343 .789
PPV1

139.41 160.828 .361 .456 .789
PPV2

139.59 160.438 .343 .416 .790
PPV3

139.59 162.005 .247 .358 .793
PPV4

139.50 155.827 .480 .465 .784
PEOU1

139.53 157.487 .427 .402 .786
PEOU2

139.32 157.414 .454 .444 .786
PEOU3

139.63 161.377 .277 .344 .792
PEOU4

139.47 160.301 .352 .397 .789
ATT1

139.28 163.210 .242 .322 .793
ATT2 139.55 157.986 .461 .415 .786

43

BI1

139.76 154.633 .527 .443 .782
BI2

139.94 162.378 .237 .257 .793
BI3

139.51 158.522 .359 .394 .788
BI4

140.48 166.496 .032 .288 .802
OPT1

139.16 162.793 .237 .235 .793
OPT2

139.49 163.590 .199 .280 .794
OPT3

139.27 159.361 .465 .404 .787
OPT4

139.70 154.550 .577 .452 .781
INN1

140.50 159.937 .281 .355 .791
INN2 140.00 160.199 .249 .336 .793
INN3

139.92 159.917 .307 .442 .790
DIS1

139.82 159.282 .409 .369 .788
DIS2

139.94 165.547 .081 .313 .799
INS1

139.41 160.294 .284 .375 .791
INS2

139.39 162.950 .181 .398 .795
SAT1 139.78 161.697 .257 .310 .792

44

SAT2

139.77 164.600 .137 .199 .796
EX1

140.32 162.981 .138 .436 .798
EX2

140.25 164.900 .063 .347 .802
(Source: primary data)
The internal consistency Cronbach’s alpha value for reliability of the questions
contained in questionnaire was found to be .796(greater than .7). George and
malery (2003) recommended that if the value of Cronbach’s alpha exceed 0.7;
the scale is acceptable and thus passes the test of internal consistency.
b) Primary data was collected from a sample consisting of 241
respondents. The respondents were chosen by the method of quota sampling
method. The scope of the study was confined to the state of north Haryana.
Due care was taken to represent the rural and urban area in the district of
north Haryana. The detailed sample profile is contained in the subsequent
discussion.
In process of obtaining the necessary data, the researcher
did not administered the questionnaire personally to the respondents. They
were sufficiently enlightened about the nature and purpose of the study
before requesting them to give the relevant information. The respondent
was appraised that the information provided by them would be kept strictly
confidential and would be used solely for academic research purpose only.

3.4 sample profile

The components of demographic profile chosen for the purpose
included gender, age, education and residence. For the purpose of study,
only four districts of north Haryana were selected. District wise sample
profile is shown in the following tables: 3.5.

45

Table :3.5
District wise sample profile
Area Districts No of respondents

North

Karnal 96
North Kurukshetra 85

North Panchkula 60

Discussion on these components of demographic profile based
on the classification of sample respondents is given here under. Table: 3.6 show
the age structure of the sample respondent.

Table: 3.6
Classification of respondent on the basis of age
Frequency Percent
Valid 0-18 18 7.5
18-21 132 54.8
21-25 74 30.7
25-28 17 7.1
Total 241 100.0
(Source: primary data)
The table reveals that the largest number of the rural respondents were in
the age group of 18-21followed by the group of those having age group of 21-25.
It may be observed that this age group usually major user of e-governance
activity.

Table: 3.7

46

Classification of respondent on the basis of qualifications

Qualification Frequency Percent
ILLITERATE 5 2.1
UPTO 12 40 16.6
GRADUATION 127 52.7
POST GRADUATION 69 28.6
Total 241 100.0
(Source: primary data)
Table shows the classification of respondents on the basis of their education. The
highest proportion (52.7%) of the sample comprised of the respondents who had
received education up to graduation level followed by the post graduation level
and up to 12th respectively. Only a small portion (2.1%) of the respondents was
illiterate.

Table: 3.8
Classification of respondents on the basis of gender

Gender Frequency Percent
MALE 79 32.8
FEMALE 162 67.2
Total 241 100.0
(Source: primary data)
As shown above, (162) 67.2% of the respondents were females while (79) 32.9%
respondents were males. It indicates that the female respondents are now
significant number to participate in study.

47

Chapter 4
Analysis and interpretation
Technology Readiness and Adoption of E-Governance
There are various dimensions of e-governance and different sets of consumers
across various segments held their own views about the same. The descriptive
statistics of various statements used for factor analysis are shown in the following
table:4.1
Table :4.1
Descriptive Statistics of Variable
Variable Mean Std. Deviation
IC1 3.28 1.324
IC2 3.58 1.151
LS1 3.75 .911
LS2 3.07 1.096
LS3 3.46 .980
TR1 3.73 .974
TR2 3.82 .901
TR3 4.00 .795
TR4 3.98 .808
PPV1 3.99 .795
PPV3 3.81 .934
PPV4 3.90 .995

48

PEOU1 3.87 .959
PEOU2 4.08 .918
PEOU3 3.77 .921
ATT2 3.86 .866
BI1 3.65 1.003
BI2 3.47 .919
BI3 3.88 1.016
PPV2 3.82 .872
BI4 2.93 1.151
OPT1 4.25 .859
OPT3 4.13 .752
OPT4 3.70 .928
INN1 2.90 1.076
INN2 3.40 1.153
INN3 3.49 1.006
DIS1 3.58 .845
DIS2 3.46 1.030
INS1 3.98 1.027
INS2 4.02 1.027
SAT1 3.62 .939
EX1 3.08 1.222

49

EX2 3.15 1.312
PEOU4 3.93 .863
(Source: Primary data )

As shown in the table, the range of mean scores of the statements
varied between 2.90 to 4.25 and their standard deviations varied from 0.752 to
1.342. The issues related to E-government apps and websites which are helpful
for improving quality of life were given highest score of agreement by the
respondents. Lowest mean scores were awarded to the statement on I am the
first one in my group to using digital platform indicating that they not much to
innovativeness.
While the above discussion indicates the acceptance and readiness
of the respondents toward e-governance, the data was analyzed with the help of
factor analysis to understand the underlying construct of the acceptance and
readiness. Factor analysis, a data reduction technique has been used, which
also point out the relationship between the variable, principal component
analyses has been used for the present study. It consist of statistical procedure
which can be applied to a set of variable considered to be a linear combination of
inter related variable, thus making analysis more meaningful. The principal
component analysis extracts maximum possible variance for each of the
component than any other method of factoring. The first principal component is
the linear combination of observed variable that extract maximum variable and
maximum variance and so on so forth. These originally obtained principal
components are subjected to further statistical step know as rotation, in order to
improve the interpretability and scientific utility of the solution. The varimax
procedure of orthogonal rotation has been used to meet the essential condition
of the principal component accounts for maximum variance, while the second
principal component absorbs the maximum of the remaining variation and so on.
The inter- correlation matrix was factorized by using principal component
method with inities in diagonal (hoteling,1935 ).following the recommendation of
Kaiser(1958), the interaction of factors was stopped when the eign value (latent

50

root) came to be less than 1.00. To archive an approximation to simple structure,
extracted factor were rotated in accordance with the criterion of Kaiser’s 91958)
varimax procedure. Using the procedure outlined in Harman (1960) for
approximating the standard error of factor loading, we found that the loading
greater than 0.30 are significant at .05 level. The communalities, which give the
proportion of variance for each of the original variable, preserved in the factor
solution are listed in the last column of the rotated factor matrix. The
communalities are the sum of squared loading across row of Factor and show
how each variable is associated in the underlying principal component. The
statistical analysis was carried out with the help of computer by making use of
SPSS.

4.2 Statistical Validity of Factor Analysis
In order to ascertain the statistical validity of factor analysis, Bartlett’s test KM()
measure of sampling adequacy was applied, as recommended bandy Kaiser
(1958) The Bartlett’s test of Sphericity Bartlett (1950) has been used to examine
whether variables are correlated or not in the population. This test checks
whether the population correlation matrix is an identity matrix where each
variable correlates perfectly with itself (r=1), but has no correlation with the other
variables. For large sample Bartlett’s test approximates the Chi square
distribution and it is assumed that the sample correlation came from a
multivariate normal population with the variables being identified as
independence.

Table :4.2
Bartlett’s Test
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 1956.264514
df 595

51

Sig. .000

The Chi-Square value is computed as 1956.265, with df=595, and P