EXPLORING STUDENTS’ EFFORTS IN SPEAKING ENGLISH FLUENTLY
321 414 079
FACULTY OF LETTERS AND CULTURE
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI GORONTALO
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the basic consideration of this research regarding the problem of students’ speaking English fluently and a query in the research question followed by research objectives, research delimitation, as well as research significances.
English today is believed to be the most influential bridging in global communication. In our own language (Indonesian), speaking is usually the second language skill that we learn. In learning English there are four skills namely writing, listening, reading and speaking. In the four skills, speaking is the most direct way to talk or communicate with other. English teachers argued that during all one’s life one shall probably talk more than one shall write. Therefore, to a language teacher, teaching speaking well is often a valued issue in the field of English as a second language or English as a foreign language. In education, speaking is used to build communication between teacher and students. In the classroom context, speaking is not only as a skill but also a media for teacher to transfer the materials or knowledge for students. Without speaking teacher cannot to transfer the material, teacher also cannot identify if a student focuses or accept the material by looking at how students can speak in classroom as a participant in learning process.
Davise ; Pearse (2000) said the main aim of English language teaching is to give learners the ability to use English language effectively and correctly in communication. However, it seems that language learners are not able to communicate fluently and accurately because they do not have enough knowledge in this field. Even more, to learn English is difficult one, but we have to learn as a student of English Department. Hemeka (2009) said all students of foreign language, regardless of their age, social and cultural background, or profession shall the same desire, to be able to speak the language. Moreover, in academic world, many students are interested in learning speaking because they intend to use English communication.
From the argument above, the researcher believes that Department of English Education at the state University of Gorontalo is the appropriate place where students can learn how to speak English intensively and efficiently because of the professional lecturer available in the department. Therefore, as the member of the Department of English education and for a future career as English language teachers, the students in the department expected to be able to become competent speakers of the language when they graduate. But, today there are many students of English Department who cannot speak English fluently. Only a few students of English Department who have the ability to speak English fluently. In fact, if students of English Department have passed all course of speaking, they should able to speak English fluently. Fluency can be one of the most difficult skills to improve. However, fluency is often the main goal of almost every second language learner due to the fact that the communicative approach is the primary focus of language learning.
This problem may be due by teachers tend to talk in class and leaving few opportunities for students to actually speak in the target language (Wang, 2014). But this problem is not only from the teacher alone, it could be from the students themselves. There are many factors that come to the students that hinder their ability to speak English fluently. Such as, lack of time or laziness to learn, makes them hard to speak English fluently and not mastered grammar or lack of vocabulary can make students unable to speak English fluently. The facts shown in the University of Gorontalo, especially in the Department of English Education, the researcher (who is studying in the department) has witnessed that many of the senior students have difficulties to speak English in various situation. For example, when interacting with their friends, class project presentation, even in thesis examination where English is compulsory to be used. In fact, most of senior students have passed their English courses from speaking I to III. But, there are a few students who can speak English fluently. This problem can be, these students are known as the best students in their class so if they express their idea or opinion they afraid of making mistakes or afraid of a negative evaluation of their friends or teacher.
But the other way, this proposed study, will focuses on identifying students’ effort in speaking English fluently. Because, this proposed study reflects some cases of students in English Department. Many students in English Department can speak English fluently.
From that reason, this research will find out students’ efforts in speaking English fluently. So, it can be guide the students that cannot speak English fluently.
In order to fulfill a deep analysis of this study, this study will focuses on research question is what are students’ efforts to able to speak English fluently?
In accordance with the research question, the aim of this study is to identify students’ efforts to able to speaking English fluently.
This proposal will be conducted at the English Department, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, the participants will be students class of 2014. There are two steps selected participants of this research. First, they have high GPA 3,5 minimally and have passed the subjects of speaking 1-3. Because, if they have passed all the subjects of speaking. They must be able to speak English fluently.
The Significance of Research
This proposal is expected to be used as a guideline for lecturers and students in order to increase their speaking skill. It also can enhance the students’ awareness in using English communicatively rather than theoretically. In addition, to students can search and get the best job if they can speak English fluently.
CHAPTER 2: Theoretical Framework
This chapter provides and elaborates on several theories which are used to collect and analyze the data. This begins with discussing the definition of speaking, followed by components of speaking skill and definition of fluency. It also reviews teaching strategy and learning goals. In the following section, this chapter presents the definition of speaking.
2.1 Definition of Speaking
Speaking is one of the skills that must be mastered by students when learning English. By speaking people can interact with other people as speaking is a major factor in communication to deliver something, such as information, opinion or ideas. There are definitions of the word “speaking” that have been suggested by the researcher in language learning. First, in the Webster New Dictionary, speaking means “to say words orally, to communicate as by talking and communicating”. Second, speaking refers to “an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information” (Brown 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997). Third, Alsamani & Hassan (2013) stated that speaking is one of the most active and major language skills with sequential arrangement of the word of a specific language to convey a message orally. Fourth, Howarth (2001), he defines that speaking as a two way process involving an actual communication of ideas, information or feelings. From those definitions above, the researcher inferred that speaking is skill that has meaning which appears directly from our mind to convey messages, idea, feelings to other people.
As a human being, we always need communication to express our idea to do everything; what’s more as a student they have to speak with their teacher as long as in learning process to express their idea. In brief, speaking can be defined as a tool to communicate between teacher and students as a media to deliver the material in learning process. Speaking is very important because speaking help us a student of English Department to communicate with their teacher or friends in learning process. Susanna (2007, p.181) argued that English is not only use as an official language in many nations, but also influence on many different cultures in a large number of countries; it is the central language of communication in the world wide. The central part of English lessons in schools today is speaking English. Speaking is regarded a very important skill, however many students lack this skill.
2.2 The Components of Speaking Skill
Speaking has been some components. The first components are pronunciation. Pronunciation is the way for learners to produce clearer language when they are speaking. It means that if learners can communicate effectively when they have good pronunciation. Pronunciation refers to the traditional or customary utterance of words. Kline (2001:p.69) said that pronunciation is the way for leaners to produce the utterance words clearly when they are speaking. The second components are grammar. Grammar is needed for students of English Department to arrange correct sentences in conversation both in written and oral forms. Grammar means as a systematic way of accounting for and predicting an ideal speaker’s or hearer’s knowledge of the language. Greenbaum and Nelson (2002:1) argue that grammar refers to the set of rules that allow us to combine words in our language into larger units. The third components are vocabulary. Vocabulary is essential for successful second language use because without an extensive vocabulary. It means vocabulary is one key the success in communicative, which is the power of words. Vocabulary is the appropriate diction or the most important thing in a language especially in speaking. In spoken language or speaking, vocabulary used must be very familiar and it is used in everyday conversation in order to understand the spoken discourse. Vocabulary means a basic building block of language learning. Students that learning English need to know words, their meanings, how they are spelt and how they are pronounced. The fourth components are fluency. Fluency is defined as the ability to speak communicatively. Fluency refers to express oral language freely without interruption. In learning process or teaching, if teacher wants to check students’ fluency, the teacher allows students to express themselves freely interruption. The aim is to help students to speak fluently. Pollard (2008:p.16) said the teacher does not correct immediately whereas the idea being that too much correction interferes with the flow of conversation. The fifth components are comprehension. Comprehension means an ability to perceive and process stretches of discourse, to formulate representations the meaning of second language is more difficult to study since is not directly observable and must be inferred from overt verbal and nonverbal responses, by artificial instruments or by intuition of the teacher or researcher. Cohen et al (2005:p.51) explained comprehension refers to the fact that participant fully understand the nature of research project, even when procedures are complicated and entail risks. Therefore, in speaking can be defines the speakers’ understanding about what are they saying to the listeners in order avoid misunderstanding information. In addition, its function is to make the listeners easily to catch the information from the speaker.
2.3 Definition of Fluency
One of the main objectives in second language learning is to be fluent in the target language. There are many of definitions of fluency; first fluency is the learners’ ability to speak in understandable way in order not to break down communication because listeners may lose their interest (Hughes, 2002). The second, Koizumi (2005) defines fluency as how fast and how much students learning English speaks without not fluency markers like repetitions, self-correction, and false starts. Third, Fillmore (as cited in Nation 1989) describes fluency is the ability to fill time with talk (the speaker has to think quickly in order to give a messages). In brief, fluency can be defined as an ability to communicate with people successfully. Cristal, 1997; Bryne, 1986; Nation, 1991 (cited in Lim Soh Lan, 2001) argue that fluency as the ability to get across communicative intent without too much hesitation and many pauses to cause barriers or breakdown in communication. Therefore as a teacher those teach a student learning English, help students learning English to produce correct form in English. It is also important that teacher help students learning English to get across their communicatively intent as effectively as possible in listener-speaker situation.
2.4 Learning Strategy
Learning strategies are essential components of a curriculum, as bridges between competence (what you have to learn and do) and process (what you have to go through to reach that result). Like Richards and Platt which state that learning strategies are intentional behavior and thoughts used by learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use information (cited in Rate, 2016). Being an EFL teacher means providing the students with knowledge, but also teaching them how learn, monitor their performance and assess the outcome of their learning. Teacher have the role to facilitate, support and improve students’ leaning by making them autonomous and responsible for students learning, by giving students the freedom to take initiative and create their own learning opportunities.
Learning strategies refer to two types of strategies contributing directly to learning: cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Cognitive strategies are useful tools in assisting students with learning problems. The term of cognitive strategies in its simple form is the use of the mind (cognition) to solve a problem or complete a task. The cognitive includes strategies that involve analysis, transformation or synthesis of information, such as:
The use of cognitive strategies can increase the efficiency with which the learner approaches a learning task. These academic tasks can include, but are not limited to, remembering and applying information from course content, constructing sentences and paragraphs, editing written work, paraphrasing and classifying information to be learned. In classroom cognitive strategies are used, the teacher fulfills a pivotal role, bridging the gap between student and content/skill to be learned. This role requires an understanding of the task to be completed, as well as knowledge of an approach (or approaches) to the task that teacher can communicate with the learners. While teaching cognitive strategies requires a high degree of commitment from the teacher and learner, the result are well worth the effort.
On the other side, the metacognitive strategies help learners regulate, or supervise learning by self-management, planning, setting priorities, or establishing goals. Metacognition increasingly useful mechanism to enhance student learning, both for immediate outcomes and for helping students to understand their own learning processes. Metacognitive is a teachable skill that is central to other skills sets such as problem solving, decision making, and critical thinking (Moely and colleagues, 1995; Schaw, 1998).
Example of cognitive and metacognitive relationships:
Example: Knowledge of finding the sun of a set a numbers
Cognitive strategies basically know how to reach a goal, such as how to add the numbers to find the sun. (Like a study method).Ex: remembering things learned earlier that might help with a current task or problem.
Example: Add the numbers of again
Metacognitive strategies are make sure that the goal was reached successfully, such as double or triple checking the correct answer (like a confidence builder)
Ex: monitoring and directing the processes of problem solving.
It is often difficult to distinguish the difference between cognitive and metacognitive. They are closely related and can often overlap. By learning strategy mean any action which teacher may have to take to solve a problem in learning, to help students to reach the goal.
2.5 Learning Goals
The learning goal is the backbone of a lesson and provides the “reason” for teaching and observing it. Teams of teaching usually start by selecting a subject, concept, theme, or topic in the course they want to study. Many teachers drawn to topics those are particularly difficult for students to learn. Other select a topic that comes later in the term so teacher has enough time to plan and design the lesson. Still other focus on topics those are new to the curriculum or that are new especially important in their fields.
Learning goals should be stated in terms of what students will understand and what they will be able to do as a result of the lesson. Teachers decide to do in the class will be considered in light of the goals. To support the learning process of speaking skill, the teachers must know about characteristics of each student and also the characteristics of successful speaking skill. If teacher know characteristics each students, the teacher can easily to give the material to students. Developing speaking skills is of vital importance in English as a Second Language or English as a Foreign Language programs. Nunan (1999) and Burkart ; Sheppard (2004) argue that success in learning a language is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the (target) language.
Accordingly the goals in the Department of Romance Language ; Literature, depending on the type of students-major ; minors; students fulfilling the language requirement; students fulfilling distribution requirements. The learning goals such as:
Students should develop linguistic skills in oral and written expression.
Student should develop a sense of the cultural aspects of the people who speak the target language.
Students should be able to demonstrate an ability to read and analyze literature written in the target language.
2.6 Previous Study
There are many previous studies have been investigated by the researcher all over the world that related analysis of developing speaking English fluently. However, there are two previous studies taken by considering the time, suitability and similarity of the theory used. The first is a research “The Use Of 3/2/1 Technique To Foster Students’ Speaking Fluency” composed by Molina and Briesmaster this study has conducted in a university, this research question is how does the use of 3/2/1 technique influence speaking fluency among students in an undergraduate degree program. This study applied quantitative and qualitative method to identify and reflect on the teachers’ practices and eventually to solve the identified problems. This study were collected the data used pre and posttest and interviews to determine whether the students developed fluency in their speaking skill. The result of the research, the use of the 3/2/1 technique can be applied in several context, such as reading aloud technique in which students read a passage in three minutes, the same passage in two minutes, and finally in only one minute. This technique could help students to improve their fluency in reading or their pronunciation. And also this technique can contribute to making students talk during class, so that eventually their fear of speaking in front of the class.
The next previous study conducted by Hendra Heriansyah (2012) “Speaking Problem Faced By The English Department Students Of Syiah Kuala University”. This study conducted at English Department of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education at Syiah Kuala University. The research question is the difficulties of speaking faced by the students of the English Department of Syiah Kuala University. The subjects of this research is the third semester students the English Department of Syiah Kuala University who got the lowest passing grades in speaking class. To collect the data, the researcher used interview and observation as the main instrument. The result of this study is the problem that most students faced in speaking was ‘having a lack of vocabulary’, ‘not being confident to speak’, ‘not being used talking in class’, and ‘difficult expressing words or sentences’. There were two kinds of problems faced by the students in speaking that research found in this study, namely, linguistic and non-linguistic problems.
CHAPTER 3: Methodology of Research
This chapter presents and explains about the research method, data collection, sources of data and data analysis. In the following section this chapter presents the chosen a research method.
3.1 Research Method
This proposal used qualitative descriptive method. The goal of qualitative descriptive method is comprehensive summarization, in everyday terms of specific events experienced by individuals or group of individuals. As stated by Patton and Cochran (2007), qualitative research is characterized by its aims, which relate to understanding some aspect of social life, and its methods which (in general) generate words, rather than numbers, as data for analysis. It can be concluded that qualitative descriptive study explores the issue, in this case the existence of students’ efforts in speaking English fluently, then analyze the issue and interprets into a display of the finding that explains it descriptively. The researcher uses this approach to identify students’ efforts in speaking fluently and will clarified with information from interview session.
3.2 Data Collection
The site of this proposal is at English Department, State University of Gorontalo. This site has been selected based on number of aspects. The first aspect of this study is examines students’ effort in speaking English fluently, in that department study English intensively than the others in university level. The second aspect is students of English Department have several lessons in speaking skills, namely Speaking for General Communication, Speaking for Professional Context and Speaking for Academic Purposes.
The participants of this proposal will be students of English Department class of 2014. The reasons why the researcher chooses them, because were they have passed the steps of speaking. Such as speaking 1, speaking 2 and speaking 3. So, they can speak English fluently and the participants will select if they have high GPA 3, 5 minimally.
3.3 Source of Data
The data of this proposed study is interview with the students that inform efforts to able to speak English fluently.
Interview is the verbal conversation between two people with the objective of collecting relevant information for the purpose of research. McNamara (1999) said interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant’s experiences, the interview can pursue in-depth information around the topic and interviews may be useful as follow up to certain respondents. The researcher conducts an interview session in order to get the accurate information about students’ efforts speaking English fluently. The question will be provided in the form of a semi-structured interview. In semi structured interviews, interviewer prepares a set of same questions to be answered by all interviewees. Additional question during interviews to clarify or further expand certain issues and the question also can develop due the interview for the necessity of the data. The researcher wills using recording to record all interview to minimize the loss of information and to make easier to analyze the data. After that, the stated data are transcribed into the document form.
The questions are:
What difficulties did you feel in speaking class?
How to handle the difficulties in speaking English fluently.
Do your teacher taught you how to speaking English fluently.
What are efforts speaking English fluently.
Scores of speaking.
3.4 Data Analysis
The data of the participants will be collected through the document analysis and interview. To analyze the data, this proposal utilized categorical analysis theory as the guideline. And interview data will analyze using thematic analysis procedure. Boyatzis, 1998 (cited in Burns ; Clarke 2006) defines thematic analysis is a method to identifying, analyzing, organizing, and reporting themes within found data. In this step, the data from interview is processes to determine whether students’ efforts to speaking English fluently.
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