Explain the post-16 options for young people and adults.
Raising the Participation Age is when young people have a choice about how they continue in education or training post-16 – 18. Pupils who are aged 16 and over are given many opportunities when they either to leave school and start employment or to stay and continue with theireducation. Pupils may choose one of these options.

There are three primary ways for young people to participate. Young people can go into full-time education in a school, college or they can join with a training provider. The second way is full- time work or volunteering which you do for 20 hours or more a week. This is combined with part-time education or training which leads to a qualification. The last way is apprenticeship;an apprentice under 19’s minimum average wage is £3.50 an hour.All apprenticeships include elements of on the job and off the job training leading to industry recognised standards or qualifications.They could alsodo atraineeship or supported internship.
Adults have many options in education. They have the options to go into adult education where they will have access to many courses, this can be at an FE college or Adult Education Centre or online courses.They can go into an apprenticeshipif they are under 25 and in some cases after this age if there is a skills shortage in their area of interest. They can also have opportunities to get a job or volunteer to get experience. They can also go onto Higher education at a university or do an Open University course.

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5.1. Explain why schools have policies and procedures.
There are many reasons as to why schools have policies and procedures. First reason is to encourage good practice, to ensure the schools run effectively. Another reason the schools may have policies and procedures is because it is a legal requirement as it is a law. It is also to ensure that everyone working in the setting know what their roles are. Another reason is to maintain standards and be constant. Schools may have policies and procedures in place to offer staff guidance and to ensure children are kept safe. For example, the behaviour policy is there to ensure staff know how to handle a child’s behaviour when they misbehave or even when they do something good what the staffs can do then
(Stickers)
5.3. Evaluate how school policies and procedures may be developed and communicated.

There are many ways in which school’s policies and procedures may be developed and communicated. Policies and procedures may be developed by talking to other schools that have developed similar policy to lok for guidance. Schools may contact school systems/ government departments if it is relevant- they may seek background information and obtain copies of relevant legislations and policies. They may update their policies to meet legislations. IEA- they may use a model policy, which is a policy that has been done for you. Schools may develop policies and procedures by working with groups/ parties. They may talk with members of the school community.
If the school develops the policies and procedures, they will be up to date with all the information and the school will be more professional. On the other hand, if the school wants to update the legislatios, it will cost them. They will have to train all the staff to make them aware of the new policies, which may take a lot of time.

Using model policies
The positive side of using model policies is that the LEA will have some policies that schools can use. If schools use model policies it will save a lot of time and it should be up to date with the current legislation and guidelines relevant to policies. On the other hand, it may not be completely suitable for the schools, however they can adapt it slightly to meet their needs. Some the policies are understandable, because it hasn’t been developed by the school itself. If the schools are paying organisations/ professionals to do their policies, it will cost them, however it is less time consuming.

If schools develop their policies with other schools, they will get more ideas and support from other people. On the hand, it will be time consuming, as you will need to arrange times. They may not meet the school’s needs, as every school is different.

Questionnaires/ surveys
The positive things about questionnaires/ surveys are that everyone is getting an opportunity to give their opinion/ to have their say. For example, if the school wants to change the uniform, they might send out questionnaires to see the parent’s views. On the other hand, it will be time consuming, trying to get it all collated and at times if people’s opinions have not been acted upon, it will not make it right. Using questionnaires, it may not give the school the results they wanted.

Working with groups
if schools work with small groups, it will be less time consuming than large groups as people will have knowledge and BSNT. These are people who are experienced in writing policies. On the other hand, it is time consuming and the policies may not take everyone’s views into account. Other people in the groups may have good ideas that may not be taken into account.

5.3. Evaluate how school policies and procedures may be developed and communicated.

Schools may communicate to the people of the school in many ways. They can do this by training the staff, governing meetings, putting it on the notice boards/ school website or having meetings.
Meetings
When schools have meetings it is very good as staff can ask questions if they don’t understand something. They will be focused on the policies updates/ changes. When schools have meetings, they will only have the people they need in the meetings. On the other hand, it is time consuming/ difficult to arrange times. They may not have enough time to cover everything.

Websites
when schools have their policies on their school website, it is a positive thing as it will be available 24/7, therefore whenever anyone wants to use it, they can look at it. on the other hand, not all the policies you want is there and not everyone has access to the internet. Sometimes it may not be easy to navigate the policies.
Induction
In schools, when having an induction, policies are often conducted in induction. This is where staff have to read through policies and sign that they have read and understood the policies. The positive side of this is that the person will have signed and understood the policies- the main important policy will be highlighted. On the other hand, people read the policies too quickly without fully understanding them.

6.1. Summarise the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice.

Local government
There are many roles and responsibilities of the local government for education policy and practice. They have a responsibility to fund schools and provide support services for schools (trainings). They may provide extra training especially when there are any changes. They have the responsibility to monitor admissions and children’s attendances. The local government have the responsibility to develop model policies, this is for schools to access and use the policies. They have a role and responsibility to monitor school funding and distribute in their area. They are responsible for providing services, such as school dinners, training, specialist support, advisors and teachers. They oversee provision for children with special educational needs and children with challenging behaviour. The local government are responsible to oversee access to school transport and if a child has been excluded from school, the local government is responsible to make sure they getting educated. Lastly the local government have to create a document about their aims, visions and boundaries.

National government
The national government is part of the department of education. They have many roles and responsibilities education policy and practice. They have a responsibility for teaching and learning for children and they are responsible for children’s services and education. They have a responsibility to create policies and make sure they are put into practice. They have a responsibility to work with children, who are up to the age of 19 years old, if they have had any sort of problem from child protection to education. They are also responsible for finding/ developing different ways on improving the quality of all the educational services.

6.2. Explain the role of schools in national policies relating to children, young people and families.
Schools have many roles in national policies relating to children, young people and families. Schools have the role of supporting the implementation of the national policies that relate to children, young people and families. They have a role to update their school’s policies and to ensure staff are aware of the changes by giving them training. They have a role of ensuring all staff in the setting follow the correct policies and procedures. The school’s policies must reflect the children’s needs. The school should be updated if children’s needs are changed. The school have a role to give awareness to children’s families. The schools have a role to make policies available for children’s parents/ carers.   The school need to be aware of the law changes and they have to make sure the policies are in line with legislations.
Community cohesion is when you are working towards a society by ensuring different groups of people who share a common vision and sense of belonging , where opportunities of similar interest is available to every person of every kind. It is impotant as childre6.3. Explain the roles of other organisations working with children and young people and how these may impact on the work of schools.

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