Adolescence is the period of dramatic physical changes.
If in the childhood necessary physical needs were well satisfied, then at adolescence the body continues to grow and there comes the sexual maturation known as puberty.
Typical age of puberty – from 12 to 18 years. This stage of development has a predictable physical milestone.
Also, as in the childhood, the basic physical needs are good nutrition, 8h sleep and a lot of physical activity. Food rich in vitamin and minerals is absolutely necessary to increase muscle bulk and growth of bones.
Puberty includes basic physiological changes in individual growth, weight, body composition, sexual characteristic, blood circulation and respiratory system. These changes are strongly influenced by hormonal activity.
It is also a time of cognitive changes. Teenagers begin to think of new opportunities, consider of abstract concepts such as love, fear and freedom. Unfortunately, teenagers have a feeling of invulnerability that increases risk of death from accident, or contracting sexually transmitted infection that can have consequences for the rest of life.
If cognitive needs are well understood, then adolescents will learn
to think about abstract concepts and to take into account multiple opportunities and identities at once.
When adolescents have advanced cognitive development and maturity, they tend to resolve identity issues more easily than peers who are less cognitively developed.
Adolescence is the period in life for formation of personal and social identity. The adolescent wants
to investigate, test limits, to gain independence and commit to an identity or sense of self.
If social needs have been met appropriately, the adolescent will have good communication with parents and peers. Members of the social sphere of the teenager play an important role in the formation of the personality.
As adolescents work to form their identities, they pull away from their parents, and the peer group becomes very important; despite this, relationships with parents still play a significant role in identity formation.
There are significant differences between cultures. In the industrial world, as our, teens are expected to attend school from elementary to post-secondary. Such activity separates adolescent from family and allows to form the peer groups and create their own youth culture.
During this period of life, social responsibility, sexual expression, belief-system strongly vary from the cultural environment which surrounds a teenager. The cultural traditions existing in family are already insufficient. The teenager looks for new cultural tendency at school, at the Internet, other religions.
Adolescence form for themselves unique belief system through interaction with a social and cultural environment.
The influence of a cultural environment can have both positive and negative impacts of adolescent development.