Education is on the concurrent list1 of subjects under the constitution of Pakistan. Hence, the responsibility for education has been divided between the federal government and the four provincial governments (Naseem, 2010, p. 37). Under the 18th constitutional amendment, control and management of the education sector has been devolved to the provinces. They are now responsible for the key areas of the education sector i.e. curriculum and syllabus, centers of excellence, standards of education up to intermediate level (Grade 12) and Islamic education. Planning and policy and standards of education beyond Grade 12 are covered under federal legislative list (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2011-2012: 137).
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