E. Borenszteina J. De Gregoriob, J-W. Leec (1998) ”How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth” the data covered from 69 developing countries over the last two decades. This study uses a model of endogenous growth, in which the rate of technological progress is the main determinant of the long-term growth rate of income. The results recommend that FDI is a central vehicle for the relocation of technology, causative moderately more to growth than domestic investment. Yet, the higher productivity of FDI holds only when the host country has a minimum threshold stock of human capital. This means when the country have good human capital the availability of benefited with FDI. So the countries who have low capacity of human capital remain the loser in FDI benefits. Also the finding show there is the need for developing country to establish and empower their people in order to upgrading in the current advanced market where technology have used everywhere. Thus, FDI contributes to economic growth only when a sufficient absorptive capability of the advanced technologies is available in the host economy. Moreover; empirical results indicate that FDI is more productive than local investment only when the host country has a minimum threshold stock of human capital. The results are vigorous to a number of alternative stipulations, which control for the variables usually identified as the key elements of economic growth in cross-country regressions. This sympathy investigation along the lines of Levine and Renelt (1992) displays a robust relationship between economic growth, FDI and human capital.

Conversely, for a large extent FDI may support the growth of domestic companies by complementarity in production or by increasing productivity through the spillover of innovative and advanced technology. Our outcomes are helpful of a crowding-in effect, that is, a one-dollar increase in the net inflow of FDI is related with an increase in entire investment in the home economy of more than one dollar, but do not appear to be very healthy. Thus, it appears that the main channel through which FDI contributes to economic growth is by encouraging technological advancement, slightly than by increasing whole capital accumulation in the host economy.

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E.B White in his narrative Once More to the Lake was a nostalgic reflection of memories

and changes, White’s essay chronicles a wistful and sentimental return to his beloved childhood

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haven, a serene lake in Maine. As White relives his glorious pastimes in the haunts of his

adolescence, he is transported back into his youth. In”Once More to the Lake,” Elwyn Brooks

E.B White employs sensory details and imagery to convey the depth of his emotions and feelings

regarding the evolution of both the lake and himself.

As E.B White takes his son fishing, he recounts “the same damp moss in the bait

can…the dragonfly alights on the tip of his rod as it hovered a few inches from the surface of

the water” and he is “convinced” that nothing has changed. White’s visual imagery allows us to

feel the spongy wetness of the boat and hear the unwavering buzz of insects. The “wisps of

moss,” “rusty discarded fishhook,” and “freshwater leavings and debris” evoke White’s yearning

to return to his past as he starts to feel “no years between” his memory and the present. Once his

trip progresses, White, in one instance, observes his son’s “hard little body…as he pulled up

around his vitals the small, soggy, icy garment… my groin felt a chill of death.” White realizes

his illusions of reliving his childhood as he observes his son “going in too,” thereby “linking the
Zahra 2

generations in a strong indestructible chain”. The visual imagery is effective, in how E.B White

had made us envision the scenery of the lake and details of it. The reader could envision while

reading, E.B White’s imagery, and surroundings as the narrative goes on.

Accordingly, White’s picturesque observations reflect the notion that growth is only

possible. White’s consciousness of his son’s naivety compels him to realize he can no longer be

the childish blithe adolescent of his past. E.B White also has many sensory details allowing us to

hear the sound of the mandolins; we could hear the girls singing; we could also taste the sugar

dipped donuts; we can see the moonlight sails. E.B White longs to relieve these years when he

first started to think about girls. In this sense, E.B White had a mid-life crisis but as he continues

through, the crisis was resolved. As time had preserved E.B White’s lake, what he calls a ‘holy

spot’, there were moments where that forced White to acknowledge that indeed time has passed.

The sensory details helped the reader to activate their 5 senses as they are reading. E.b White

effectively makes sensory details in explaining his experiences in detail. To help the readers to

envision life as he views it.

E.B. White’s essay “Once More to the Lake” also supports the idea of the necessity of

permanence, to some extent, in life. Even though the lake has changed over the years, it remains

a lake that the author can visit. It stands as a reminder of his childhood experiences. In this

regard, the lake sheds light on the benefit of having some form or degree of permanence in life.

E.B White’s tone is very nostalgic and reflective, it makes the reader envision the images the

author images. The sensory details and imagery are very effective, in providing the audience to

feel what White feels. Such permanence can help anchor the person and his psychological



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