However the study also figured out that in Binga district the management of natural resources is dualistic nature because it is carried out by the campfire department of the Binga Rural District Council and parastatals like the Environmental Management Authority as well as the Department of Parks and Wildlife. These entities exercise and implement government conservation policy in Binga District. They are charged with manning the fisheries, game parks and woodlands which are the main ecological resources in the area; the existence of this management system to the Tonga has however been a contentious issue. All these conservational organizations are tasked with regulating the utilization of natural resources in the district. Both the BRDC and the Department of Parks and Wildlife require those who intent to practise fishing and hunting.Individuals pay license fees of $20 per month for fishing, $70 trading fees and $50 for inspection fees.
Some expenses may accrue up to $2500 per annum. Fisherman feel short changed by the system of double taxation as they are also forced to pay $80 dollars to both the BRDC and the Parks and Wildlife Department. According to Mudimba the charges are beyond the reach of the ordinary Tonga who are in most cases unemployed. He feels that fishing has been made a trade for the elite and those high ranking members of the society and some of them from other areas. He also notes that there are still conflicts between the conservation agencies and the Tonga over the use of natural resources. With that in mind it’s arguable that though the policies are meant to promote sustainable development they do not address the grassroots problem of poverty and access to resources. The general populace amongst the Tonga remains alienated from resources. This shows that there are still bottle necks thus development may be still a dream for the ordinary Tonga INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENTThe infrastructure component coincides with the objectives of many other policies.
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The government through its local administrative arms has sought to improve infrastructure in the area like roads to ensure that the area is accessible. According to Muzamba infrastructural development is a priority as it will facilitate for other developmental initiatives to yield the intended goals. By the time of this study it was observed that the road from Kamativi Tin Mine to Binga centre was being rehabilitated and expanded from a narrow strip road to wide tarred road. Muzamba also alluded to the plans by the rural district council to improve infrastructure at tourist resorts like Chizarira Game Park.
According to Mungombwe the government is playing a very significant role through various arms like the Ministry of Transport and ZINARA which are providing resources like machinery, fuel as well as money to assist these projects. The government has also sought to establish a border post at Binga that will connect Zimbabwe and Zambia through the Zambezi. This will make Binga even more accessible to tourists as well as attracting travellers and traders who are who want to move goods between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The proposed boarder post will improve the revenue for the council. The Binga Rural District council is also working on infrastructure for small to medium enterprises like flea market stalls at various business centres within the district like at Manjolo and Sianzundu.
This enables small scale traders to sell their goods. Small scale trading like flea markets are a common business feature in Binga District because they cater for those who are unable to travel long and costly distances to Bulawayo.Also as way of promoting access tom information the state has put in place television and radio transmitters at Kamativi Tin Mine. This was meant to bridge the information or media blackout in Binga district.
For much of the period after independence Binga district did not have local radio and television signal thus the state had to act. However the transmitters are not effective in the sense that still up to the time of this study there was actually very little radio or television signal in Binga. This shows a lack of follow up in state interventions.Promotion of Participation of the Tonga in Developmental IssuesIn the past few years the Tonga have also seen themselves participating in national developmental issues namely the COPAC draft constitution and national healing process.
As compared to the 1999 referendum in which the Tonga were largely excluded from participating the COPAC programme also conducted outreach programmes in Binga district to have the views of the Tonga. Ndlovu asserts that there has been a change in state policy because during the 1999 referendum the majority of the people in Binga district were simply unaware of it. In 2012 the National Healing, Peace and Reconciliation Commission also came to Binga for a consultative workshop on which the researcher was a participant. This gave the Tonga the chance to air their views on a matter of national interest aimed at fostering peace and reconciliation after a violence laced election of 2008.Also in 2012 the department of national planning which falls under the ministry of local government deployed a team in Binga district to hold consultations with the general populace so as to get their input on the developmental needs of in the district. This gave the Tonga the chance to make a contribution to the developmental issues in their area of inhabitancy. Participatory development is important and can be regarded as an indicator of development hence in this case the state played a significant role in promoting development amongst the Tonga.
CONCLUSIONIn conclusion this chapter has explored the policies formulated by government to promote development amongst the Tonga. It should be noted that the significant policy interventions have been two dimensional in the sense that some of the policies are formulated to address national issues and some are mainly targeted at integrating the marginalised communities like the Tonga. This chapter has also highlighted that the states approach had different phases . So in this respect the Zimbabwean government has formulated a number of policies and programmes aimed at promoting development amongst the Tonga. The first period namely the 1990s was largely characterised by drawing up of plans however these plans lacked in implementation. This chapter also noted that after the failure of the state’s early interventions the Tonga responded through advocacy and this prompted the state to take a more integrative approach which encompassed the Tonga’s identity and their cultural resource .The state formulated policies which aimed at promoting participatory development amongst the Tonga These include the establishment of programmes such as CAMPFIRE for resource management and beneficiation for the local communities.
The government has also adopted community based tourism basing on the abundance of resources in Binga which include the lake, Tonga cultural heritage and game reserves. These development initiatives are primarily aimed at integrating the Tonga into the developmental process through encouraging their participation. However some of these measures have failed to meet the expectation of the Tonga.
CHAPTER FOUR:SHORTCOMINGS OF GOVERNMNENT INTERVENTIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS INTRRODUCTIONThis chapter seeks to highlight and analyse the shortfalls of government interventions and give recommendations. The assessment is will be based on the extent to which the interventions have resulted in tangible development and impenetrability for the benefit of Binga District as a geographical entity and its citizens who are an ethnic minority.Lack of Grassroots Consultation and Participation It has often been observed in Binga that developmental projects and programs follow a top-down approach based on supply rather than demand factors, and ignore the real needs of local communities. The state’s need to record milestones may has in some cases prevented it from giving due attention to the needs of the Tonga ethnic minority. Thus some policies aimed at developing the Tonga have failed because they are formulated without consultation being made with the intended beneficiaries. There is also limited participation by the Tonga in the identification and implementation of state sanctioned developmental interventions namely in the education sector .
this in turn does not provide a clear picture of the challenges affecting them and it creates good grounds for the failure of governmental interventions. Therefore the state must make assessments such as vulnerability and capacity assessments promote community self-resilience. This will enhance the sharing of local coping mechanisms and knowledge to take collective actions for short, medium, and long-term priorities to enable ethnic minorities realise development .with this on mind it is recommendable that government must emphasize on inclusion. Inclusion focuses on who is taken in or considered while participation addresses the question of how they are included and the role they play once included. Inclusion of ethnic minority people and to ensure the success of the state interventions .
The state must also put in place policies to guarantee and sustain inclusion and informed participation so as to create space for ethnic minorities like the Tonga to debate issues and participate in local and national priority setting, budget formation, and delivery of basic services. Although there are already mechanisms and methods of participation in place which include representation by elected officials they have not been effective as they usually fail to address the problems which the Tonga face that are poverty at household level.Need to balance policies The governments drive towards promoting access to education and literacy amongst the Tonga has not been fully backed by complementary measures and resources. There are a number of disparities in the educational situation in Binga district. Education infrastructure in the district is largely substandard.
The district has witnessed an increase in the number of primary schools but there is an un matching number of secondary schools and this still presents a challenge for those children who might have graduated from primary schools. According to Sibanda there has been lack of advancement in the educational infrastructure in the district and this is evidenced by the absence of a single science laboratory at any of the schools in the district. The development of education in the district has also suffered from teacher exodus due to the absence necessities like accommodation, clean water , phone , network and rural incentives.Lack of Personnel Specially Trained to Deal With Minority Issues One of the major problems affecting governmental developmental initiatives in amongst the Tonga is the absence of personnel specially trained for ethnic minority inhabited areas.
Personnel working in ethnic minority areas should be trained so as to equip them with professional skills required for the local conditions, including knowledge of local languages and cultural characteristics. In Binga district it is event that most of the personnel who work in sectors such as health and education are not originally Tonga and this might has also presented challenges for them when they discharge their duties. Training programs should also be provided for ethnic minority personnel as a long-term investment by the government local level should also be improved.
Need to Create an Attractive Environment for Human Resources In sectors such as the education and health the government must try to create an environment which attracts personnel to ethnic minority regions Many minority groups do not have modern schools especially those lived dispersedly in remote areas like the Tonga . In most cases the only places for their children to learn reading and writing were improvised shades which are used as classrooms. Such schools do not attract qualified or even temporary teachers Therefore, the first issue faced by these schools in ethnic minority inhabited areas is the lack of qualified teachers and government has to put in place measures to curb this problem. Teaching and learning efficiency has been reduced due to a lack of schools and classrooms. This affects not only ethnic minority but all pupils in remote and disadvantaged rural areas. In some instances children are forced to hot sit and this might also affect their learning experience and present unfavourable working conditions for teachers Need to Foster Cooperation Between Government NGOs and Influential Members within the Minorities Also when formulating government policy interventions for ethnic minority inhabited areas it is also important for the state to identify the role played by the more educated ethnic minority individuals both within their own communities and at national level and to increase their participation in policies and programs. In almost every ethnic minority an elite group of ethnic minority intellectuals certainly exists some of them holding prominent positions in national economic and political life. These persons may retain close links with their communities of origin and identify themselves very much as ethnic minorities.
In the case of the Tonga there are well educated and established individuals in Binga the likes of Duncan Sinamupande, Josias Mungombe, ED Muleya, Mr Mungombe. Engaging these individuals may help in identifying the priority needs for the Tonga so as to come up with appropriate strategies which suit their needs. Therefore the state must seek to work hand in hand with these individuals. In its effort to poverty reduction programs for ethnic minorities it is important for the state to understand the traditional social structure of ethnic minorities and the institutions that tend to enjoy most legitimacy in their territories . Until now, policies and programs have tended to target communes rather individual households as the basic units for development. However ethnic minorities like the Tonga tend to be organized around the traditional village and their needs are bound by their cultural and historical experience. Consequently it is the village, and the village authorities, that should be targeted for development interventions in ethnic minority areas for them to be fully appreciated and embraced by the local communities. Therefore the government should carry out studies to examine how best to reconcile the interests of traditional village institutions, such as village assemblies, with those of state-sponsored village committees.
During this research, participants and NGOs interviewed by the researcher have expressed concern and frustration at the lack of inter-agency co-operation in relation to issues affecting the Tonga. Sometimes there is a feeling that it is not clear where responsibility lies. This can also have serious consequences, whereby developmental programmes by and for Government are then ignored.
Where there remain striking inequalities and issues with Government service provision to certain groups, specialised monitoring and or implemen