Topic: BusinessManagement

Last updated: March 2, 2019

Feed is the major component of total costs of poultry venture as 80% of the total expenditure is on procurement of feed. Feed additives are a group of nutrient and non-nutrient compounds which helps in improving the efficiency of feed utilization and thus reducing the high cost of feed (Asghar et al. 2000). The association with different ethnic groups has contributed to the development of research on natural products, to the increase in knowledge about the close relationship between the chemical structure of a certain compound and its biological properties, and to the understanding of the animal/ insect-plant interrelation (Viegas et al. 2006). For these reasons, medicinal plants are important substances for the study of their traditional uses through the verification of pharmacological effects and can be natural composite sources that act as new anti-infectious agents. The microbial infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality of developed and developing country, although a number of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment and management of infectious diseases. In addition, misuse of the antibiotics which can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance is also a major health concern (Al-Bari et al.2007). Therefore, there is a perpetual need to exploit new bioactive principles with high safety index.
Nowadays, Poultry meat is a good source of animal protein and can contribute immensely in boosting the consumption level of animal protein. The prohibitive increase in the cost of input especially that of feed is among the constraints in commercial broiler production (Madubuike and Ekenyem, 2001). Ensuring more net return and minimizing high expenditure for feed are the main challenges, for which many research strategies have been trying to address through the inclusion of feed supplements and feed additives in the diets of broiler chicken. A major feed additive that has been extensively used is in poultry feed is antibiotics. Antibiotics use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which include not only the treatment or prophylaxis of infection but also the use of sub-therapeutic doses in animal feed to promote growth and improve feed efficiency in contemporary intensive animal farming (Ogle, 2013).
Historically, medicinal plants have been a source of novel drug compounds. Plants derived products have made large contributions to human health and wellbeing. Green pharmacy may become the base for the development of medicines by providing a pharmacophore which could be used for the development of new drug with novel mechanisms of action. Many scientists across the globe have reported antimicrobial properties of several medicinal plants but still a very meager portion of this tremendous potential drug-repertoire has been scientifically screened (Menghani et al. 2011). A number of medicinal plants have been screened for antimicrobial activity in recent years (Premanath et al. 2011) and efforts have been done to identify their active constituents (Tijjani et al. 2009). The plants extracts possessing bioactivity are essentially evaluated for toxicity and the extracts are usually tested for short or long term toxicity in animal models (Chavda et al.2010; Diallo et al. 2010). Nontoxic extracts possessing good bioactive principles may provide potential antimicrobial leads.
Ginger is a member of the family Zingiberaceae; a small family with more than 45 genera, and 800 species; its scientific name is Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) (Foster et al. 2011). It is an erect perennial plant growing from one to three feet in height; its stem is surrounded by the shealthing bases of the two ranked leaves. A clublike spike of yellowish, purple lipped flowers has greenish yellow brackswhich rarely flowers in cultivation (Tyler et al. 2002). Ginger is truly a world domestic remedy. It is also used in India and other places like the ancient Chinese where the fresh and dried roots were considered distinct medicinal products. Fresh ginger has been used for cold-induced diseases, nausea, asthma, cough, colic, heart palpitation, swelling, dyspepsia, less of appetite, and rheumatism, in short for the same purposes as in ancient china (Foster et al. 2011). In nineteenth century ginger serves as a popular remedy for cough and asthma when the juice of fresh ginger was mixed with a little juice of fresh garlic and honey (Foster et al. 2011). A paste of powdered dried ginger was applied to the temples to relieve headache and fresh ginger was mixed with a little honey, tapped off with a pinch of burnt peacock feathers to alley nausea.
Garlic Allium sativum (A. sativum) belongs to the family Alliaceae. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, and leek. It has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It has a characteristic pungent, hot, flavour that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. The head of garlic (the most commonly used plant part) comprises numerous discrete cloves whereas the leaves and stems are sometimes eaten, particularly while immature and tender. Garlic has been used as medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating as far back as the time that the Egyptian pyramids. It is also claimed to help prevent heart diseases including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and to improve the immune system as well as protection against cancer (Maryland, 2006). A daily dose of 1 mL/kg body weight of garlic extract for six months can result in significant reduction in oxidant (free radical) stress in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis and cholesterol circulating in the bloodstream. Garlic’s ability to prevent these oxidation reactions may explain some of its beneficial effects in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (Maryland, 2006).

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