Module 6 Assignment 1
Texas Tech University
A Model of Auditory, Speech, and Language Development
The following text provides a chart for a model of auditory, speech and language development. The chart outlines an appropriate model for children who can hear and those who are deaf. The model is employed teachers in thinking about the various aspects of speech, language, and listening that they ought to manage in the process of issuing spoken language instructions. The paper explores the different parameters of brain tasks, external factors and listening, and speaking skills (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007).
Parameter 1: Brain Tasks
Brain tasks show how the brain of a child responds to different sounds. Listening is a thinking skill since it needs the child to think about what he or she hears. Teaching a child how to listen involves first understanding what we expect him/her to think or what his or her mind is likely to do with that particular information. Brain tasks involve four processes which are detection, discrimination, identification, and comprehension (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007).
Able to respond to the sound stimulus.
Able to detect and identify different sounds.
Essential Question; Does the child hear the sound? Is the child able to respond to the sound stimulus? Is the child able to detect and identify different sounds? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
Able to know the two sounds are different or same.
Essential Question; Mostly discrimination is used as a remedial tool for speech perception activities. Does the child indicate in some way that he or she knows that two sounds are the same or different? Does he indicate that he is listening for differences among sounds? Can he respond differently to different sounds? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
Identify the correct objects or repeat the stimulus on what he/she heard from a teacher’s sound.
Essential Question; Can the child understand labels associated with a speech stimulus by copying what was said or painting to an object, picture or word? (Easterbrooks ; Estes, 2007)
Demonstrate the ability to understand the meaning of speech and listening instruction.
Essential Question; Can the child make a higher-level association between sounds and events or objects? Does he or she understand the meaning of what you are saying? Can he or she answer questions appropriately? Can he or she follow directions? (Easterbrooks ; Estes, 2007)
Parameter 2: Listening and Speaking Skills
The foundation of spoken language is listening. If a child is to learn a certain language, then the instructor must watch the child listen to that language. It is also essential to separate the different spoken language skills to task the brain to think about the skills comprehensively. Listening and speaking skills have various components which include suprasegmental, diphthongs and vowels and consonants, phrases, words, and connected speech (Easterbrooks ; Estes, 2007). These are the main blocks of the spoken language.
This is the most basic level of listening and speaking skills in which the child makes the perception of the differences in spoken language. The areas addressed in this level include pattern perception, duration patterns, stress, intonations, and phrasing.
Essential Question; Does the child demonstrate that he or she hears the differences among patterns of sound that are composed of different durations, stress, intonations or elements of phrasing? (Easterbrooks ; Estes, 2007)
6. Vowels and Consonants
They represent the segmental sounds of speech.
Essential Question; When helping a child listen to the differences between vowels and consonants, do you provide a sufficiently noticeable difference by working between vowel or consonant categories before working within vowel or consonant categories? (Easterbrooks ; Estes, 2007)
7. Connected Speech
It is the ultimate level of speech perception which involves specific auditory development activities.
Essential Question; Can the child identify critical elements in connected discourse? Can she identify elements in practiced sentences, in conversation, and in connected discourse tracking? (Easterbrooks ; Estes, 2007)
Parameter 3: External Factors
The four broad external influences include a stimulus array, linguistic complexities, contextual cues, and background noises. All four external factors are present during any classroom related listening task. Other different environmental factors exist that may influence a lesson such as a child’s health status, hearing problems or the inability of a child to perform physical activities. It is therefore essential to understand the nature of the child and account for other external factors not mentioned.
8. Stimulus Array
Essential Question; Is the child able to respond to an open-set stimulus array, or does he need a closed or a limited set? Does the child need to have materials modified? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
9. Linguistic Complexity
Essential Question; At what linguistic level is this child? What are the key traits of that linguistic level? In what basic level of complexity must I place stimuli: single words or phrases? Can my child respond to stimuli in carrier phrases, and where within the phrase should the stimulus reside? How many elements can the child retain? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
10. Contextual Cues
Essential Question; Does the child require many verbal, visual, pictorial or situational cues or does she understand auditory tasks within minimal context? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
9. Background Noise
Essential Question; Is the child capable of listening in any amount of noise? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
Parameter 4: Child Actions
When a child engages in speech and language tasks that depict some difficulty, the child is bound to react a certain way, a good example being sitting passively. It is therefore essential to ask the child to perform an age-appropriate behavior. The guide towards age-appropriate tasks factors in the cognitive level, age, skill level, and physical abilities. All these factors need to be considered while designing an activity.
Essential Question; Are the activities you are asking the child to do age and interest appropriate? (Easterbrooks & Estes, 2007)
Easterbrooks, S. R., & Estes, E. L. (2007). Helping deaf and hard of hearing students to usespoken language: A guide for educators and families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.