The cultural focus gradually shifted from god and the hereafter to humankind and the here and now. The Renaissance which translates roughly as a rebirth and fresh thinking which lasted from the 14th through 17th centuries attempted to reapply the ancient intellectual learning of the Greco-Roman Civilization. The thinkers and artists of this new era differed remarkably from their medieval counterparts. Broadly speaking, Mediaeval period was a period predominantly dominated by Christian outlook. Moreover, All of the Civilizations regarded as ‘Heirs’ of Rome paid significant tribute to their respective religion. Thus, it can be safely concluded that religion and politics were interwoven in Medieval period. The Renaissance, however, represented a dramatic transformation from the Medieval outlook. Secularism humanism and individualism were three aspects of life that appeared in the Renaissance and each of those three aspects had a great impact on the socio-economic and political structure of the era.
During the Renaissance, the concept of individualism emerged. It stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and full development of one’s capabilities and talents. During the Middle Ages individualism was highly abandoned. Almost any idea deviating from the status quo, largely determined by the Roman Catholic Church, was condemned as heresy. Anybody who was accused of proposing individualism will be be excommunicated or killed, However, with the decline of the Middle Ages, the conditions arose for the birth of individualism—the development of which can be traced through the Renaissance.
New humanistic art in Italian painter Giotto di Bondone, known as Giotto. He departed from abstrat, Byzantine style by portraying the feelings and physical nature of human beings.
The ancient Greeks had been concerned with idealized physical form. Roman artists had emphasized physical accuracy. Italy was the principal homeland of the Renaissance The Italian Renaissance was one of the most colorful, vital, and exciting times in history. Renaissance eventually comes from the French word “Renaistre,” meaning “to be born again.” The Renaissance was a revival or a rebirth of cultural awareness and learning among art, law, language, literature, philosophy, science, and mathematics. This period took place between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Renaissance in Italy flourished in the 15th century and spread throughout most of Europe in the 16th century. What was the Renaissance and why did it happen? Italian life in the 14th and 15th centuries was lived among the vast ruins of the ancient Roman Empire. Painters were not interested in making a picture realistic, they did not use perspective. The more important figures in the painting were frequently made larger than all the others, and often the element of landscape was omitted completely. Members of the Holy Family for example, would be painted against a background of shining gold, which signified the heavens. During the Renaissance, all that changed. The period was characterized by a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman design and included an emphasis on human beings and the environment. The secularism and humanism of the Renaissance were reflected in its scholarship and education. Its concern was with this world rather than the hereafter, and its focus was on pagan classics rather than Christian theology. The father Of Renaissance literature, Petrarch, stressed that the new boarding schools were not to train priests but the sons of merchants. The humanist movement was further stimulated by the influence of Byzantine scholars who came to Italy after the fall of Constantinople (present day Istanbul) to the Turks in 1453 and also by the establishment of the Platonic Academy in Florence.