“EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TVL K-12 CURRICULUM AND ITS IMPACT TO THE GRADUATES’ EMPLOYABILITY AND THEIR EMPLOYEE- EMPLOYER SATISFACTION”

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of
Graduate Studies and Applied Research
Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus

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Name: MARICEL P. MERCADEJAS
Professor: NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed. D.
Course Description: Graduate Seminar

Panel
Date: Adviser:
Time: Subject Specialist:
Room: Statistician:
Technical Editor:
Dean:

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
Chapter
I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction……………………………………………………..
Background of the study……………………………………..
Theoretical Framework……………………………………….
Conceptual Framework……………………………………….
Research Paradigm…………………………………………..
Statement of the Problem…………………………………….
Research Hypothesis…………………………………………
Significance of the Study……………………………………
Scope and Delimitation of the Study………………………
Definition of terms…………………………………………..

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Related Literature……………………………………………

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design……………………………………………
Research Instruments………………………………………
Statistical Treatment of Data………………………………

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Given the fact that the Philippines is one of the only three countries in the world (Angola and Djibouti are the other two) and only one in Asia that still had only 10 years in basic education; and this has always been seen as disadvantage for the students who are competing in an increasingly global job (K12 Philippines, October 27, 2015).
K to 12 is an education system under the Department of Education that aims to enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare graduates for lifelong learning and employment. ” K ” stands for Kindergarten and “12 ” refers to the succeeding 12 years of basic education ( 6 years of elementary education, 4 years of junior high school, and 2 years of senior high school). As Isagani Cruz put it, “The whole point of the entire K to 12 reform is to answer the needs of about 30 million young people (those below 24 years of age) who have not finished Fourth Year High School. Or out-or-school youth of employable age, more than six million are unemployed, primarily because they do not have the skills that employers want. The new system guarantee that the students will be able to master lifelong skills by the time they graduated from the K-12 program, they will be more equipped and ready to enter college, get a job, or start on their own venture.

Background of the Study
K to 12 has been one of the utmost issues in the country ever since it was implemented. Some are in favor yet some of them questioned the capability of the country to adapt to what is generally accepted by the world in terms of educational standards. Philippines have been trying to keep up with what the world have set as standards especially when it comes to the educational sector. We, as a country known to provide valuable manpower to the world has to conform with what is generally accepted by the majority as standards when it comes to a laborer/employee’s educational attainment. Matching to what the world has set shows that the Philippines is continuously getting more and more globally competitive. The K to 12 program is just another step closer to a brighter and more competitive future to all students and professionals alike.
Theoretical framework
Bandura stated in his Social Cognitive Career Theory that an individual’s confidence in her or his ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task determines the willingness and motivation with which the client will pursue a career or education path.
On the other hand, Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise states that career choice is a process of elimination or circumscription in which a person eliminates certain occupational choices from further consideration. This is influenced by self-concept development and various development life stages. Compromise is a complex process in which compatibility with one’s interests is often compromised for options that are in line with the need for prestige or external realities such as labor market, gender expectations, or cultural expectations.
In the early1900s Frank Parsons who developed Trait and Factor Theory through the talent-matching approach that later developed into the Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice. It says that individuals and occupations each have unique characteristics and traits. Individuals develop these traits over their lifetime, and the highest satisfaction comes when there is a good match between the characteristics of the individual and the occupation.
Significantly John Krumboltz’ social learning theory shows how individuals make career decisions that emphasizes the importance of behavior (action) and cognitions (knowing or thinking) in making career decisions, teaching clients career decision techniques and how to use them and examines four basic factors to understand why people choose the work they do as well as other occupationally related decisions.
Lastly, the Career Development theory of Donald E. Super focuses on how careers unfold over the life span. Career choice is affected by complex and multi-faceted biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors.
Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of two (2) parts, the Status of the TVL Graduates as to; NC Holder, Employment Status and Profile, and Assessment of the TVL Curriculum as to; Subject Offers. Dependent variable consists of three (3) parts as to Assessment of the Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Track, Employee Satisfaction and Employer Satisfaction.
Figure 1 shows the relationship of independent and dependent variable.
IV DV

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the relationship of Employability status of NC holder graduates batch 2017-2018 to the implementation of the TVL K to 12 curriculum.
Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the TVL Pagbilao National High School graduates in terms of
1.1. NC Holder;
1.2. employment status; and
1.3. profile?
2. What is the perception of the respondents in the assessment of the Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track, employee satisfaction and employer satisfaction?
3. What is the perception of the respondents in the assessment of TVL curriculum in terms of
3.1. subject offers?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the implementation of the TVL K-12 curriculum and the employment of the NC holder TVL senior high school graduates?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the implementation of the TVL K-12 curriculum and the employment of the NC holder senior high school graduates.
Significance of the Study
Schools. The information they may get from this study may be used as reference on the implementation of K to 12, along with the issues and concerns the school heads and the teachers encountered on such implementation.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Definition of terms
For the purpose of clarification, the important terms used in this study have been defined.
The following terms are:
K – 12. Letter “K” refers to kindergarten and “12” refers to the additional two (2)
years in the basic education. It is the additional years after fourth years in
secondary schooling. TVL. Refers to Technical-Vocational- Livelihood. It is one of the tracks offered in K- 12 curriculum.
Profile. Refers to the respondent’s age and gender .
Employment Status. Refers to the respondent’s as to employed, underemployed and employed.
Perception. Refers to what is conceived to be true which is subjective. It refers
to the specific perception of the senior high school graduates in regard to the TVL K – 12 program which is implemented by the Department of Education.
Employer Satisfaction.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the discussion of related literature and studies having direct bearing to the study.
Related Literature
Literature in K-12, more than just text-
LITERATURE-K-12-MORE-JUST-TEXT-408455
May 20, 2015

DEPARTMENT of Education (DepEd)-Baguio district head Francis Bringas emphasized in a recent gathering at the University of the Philippines-Baguio that neither the Philippine nor world literature was removed in the new curriculum to give way to the incorporated subjects from college.

“Literature was not removed. It was and will be reinforced,” Bringas said.

He said the K-12 is not only focused on equipping students with technical knowledge and skills through the four tracks in senior high school, but also prepares them to do “authentic tasks” in life with understanding and realizations to motivate them to do so.

“Children always want relevance in the topics that they are taught in school which we have failed to do in the past,” he said.

Previously, literature was taken only as part of the study in language. Literary pieces were studied as literary texts — pieces with perfectly used language.

But in the new curriculum, literary pieces will be studied to serve as a medium for appreciation of culture and life.

In the past, first, second and third year students study Philippine, Afro-Asian and British American based on genre.

The objective was to understand the writer’s style, the story and its moral lesson.

But in the new curriculum, Bringas said, “The students should be able to demonstrate communicative competence through understanding of Philippine, Afro-Asian, British-American and other countries text types and a deeper appreciation of their culture.”

The objective is to study these texts as the students come to a realization of valuing themselves and other people from the characters, learning lessons from the stories’ circumstances, and using these lessons to connect to the world.

They should be able to apply the lessons learned in this “authentic tasks” or whatever activities or circumstances they have outside the school.

At present, the curriculum for Grades 10, 11 and 12 are still on review for its implementation, but the district head noted the same objectives for students are aimed.

Bringas believes the new and more relevant curriculum will not only prepare the students to college but also in life. (Giovanni Joy Fontanilla)

The study is a review of the literature on the basic education (k-12) curriculum specifically the senior high school (SHS) of the Philippines, Japan, and the US. Results of the review show that the SHS curriculum is intended to prepare students to enter into college/university or to work in the industry or be an entrepreneur. The SHS program is the last level in all basic education programs of the countries reviewed. The Philippines has a clearer model with at least four tracks (academics, tech-voc, sports, arts & design) and at least ten strands. Japan has two tracks in academics and tech-voc. The US basic education system varies from state to state, similar to its SHS curriculum. There is no definite track as this is left to individual state and their school districts to decide. There are purely academic, tech-voc and other types of schools. The majority of those who choose academic track are students who plans to proceed to college. There are still a stigma in selecting tech-voc and other courses as this are seen by many as the course for poor performing/problematic students. The enrollment in tech-voc schools in the US is declining despite the surge of demand for skilled workers. In the three countries, the availability of qualified teachers is still an issue. This situation is very real in the Philippines as it started the SHS program in June 2016. Other problems includes the need to construct a huge number of classrooms and facilities. All of these are currently being addressed too by the government.

(PDF) Senior High School Curriculum in the Philippines, USA, and Japan. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318494693_Senior_High_School_Curriculum_in_the_Philippines_USA_and_Japan accessed Oct 03 2018.

(RBECis the product of 16 year’s study and seven years of intensive consultations, Roco said many years ago.)

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design, the population and sample, the research instruments and statistical treatment of data
Research Design
This study will use descriptive research with survey questionnaire.
It involves NC holder graduates in Pagbilao National High School Year 2017-2018.
Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use mixed method wherein interview and survey questionnaire will be used to determine the alignment to current employment of the NC holders of Pagbilao National High School.
This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.

The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx
N

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bigcas, J. (2016). A Mini Critique of K-12 Education Curriculum.
”What is k12”. 27 Oct. 2015.Web. 15 July 2016.http://k12philippines.com/
Johnson, C.(2016). Applying Career Development Theory.

“EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TVL K-12 CURRICULUM AND ITS IMPACT TO THE GRADUATES’ EMPLOYABILITY AND THEIR EMPLOYEE- EMPLOYER SATISFACTION”

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of
Graduate Studies and Applied Research
Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus

Name: MARICEL P. MERCADEJAS
Professor: NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed. D.
Course Description: Graduate Seminar

Panel
Date: Adviser:
Time: Subject Specialist:
Room: Statistician:
Technical Editor:
Dean:

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
Chapter
I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction……………………………………………………..
Background of the study……………………………………..
Theoretical Framework……………………………………….
Conceptual Framework……………………………………….
Research Paradigm…………………………………………..
Statement of the Problem…………………………………….
Research Hypothesis…………………………………………
Significance of the Study……………………………………
Scope and Delimitation of the Study………………………
Definition of terms…………………………………………..

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Related Literature……………………………………………

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design……………………………………………
Research Instruments………………………………………
Statistical Treatment of Data………………………………

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Given the fact that the Philippines is one of the only three countries in the world (Angola and Djibouti are the other two) and only one in Asia that still had only 10 years in basic education; and this has always been seen as disadvantage for the students who are competing in an increasingly global job (K12 Philippines, October 27, 2015).
K to 12 is an education system under the Department of Education that aims to enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare graduates for lifelong learning and employment. ” K ” stands for Kindergarten and “12 ” refers to the succeeding 12 years of basic education ( 6 years of elementary education, 4 years of junior high school, and 2 years of senior high school). As Isagani Cruz put it, “The whole point of the entire K to 12 reform is to answer the needs of about 30 million young people (those below 24 years of age) who have not finished Fourth Year High School. Or out-or-school youth of employable age, more than six million are unemployed, primarily because they do not have the skills that employers want. The new system guarantee that the students will be able to master lifelong skills by the time they graduated from the K-12 program, they will be more equipped and ready to enter college, get a job, or start on their own venture.

Background of the Study
K to 12 has been one of the utmost issues in the country ever since it was implemented. Some are in favor yet some of them questioned the capability of the country to adapt to what is generally accepted by the world in terms of educational standards. Philippines have been trying to keep up with what the world have set as standards especially when it comes to the educational sector. We, as a country known to provide valuable manpower to the world has to conform with what is generally accepted by the majority as standards when it comes to a laborer/employee’s educational attainment. Matching to what the world has set shows that the Philippines is continuously getting more and more globally competitive. The K to 12 program is just another step closer to a brighter and more competitive future to all students and professionals alike.
Theoretical framework
Bandura stated in his Social Cognitive Career Theory that an individual’s confidence in her or his ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task determines the willingness and motivation with which the client will pursue a career or education path.
On the other hand, Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise states that career choice is a process of elimination or circumscription in which a person eliminates certain occupational choices from further consideration. This is influenced by self-concept development and various development life stages. Compromise is a complex process in which compatibility with one’s interests is often compromised for options that are in line with the need for prestige or external realities such as labor market, gender expectations, or cultural expectations.
In the early1900s Frank Parsons who developed Trait and Factor Theory through the talent-matching approach that later developed into the Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice. It says that individuals and occupations each have unique characteristics and traits. Individuals develop these traits over their lifetime, and the highest satisfaction comes when there is a good match between the characteristics of the individual and the occupation.
Significantly John Krumboltz’ social learning theory shows how individuals make career decisions that emphasizes the importance of behavior (action) and cognitions (knowing or thinking) in making career decisions, teaching clients career decision techniques and how to use them and examines four basic factors to understand why people choose the work they do as well as other occupationally related decisions.
Lastly, the Career Development theory of Donald E. Super focuses on how careers unfold over the life span. Career choice is affected by complex and multi-faceted biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors.
Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of two (2) parts, the Status of the TVL Graduates as to; NC Holder, Employment Status and Profile, and Assessment of the TVL Curriculum as to; Subject Offers. Dependent variable consists of three (3) parts as to Assessment of the Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Track, Employee Satisfaction and Employer Satisfaction.
Figure 1 shows the relationship of independent and dependent variable.
IV DV

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the relationship of Employability status of NC holder graduates batch 2017-2018 to the implementation of the TVL K to 12 curriculum.
Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the TVL Pagbilao National High School graduates in terms of
1.1. NC Holder;
1.2. employment status; and
1.3. profile?
2. What is the perception of the respondents in the assessment of the Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track, employee satisfaction and employer satisfaction?
3. What is the perception of the respondents in the assessment of TVL curriculum in terms of
3.1. subject offers?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the implementation of the TVL K-12 curriculum and the employment of the NC holder TVL senior high school graduates?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the implementation of the TVL K-12 curriculum and the employment of the NC holder senior high school graduates.
Significance of the Study
Schools. The information they may get from this study may be used as reference on the implementation of K to 12, along with the issues and concerns the school heads and the teachers encountered on such implementation.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Definition of terms
For the purpose of clarification, the important terms used in this study have been defined.
The following terms are:
K – 12. Letter “K” refers to kindergarten and “12” refers to the additional two (2)
years in the basic education. It is the additional years after fourth years in
secondary schooling. TVL. Refers to Technical-Vocational- Livelihood. It is one of the tracks offered in K- 12 curriculum.
Profile. Refers to the respondent’s age and gender .
Employment Status. Refers to the respondent’s as to employed, underemployed and employed.
Perception. Refers to what is conceived to be true which is subjective. It refers
to the specific perception of the senior high school graduates in regard to the TVL K – 12 program which is implemented by the Department of Education.
Employer Satisfaction.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the discussion of related literature and studies having direct bearing to the study.
Related Literature
Literature in K-12, more than just text-
LITERATURE-K-12-MORE-JUST-TEXT-408455
May 20, 2015

DEPARTMENT of Education (DepEd)-Baguio district head Francis Bringas emphasized in a recent gathering at the University of the Philippines-Baguio that neither the Philippine nor world literature was removed in the new curriculum to give way to the incorporated subjects from college.

“Literature was not removed. It was and will be reinforced,” Bringas said.

He said the K-12 is not only focused on equipping students with technical knowledge and skills through the four tracks in senior high school, but also prepares them to do “authentic tasks” in life with understanding and realizations to motivate them to do so.

“Children always want relevance in the topics that they are taught in school which we have failed to do in the past,” he said.

Previously, literature was taken only as part of the study in language. Literary pieces were studied as literary texts — pieces with perfectly used language.

But in the new curriculum, literary pieces will be studied to serve as a medium for appreciation of culture and life.

In the past, first, second and third year students study Philippine, Afro-Asian and British American based on genre.

The objective was to understand the writer’s style, the story and its moral lesson.

But in the new curriculum, Bringas said, “The students should be able to demonstrate communicative competence through understanding of Philippine, Afro-Asian, British-American and other countries text types and a deeper appreciation of their culture.”

The objective is to study these texts as the students come to a realization of valuing themselves and other people from the characters, learning lessons from the stories’ circumstances, and using these lessons to connect to the world.

They should be able to apply the lessons learned in this “authentic tasks” or whatever activities or circumstances they have outside the school.

At present, the curriculum for Grades 10, 11 and 12 are still on review for its implementation, but the district head noted the same objectives for students are aimed.

Bringas believes the new and more relevant curriculum will not only prepare the students to college but also in life. (Giovanni Joy Fontanilla)

The study is a review of the literature on the basic education (k-12) curriculum specifically the senior high school (SHS) of the Philippines, Japan, and the US. Results of the review show that the SHS curriculum is intended to prepare students to enter into college/university or to work in the industry or be an entrepreneur. The SHS program is the last level in all basic education programs of the countries reviewed. The Philippines has a clearer model with at least four tracks (academics, tech-voc, sports, arts & design) and at least ten strands. Japan has two tracks in academics and tech-voc. The US basic education system varies from state to state, similar to its SHS curriculum. There is no definite track as this is left to individual state and their school districts to decide. There are purely academic, tech-voc and other types of schools. The majority of those who choose academic track are students who plans to proceed to college. There are still a stigma in selecting tech-voc and other courses as this are seen by many as the course for poor performing/problematic students. The enrollment in tech-voc schools in the US is declining despite the surge of demand for skilled workers. In the three countries, the availability of qualified teachers is still an issue. This situation is very real in the Philippines as it started the SHS program in June 2016. Other problems includes the need to construct a huge number of classrooms and facilities. All of these are currently being addressed too by the government.

(PDF) Senior High School Curriculum in the Philippines, USA, and Japan. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318494693_Senior_High_School_Curriculum_in_the_Philippines_USA_and_Japan accessed Oct 03 2018.

(RBECis the product of 16 year’s study and seven years of intensive consultations, Roco said many years ago.)

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design, the population and sample, the research instruments and statistical treatment of data
Research Design
This study will use descriptive research with survey questionnaire.
It involves NC holder graduates in Pagbilao National High School Year 2017-2018.
Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use mixed method wherein interview and survey questionnaire will be used to determine the alignment to current employment of the NC holders of Pagbilao National High School.
This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.

The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx
N

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bigcas, J. (2016). A Mini Critique of K-12 Education Curriculum.
”What is k12”. 27 Oct. 2015.Web. 15 July 2016.http://k12philippines.com/
Johnson, C.(2016). Applying Career Development Theory.

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