Topic: BusinessAccounting

Last updated: April 10, 2019

Diploma Name- Single Subject Diploma in Business Management Student Name- Khaing Pyae Sone WinModule Name- Management & Organizational BehaviorIntake-12Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.

(i) The Nature of Organizational Behavior ……………………………………………………………………………………..…3-4 (ii)The Various types of organizational structurer and their advantages and disadvantages…………5-172.(i)Decision Making Process and types of decision …………………………………………………………………………17-19(II)Importance of planning and types of plan…………………………………………………………………………………..

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20-25(iii)Advantages and disadvantages of management by objective……………………………………………………25-283.(i)Differences between manager and leader……………………………………………………………………………….28-30(ii)Two management styles and impact on organizational behavior………………………………………………30-31(iii) Two leadership styles and suggest suitable leadership theory ………………………………………………31-334.(i)Motivation and job satisfaction ……………………………………………………………………………………………33-37(ii)effective control ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

37-40Q.1.The Nature of Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior in the study of human behavior in the organizations. Whenever an individual joins an organization they brings with their unique set of personal behavior, experiences from other organizations and a personal background. First stage organizational behavior must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting.The second stage is to study the dynamics of how the incoming individuals interact with the broader organization. They can’t work individual in isolation.

They comes into contact with other individuals and the organization in a variety of methods. One worker who joins a new organization has to come into contact with the co-workers, HR managers, formal policies and procedures of the organization etc.Over the time, They has affected by his work experience and the organization as well as their maturity and working experiences. On the other hand, the organization is also affected by the presence of the individual. It is main facts that OB must study the many ways in which the individuals and organization interact with each other.

The organizational behavior can be studied from the perspective of the organization itself because an organization exists before a particular individual joins in and continues to exist after he or she has left the organization. Thus, OB is the study of human behavior in the organization, the individual-organization interaction and the organization itself. These factors will be influenced to external environment in which the individuals and the organization exist.Thus, we cannot study individual completely without learning something about the organization.

On the other hand, cannot study the organizations behavior without studying of the individuals working in it. This is because the organization influences is by the people working in it. Moreover, both the organization and the individuals are influenced by the external environment. Thus, organizational behavior is a complex field.

It seeks to throw light on the entire canvas of human factor in the organizations which will include the causes and effects of such behaviorThe biggest feature of Organizational Behavior is takes a systematic approach to understand and influence human behavior.OB is the study and participation of knowledge about human behavior in organizations as it relates to other system , such as structure, technology, and the other social system. By nature, Organizational Behavior studies is very distinctive with its characteristics and own features . According to six characteristics , Organizational Behavior is;A Separate Field of Study and not a Discipline Only.By definition, a discipline is an accepted science that is based on a theoretical foundation.

But, OB has a multi- interdisciplinary orientation and is, thus, not based on a specific theoretical background. Therefore, it is better to reason to call OB a separate field of study rather than a discipline only.An Interdisciplinary ApproachOrganizational behavior is essentially an interdisciplinary approach to study human behavior at work. It tries to integrate the relevant knowledge drawn from related disciplines like psychology, sociology, and anthropology to make them applicable for studying and analyzing organizational behavior.An Applied ScienceThe very nature of OB is applied. What OB basically does is the application of various research to solve the organizational problems related to human behavior.The basic line of difference between pure science and OB is that while the former concentrates of fundamental research, the latter concentrates on applied research.OB involves both applied research and its application in organizational analysis.

Hence, OB can be called both science as well as art.A Normative ScienceOrganizational Behavior is a normative science also. While the positive science discusses only cause effect relationship, OB prescribes how the findings of applied research can be applied to socially accepted organizational goals. Thus, OB deals with what is accepted by individuals and society engaged in an organization. Yes, it is not that OB is not normative at all.In fact, OB is normative as well that is well underscored by the proliferation of management theories.A Humanistic and Optimistic Approach.

Organizational Behavior applies humanistic approach towards people working in the organization. It deals with the thinking and feeling of human beings. OB is based on the belief that people have an innate desire to be independent, creative and productive.It also realizes that people working in the organization can and will actualize these potentials if they are given proper conditions and environment. Environment affects performance or workers working in an organization.A Total System ApproachThe system approach is one that integrates all the variables, affecting organizational functioning.The systems approach has been developed by the behavioral scientists to analyze human behavior in view of his/her socio-psychological framework.Man’s socio-psychological framework makes the man a complex one and the systems approach tries to study his/her complexity and find a solution to it.

Organizational behavior is that study of shaping the behavior of the organizational personnel. By nature, OB is an applied science which takes a systematic approach that understands the reason behind the behavior and influences it in a way that benefits attaining the business goals.For influencing the human behavior within the organization, OB tries to find the motivation and drive for any particular behavior. It sets an environment that delivers maximum performance from the workers.Ref: ( CITATION htt35 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt36 l 1033 (http://www., n.d.

) CITATION htt38 l 1033 (organisation-behavior-introduction-of-organisation-behavior-for-bbabcom-students, n.d.) CITATION htt39 l 1033 (nature_scope_features_organiational_behaviour, n.d.

) CITATION htt40 l 1033 (I_MCom_Organizational_theory_and_behaviour_on16March2016.pdf, n.d.) CITATION htt41 l 1033 (, n.

d.) CITATION htt42 l 1033 (, n.d.

) CITATION htt43 l 1033 (, n.d.)Q.

1(II) Various types of organizational structure and their advantages and disadvantagesEach company tends to use the business structure . There is no absolute right or wrong way to structure a business. A particular structure is advantageous or disadvantageous for a company depends on the type of business and the strategy of the company, its target market and the style of the management. All managers must bear that there are two organizations they must deal with one formal and the other informal.The formal organization in usually delineated by an job descriptions and organizational chart. Every manger must be know clearly and official reporting process.Alongside the formal organization exists are informal organization which is a set of evolving relationships and patterns of human interaction within an organization that are not officially prescribed.

Formal organizational structures are categorized as: (i) Line organizational structure.(ii) Staff or functional authority organizational structure.(iii) Line and staff organizational structure.(iv) Committee organizational structure.

(v) Divisional organizational structure.(vi) Project organizational structure.(vii) Matrix organizational structure and(viii) Hybrid organizational structure.1. Line Organizational StructureLine organization has only direct and vertical relationships between different levels in the firm.

Organization’s goal is directly involved in only line departments-departments. For example, in a typical firm, line departments include marketing and production. In a line organization authority follows the chain of command.Features Line organization structure has only direct vertical relationships between different levels in the firm.

Advantages1. Clarify authority, responsibility and accountability relationships2. Promotes fast decision making3. Simple to understand.Disadvantages1. Neglects specialists in planning2.

Overloads key persons.Some of the advantages of a pure line organization are:(i) A line structure tends to simplify and clarify responsibility, authority and accountability relationships. The levels of responsibility and authority are likely to be precise and understandable.(ii) Promotes fast decision making and flexibility.(iii) Because line organizations are usually small, managements and employees have greater closeness.

However, there are some disadvantages also. They are:(i)If the firm grows larger, line organization becomes more ineffective.(ii) Improved speed and flexibility may not offset the lack of specialized knowledge.(iii) Managers may have to become experts in too many fields.(iv) There is a tendency to become overly dependent on the few key people who an perform numerous jobs.

2. Staff or Functional Authority Organizational StructurePositions in an organization can be categorized as:(i) Line positionA position in the direct chain of command that is responsible for the achievement of an organization’s goals and(ii) Staff positionStaff position intended to provide expertise, advice and support for the line positions.The line officers have the direct authority to be exercised by them to achieve the organizational goals. The staff officers have staff authority over the line.

This is also known as functional authority.Functional authority organization is known as where staff departments have authority over line personnel in narrow areas of specialization. illustrates a staff or functional authority organizational structure.

In the line organization, the line managers, they cannot be experts and required to perform in all functions. But in the functional authority organization, staff personnel who are specialists in some fields are given functional authority.The principle of unity of command is contravenes when functional authority exists i.e., a group of workers may have to receive instructions from the line supervisor as well as the staff specialist which may result in confusion and the conflicting orders from multiple information may lead to increased ineffectiveness. Some staff specialists may exert direct authority over the line personnel, rather than exert advice authority .It has some major disadvantages when organizational structure overcome the disadvantages of pure line organizational structure.

They are: (i) the potential conflicts resulting from contravenes of principle of unity of command and (ii) the tendency to keep authority centralized at higher levels in the organization.3. Line and Staff Organizational StructureMost large organizations possessed this type of organizational structure.

These organizations have direct, vertical relationships between different levels and also specialists responsible for advising and assisting line managers. Such organizations have staff departments and both line. Staff departments provide line people with advice and assistance in specialized areas .

The line functions are production and marketing whereas the staff functions include personnel, quality control, finance, accounting etc. The staff authority of functional authority organizational structure is replaced by staff responsibility so that the principle of unity of command is not violated.Three types of specialized staffs can be identified:(i) Service,(ii) Control and(iii) Advising.

Some staffs perform tow or all the three functions and some perform only one of these functions. The use of expertise of staff specialists by the line personnel is the primary advantage. If they are relieved of many functions which the staff people perform to assist the line who the spam of control of line manager can be increased.

Some advantages are(i) If a line structure is through a line staff structure allows higher flexibility and specialization, it may create conflict between staff personnel and line(ii) Line managers may not like staff personnel telling them what to do and how to do it even though they recognize the specialists’ knowledge and expertise.(iii) When line managers are reluctant to accept advice, especially some staff people have difficulty adjusting to the role.(iv) Staff people may resent their lack of authority it may cause line and staff conflict.Features1. Line and staff have direct vertical relationship between different levels.2. Advising and assisting line managers in specialized areas are responsible of staff specialists.

3. These types of specialized staff are (a) Advisory, (b) Service, (c) Control e.g.,(a) Advisory:Management information system, Planning, Research and Quantitative Techniques , Industrial, etc..(b) Service:Maintenance, Purchase, Stores, Finance, Marketing.(c) Control:Quality control, Cost control, Auditing etc. Advantages(i) Use of expertise of staff specialists.

(ii) Span of control can be increased(iii) Relieves line authorities of routine and specialized decisions.(iv) No need for all round executives.Disadvantages:(i) Conflict between line and staff may still arise.(ii) Staff officers may resent their lack of authority.(iii) Line and staff co-ordination are become difficult.Committee Organizational Structure Features(a) Formed for managing certain problems(b) Are temporary decisions.Advantages:1. Committee decisions are better than individual decisions2.

Between committee members leads to better co-ordination of activities are better interaction3. Participate in group decision making can be motivated committee members4. Group discussion may lead to creative thinking.Disadvantages:1. Committees may delay decisions, consume more time and hence more expensive.2.

Group action may lead to compromise and indecision.3. ‘Buck passing’ may result.

4. Divisional Organizational StructureIn this type of structure, the organization can have different basis on which departments are formed. They are:(i) Function,(ii) Product,(iii) Geographic territory,(iv) Project and(iv) Combination approach.

5. Matrix Organizational Structure:It is a permanent organization designed to achieve specific results by using teams of specialists from different functional areas in the organization. Feature:Superimposes a horizontal set of divisions and reporting relationships onto a hierarchical functional structureAdvantages:1.

Decentralized decision making.2. Strong product co-ordination.3. Improved environmental monitoring.4. Fast response to change.

5. Flexible use of resources.6. Efficient use of support systems.Disadvantages:1. High administration cost.

2. Potential confusion over authority and responsibility.3. High prospects of conflict.4.

Overemphasis on group decision making.5. Excessive focus on internal relations.This type of organization is often used when the firm has to be highly responsive to a rapidly changing external environment.In matrix structures, there are functional managers and product managers. Functional manager are in charge of specialized resources such as production, quality control, inventories, scheduling and marketing. Product managers are in charge of one or more products and are authorized to prepare product strategies or business group strategies and call on the various functional managers for the necessary resources.

The problem with this structure is the negative effects of dual authority similar to that of project organization. The functional managers may lose some of their authority because product managers are given the budgets to purchase internal resources. In a matrix organization, the product or business group managers and functional managers have somewhat equal power. There is possibility of conflict and frustration but the opportunity for prompt and efficient accomplishment is quite high.

6.illustrates a combination structureAdvantages:1. Alignment of corporate and divisional goals.2. Functional expertise and efficiency.3. Adaptability and flexibility in divisions.

Disadvantages:1. Conflicts between corporate departments and units.2. Excessive administration overhead.3. Slow response to exceptional situations.

Uses:Used in organizations that face considerable environmental uncertainty that can be met through a divisional structure and that also required functional expertise or efficiencyThis type of structure is used by multinational companies operating in the global environment. Multinational corporations may have their corporate offices in the country of origin and their international divisions established in various countries reporting to the CEO or president at the headquarters. The international divisions or foreign subsidiaries may be grouped into regions such as North America, Asia, Europe etc. and again each region may be subdivided into countries within each region.While the focus is on international geographic structures, companies may also choose functional or process or product depart mentation in addition to geographic pattern while at the head quarter’s the depart mentation may be based on function.The Informal Organization:An informal organization is the set of evolving relationships and patterns of human interaction within an organization which are not officially presented. Alongside the formal organization, an informal organization structure exists which consists of informal relationships created not by officially designated managers but by organizational members at every level. Since managers cannot avoid these informal relationships, they must be trained to cope with itThe informal organization has the following characteristics(i) Its members are joined together to satisfy their personal needs (needs for affiliation, friendship etc.

)(ii) It is continuously changing:The informal organization is dynamic.(iii) It involves members from various organizational levels.(iv) It is affected by relationship outside the firm.(v) It has a pecking order: certain people are assigned greater importance than others by the informal group.Even though an informal organizational structure does not have its own formal organizational chart, it has its own chain of command:Benefits of Informal Organization:(i) Assists in accomplishing the work faster.(ii) Helps to remove weakness in the formal structure.(iii) Lengthens the effective span of control.

(iv) Compensation for violations of formal organizational principles.(v) Provides an additional channel of communication.(vi) Provides emotional support for employees.(vii) Encourages better management.Disadvantages of informal organization:(i) May work against the purpose of formal organization.(ii) Reduces the degree of predictability and control.(iii) Reduces the number of practical alternatives.(iv) Increases the time required to complete activities.

Ref ( CITATION htt16 l 1033 (, n.d.)Q-2(i)Decision Marking Process and types of DecisionDecision making is the process of making choices by identifying a decision, gathering information, and assessing alternative resolutions.We can use a step-by-step decision-making process, it can help organization make more deliberate, thoughtful decisions by organizing relevant information and defining alternatives.

This approach increases the chances , will choose the most satisfying alternative possible. 1: Identify the decisionFirst step is very important. Manger or authority person is try to clearly define the nature of the decision and realize. 2: Gather relevant informationFirstly, we should collect some pertinent information before make decision, what information is needed, the best sources of information, and how to get it. This step involves both internal and external .

Some information is internal, we’ll seek it through a process of self-assessment. Other information is external, we’ll find it online, in books, from other people, and from other sources. 3: Identify the alternativesAs we collect information, we will probably identify several possible paths of action, . we can also use imagination and additional information to construct new alternatives. In this step, we will list all possible and desirable alternatives.

4: Weigh the evidenceDraw our information and emotions to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of the alternatives to the end. Evaluate whether the need identified in Step 1 would be met or resolved through the use of each alternative. As we go through this difficult internal process, we’ll begin to favor certain alternatives those that seem to have a higher potential for reaching our goal. Finally, place the alternatives in a priority order, based upon our own value system. 5: Choose among alternativesOnce we have weighed all the evidence,we are ready to select the alternative that seems to be best one for you. You may even choose a combination of alternatives. Your choice in Step 5 may very likely be the same or similar to the alternative we placed at the top of our list at the end of Step 4.6: Take actionNow we ready to take some positive action by beginning to implement the alternative we chose in Step 5.

7: Review your decision ; its consequencesIn this final step, we consider the results of decision and evaluate whether or not it has resolved the need we identified in Step 1. We may want to repeat certain steps of the process to make a new decision, if the decision has not met the identified need. A decision is a choice made between 2 or more available alternatives.Decision Making is the process of choosing the best alternative for reaching objectives.A organization, manger make decisions affecting the organization daily and communicate those decisions to other organizational members.Some decisions affect a large number of organization members and have a long term effect on organization.

Manger should be make, such significant decisions can have a major impact, not only on the management systems itself.Other decisions are producing only a short term effect on the organization and fairly insignificant, affecting only a small member of organization members, costing little to carry out.TYPES OF DECISIONS:PROGRAMMED DECISIONS: This decisions are repetitive and routine, and the organization typically develops specific ways to handle them.

Eg.a programmed decision might involve determining how products will be arranged on the shelves of a supermarket. We should take according to established management guidelines for this kind of routine, repetitive problem, standard arrangement decisions .NON PROGRAMMED DECISIONS:This deciscions are typically one shot decisions that are usually less structured than programmed decision.5 ELEMENTS  OF THE DECISION SITUATION:The Decision MakersGoals to be servedRelevant AlternativesOrdering of AlternativesChoice of AlternativesRef: ( CITATION htt30 l 1033 (https://managementinnovations., n.d.)Ref( CITATION htt37 l 1033 (https://www., n.d.))II. Importance of Planning and types of planPlanning is the first and most important function of management. It is needed at every level of management.

In the absence of planning all the business activities of the organization will become meaningless. The important of planning has increased all the more in view of the increasing size of organizations and their complexities. Planning has again gained important because of uncertain and constantly changing business environment. In the absence of planning it may not be impossible but certainly difficult to guess the uncertain events of future. The following facts show the advantages of planning and its importance for a business organization:1. Planning helps identify goalsOne of the most beneficial aspect of planning is in creating goals to accomplish. When you sit down and write out what you want to accomplish you will be surprised how this goal structure lends itself to creating a plan for accomplishing them. There are a couple of different strategies when working on goals.

Some of the more popular include creating three goal types, short-term, mid-term, and long-term.Short-term goals are those items you would like to see done in the next 2-3 days. These goals are quick, easy to accomplish and relatively simple goals. The mid-term goals are things you’d like to accomplish in the next few weeks or months. This is the broadest time scope and can vary in degree of difficulty. Ultimately each of these mid-term goals are concrete, well-defined goals which can be directly actioned. The last goal type is the long-term goal.

These goals are much more abstract and contain more figurative type of language. These are the big picture goals and long-term aspirations you hold for your project.2. Planning offers directionsIf we start creating your goals in the first step and organize them accordingly what we’ll find is we’ve begun to take the first step towards creating a roadmap. Planning a direction for our business involves creating a roadmap. Planning takes many different shapes and sizes and as we create this roadmap for accomplishing our goals .We will find our planning is offering you great direction.

Business direction allows to plan for a course of action we will take to accomplish our goals. Planning how accomplish them is a valuable exercise for our business growth and development. As you plan we will put together a course of action. This course of action will help to be prepared for what comes next. We’ll be ready to answer questions and have an advantage over others which have not prepared for their future.3. Planning uncovers problemsCreate our goals and identify direction and we become prepared for what is coming next.

The more preparing is the better way, it is able to handle problems as they arise. Even more than handling problems as they arise the art of careful planning will help to uncover potential problems before they even occur. When we work to carefully plan out a direction we’ll undoubtedly uncover possible bumps in the road along the way. If we aren’t careful in your planning we may never discover them until its too late.Uncovering problems means finding solutions and implementing fixes before they become a reality. There are few things as exciting as fixing problems before they are even found. Being able to resolve conflicts and work around issues is an invaluable business advantage.

Careful planning helps uncover problems.4. Planning adds professionalismProfessionalism doesn’t mean stiff and stodgy. Just because we are professional it doesn’t mean we can’t have fun. Professionalism means are prepared. Preparation is another word for planning. Planning adds a sense of professionalism to our business. When we plan our course of action, when outline is our goals, and when we uncover problems we give our self the opportunity to be prepared for things that arise.

Being prepared keeps from getting caught off-guard if things don’t go as planned. This is an important point. Planning does not mean everything always works as we intend.

Errors, problems, and failures will still happen. Planning helps we stay professional as we handle those times. Planning keeps prepared for when things don’t go as we hoped.5. Planning gives perspectiveLastly, planning our goals and direction helps to give a clear perspective of what matters and what is possible to accomplish.

As we create our goals , we will focus on what we want to accomplish. Planning how to accomplish those goals will force to organize them and also to prioritize them and put them in perspective. No one wants to waste time working on something that is not important. However, the day to day life of a startup or small business too easily gets overwhelmed and those goals and objectives get lost in the daily grind.Planning helps to stay focused and to keep our perspective.

Keep our perspective on our purpose and future. Then and only then will we see success and we will be rewarded for our planning.Ref ( CITATION htt31 l 1033 (, n.d.

), CITATION htt44 l 1033 (, n.d.)Types of Plans are;Hierarchical plans,Standing plans,Single-use plans, andContingency plans.

1. Hierarchical PlansThese plans are drawn at three major hierarchical levels, namely, the institutional, the managerial and the technical core. The plans in these three levels are-StrategicAdministrative and,Operational respectively.Strategic planAt the top institutional level of an organization , strategic plan is generally involves. Strategic plans define the organization’s long-term vision and how the organization intends to make its vision a reality.In short, strategic planning is the determination of the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary to achieve these goals.Strategies do not attempt to outline exactly how the enterprise is to accomplish its objectives since this is the task of countless major and minor supporting programs.

But they furnish a framework for guiding ‘.linking and action.Administrative planAdministrative planning is done at the level of middle management. It is cone to allocate organizational resources and co-ordinate internal subdivisions of the organization. It is also a process of determining the contributions that sub-units can make with allocated resources.Operational planOperational planning is the process of determining how specific tasks can best be accomplished on time with available resources.This is also done to cover the day-to-day operations of an organization. As such, many operational plans are designed to govern the workings of the organization’s technical core.

2. Standing PlansStanding plans are drawn to cover issues that managers face repeatedly.For example, managers may be facing the problem of late- coming quite often.

Managers make design a standing plan to be implemented automatically each time an employee is late for work. Such a standing plan may be called standard operating procedure .Mission or purpose, strategies, policies, procedures, rules are some of the most common standing plans.Mission or purposeMission or purpose, often used interchangeably, identifies the basic task of an organization for which it is created. For example, garments factory ‘ mission is to produce and sell ready-made garments and so on.StrategyThe strategy is another type of broad-based standing plan which helps the determination of the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise and adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary to achieve these objectives.PoliciesPolicies are, in most cases, standing plans. Policies provide guidelines for repetitive actions.

They define an area limits within which decisions are to be made and ensure that the decision will be consistent with, and contribute to, an objective. Policies are types of plans that allow decision-makers some discretion to carry out a plan. Otherwise, there will be no difference between policies and rules.Policies must allow for some discretion.

 Before they become problems and make it unnecessary to analyze the same situation, Policies help decide issues. It permits managers to delegate authority and still maintain control over subordinates about the matter. There are many types of policies.

Some policies could originate from customary and general ways of behavior in an organization. Some of them are put in place through verbal statements or in writing.For example, there might be a policy in an organization that “except for token gifts of very nominal value or advertising value, no employee shall accept any gift from any supplier.” Such formal policies are usually written down in company manuals or regulations for employees.The policy is a means of encouraging discretion and initiative but within limits. In the organization, the amount of discretion is usually depends on the policy , position and authority occupied.Since policies are general in nature, they provide guidelines as to how the employees will carry out their jobs.

Policies provide managers with some flexibility in approaching various organizational problems, this generality again makes policies rather vague.Control becomes difficult when people start interpreting policy meaning and purpose differently.RulesRules Like policies, rules, too, are standing plans that guide action. Rules spell out specifically what employees are supposed to do or not to do.For example, the no-smoking campaign launched by some organizations is supported by some organizational rules. As opposed to policies, rules do not permit the exercise of individual discretion.Instead, rules specify what actions will be taken and what behavior is permitted or not.

Policies, on the other hand, tell people how to think about decisions to be made about actions.ProceduresProcedures Like rules, procedures are standing plans that provide guidance for action rather than speculation. We required method of handing future activities. Procedures establish customary ways for handling certain activities like hiring a staff, promoting employees, obtaining a loan from a bank.

3. Single-use PlansSingle-use plans are prepared for single problems and are normally replaced after one use.Generally, four types of single-use plans are used. These are— objectives/goals, programs, projects, and budgets.Objectives or GoalsObjectives or goals, often used interchangeably, are the ends toward which activity is aimed.They represent not only the end point of planning but also the end toward which all other managerial functions are aimed. In fact, objectives are set in relation to a particular time period and thus the same objective is not repeated year after year, month after month or day after day.

Objectives are 3 types.ProgramsPrograms are plans of action followed in proper sequence according to objectives, policies, and procedures. Programs are usually supported by budgets. A program may be a major or a minor one or long, medium or short-term one.

Since it is not used in the same form once its task is over it belongs to single-use plan category.ProjectsA project is a particular job that needs to be done in connection with a general program. So a single step in a program is set up as a project.A project has a distinct object and clear-cut termination. “Projects have the same characteristics as programs but are generally narrower in scope and less complex. Projects are frequently created to support or complement a program.

“BudgetsA budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms.They may also be expressed in terms of any measurable unit like an hour, metric ton etc. It covers a particular period of time, and once the period is over, a new budget comes into being. It not only a planning tool but also works as a controlling tool.4. Contingency PlansAs we already know, the process of planning is based on certain assumptions about what is likely to occur in the environment of an organization.Contingency plans are made to deal with situations that might crop up if these assumptions turn out to be wrong, development of alternative courses of action to be taken if events disrupt a planned course of action.A contingency plan allows management to act immediately if such unforeseen events as strikes, boycotts, natural disasters or major economic changes render existing plans inoperable or unsuitable.

Ref;( CITATION htt32 l 1033 (, n.d.)III. Advantages and Disadvantages of Management by objectiveManagement by objectives can also be referred as Management by results. It is based on the assumption that involvement leads to commitment. If an employee involve in goal setting as well as setting standards for measurement of performance for towards that goal.

Then employee will be motivated to perform better and in a manner that directly contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives.Advantages of Management by Objectives1 . Manger should do detailed planning for Management by objectives . Because MBO is a result-oriented process and focus on setting an controlling goals.2.  Both the subordinates and Manger should be know what is expected of them and hence there is no role confusion.

3. Manger should be know clearly established in responsibilities and authority of the personnel and required to establish measurable targets and standards of performance and priorities for theses targets.4. It makes individuals more aware of the company goals. In a organizations, most of subordinates are concerned with their own objectives and the environment surrounding them. They are feel proud of being involved in the organizational goals.

This improves their morale and commitment.5. In Management by objectives (MBO) employees need further training and leading to career development area are often highlights.6.During the system of periodic evaluation , lets all subordinates know how well they are doing. Since MBO put strong emphasis on quantifiable objectives. Performance measurement and appraisal can be more objective, specific and equitable.

7. It improves communication between management and subordinates.8. For all management levels should be known clarify objectives is stressed and suggestion for improvement.9. In a organization, a managers have a clear idea of the important areas of their work and of the standards required.10. Performance evaluation can be assumed and their needs for improvement highlighted.

Disadvantages of Management by Objectives1. If has the complete support of the top management, MBO can only success.2.  Management by Objectives (MBO) may be disappointed by subordinates. They may be under pressure to get along with the management.

Subordinates are lower their morale and they may become suspicious about the philosophy behind MBO, when setting goals and objectives and these goals may be set unacceptable high.They may seriously believe that MBO is just another of the management’s tactical to make the subordinates work harder and become more dedicated and involved. The emphasis in the MBO system is on quantifying the goals and objectives. It does not leave any ground for subjective goals. Some areas are difficult to quantify and even more difficult to evaluate.3.  Paperwork is takes too much of the manger’s time.

There is considerable paperwork involved and it takes too much of the manager’s time. Manger’s responsibility is overwork load when add too many meetings and too many reports. Some managers may resist the program because of this increased paperwork.4. The emphasis is more on short-term goals.

Goals are mostly quantitative in nature. It is difficult to do long-range planning .Because all the variables affecting the process of planning cannot be accurately forecast due to the constantly changing socio-economic and technological environment which affect the stability of goals.5. Interpersonal interaction such as coaching and counseling skill are require. Most of mangers are not sufficiently skill, which is extensively required.

6. If MBO system is combination with other systems such as forecasting and budgeting etc., is very poor. This makes the overall functioning of all systems mare difficult.7.

  The goals of one deportment depend on the goals of another department, cohesion is more difficult to obtain, when group goal achievement is more difficult. For example, the production department cannot produce a set quota if it is not sufficiently supplied with raw materials and personnel.8. Some organizations always tend to raise goals. If these are too high, employees become frustrated.9. Appraisals are sometimes made on personality manner rather than on performance.10.

Some employees do not want to be held responsible and goals forced upon them may lead to ill-feeling.Suggestions for Improving the Effectiveness of MBO1.  It is important to secure top management support and commitment. MBO can never really be success without this commitment.

The top managers and their subordinates should all consider themselves as players of the some team. 2.  The objectives should be clearly formulated, should be realistic and achievable. 3.  MBO should be on overall philosophy of management and the entire organization, rather than a performance appraisal technique. MBO is a major undertaking and should replace old systems rather than just being added to it.

, has observed, when an organization is managed by objectives, it becomes performance oriented. It grows and it develops and it becomes socially useful.4.  Changed conditions require in goals setting. Beause goals must be continuously reviewed and modified. The review technique should be such that any deviations are caught early and corrected.

5.  Every organizations, they should given formal training in understanding the basics as well as the contents of the programme. Such training should include as to how to set goals, the methods to achieve these goals, methods of reviews and evaluation of performance and provisions to include any feedback that may be given.6.

  Management by Objectives (MBO) system is a major undertaking based upon sound organizational and principles. Hence it should be totally accepted as a style of managing and should be totally synthesized with the organizational climate. All employees involved must have a clear understanding of their role authority and their expectations. The system should be absorbed totally by all members of the organization.Ref:(( CITATION htt33 l 1033 (, n.

d.) CITATION htt34 l 1033 (, n.d.)3.(i) Differences Between Manger and LeaderMangers and leaders has different nature.

Manger have people work for them and leader have people follow them,In a successful business, they needs to be both a strong manger and leader to get their team on board to follow them towards their vision of success. Leadership is about getting people to understand and believe in organization vision and to work with them to achieve their goals while managing is more about administering and making sure the day-to-day things are happening as they should. They have main differences between two titles.

Leaders create a vision, managers create goalsLeader paint a picture of organization’ vision and what they see as possible and inspire and engage their people in turning. They activate people to be part of something bigger and think beyond what individuals do. They know that individuals working is not accomplish than a lot more working together. Managers focus on organization’s setting, measuring and achieving goals. They control situations to exceed their objectives.2. Leaders are change agents, managers maintain the status quoLeaders are proud disrupters. Innovation is their manner. They hold change and know that even if things are working, there could be a better way forward. They know and accept the fact that changes to the system often create waves. Managers stick with what works, refining systems, structures and processes to make them better.3. Leaders are unique, managers copy.Leaders are willing to be themselves. They are self-aware and work actively to build their unique and differentiated personal brand. They are comfortable in their own shoes and willing to stand out. They’re genuine and transparent. Managers imitate the competencies and behaviors .They learn from others and adopt their leadership style rather than defining it.4. Leaders take risks, managers control risk .Leader, even they may fail miserably but they are willing to try new things. They know that failure is often a step on the path to success. Managers work to minimize risk. They seek to avoid problems rather than embracing them.5. Leaders are in it for the long haul, managers think short-term.Leaders have intentionality. They do what they say they are going to do and stay motivated toward a big, often very distant goal. They remain motivated without receiving regular rewards. Even without receiving regular rewards they remain motivated. Managers work on shorter-term goals, seeking more regular acknowledgment.6. Leaders grow personally, managers rely on existing, proven skills.Leaders know they’re falling behind if they aren’t learning something new every day, they aren’t standing still. They remain investigative and seek to remain relevant in an ever-changing world of work. They seek out people and information that will expand their thinking. Managers often double down on what made them successful, perfecting existing skills and adopting proven behaviors.7. Leaders build relationships, managers build systems and processes.Leaders focus on people, all the stakeholders they need to influence in order to realize their vision. They know who their stakeholders are and spend most of their time with them. They build loyalty and trust by consistently delivering on their promise. Managers focus on the structures necessary to set and achieve goals. They focus on the analytical and ensure systems are in place to attain desired outcomes. They work with individuals and their goals and objectives.8. Leaders coach, managers direct.Leaders know that people who work for them have the answers . They see their people as competent and are optimistic about their potential. They resist the temptation to tell their people what to do and how to do it. Managers assign tasks and provide guidance on how to accomplish them.9. Leaders create fans, managers have employees.Leaders have people who go beyond following them; their followers become their raving fans and fervent promoters. They helping them build their brand and achieve their goals. Their fans help them increase their visibility and credibility. Managers have staff who follow directions and seek to please the boss.Ref: CITATION htt28 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt29 l 1033 (, n.d.)(ii)Two management styles and describe how these can impact on organizational behaviorIn any business organization, interactions are rationally coordinated and directed and the person at the helm of affairs is usually the manager. Organizations are set up to achieve certain goal and objectives. To achieve target, they make use of strategies to manage human resources and technical resources of the organization. This is referred to as the management styles. Management style is not a procedure on how to do .But it is the management framework for doing. According to Watson (2003), management styles are the different styles used by the manager to influence the employees so that they will strive willingly toward the achievement of organizational goals. Management styles are the vital factor in the achievement of success of any organization. It is the prime pre-requisite for the realization of organizational objectives. According to Prasetya and Kato (2011), the prime purpose of management style is to enhance employees’ performance so that the objective of the organization can be achieved The primary objective of small scale enterprises just like any business is to make profit and achieve liquidity status. They are providing employment and goods and services, that is their try to achieves this. According to Uhl-Bien and Maslyn (2005) the effectiveness of these roles is greatly determined by the availability and accessibility to personnel, finance, machinery, raw materials and most importantly the operational management style. This is because all integrated groups need to be coordinated to achieve effective result and this is the sole responsibility of a manager. Mangers should be use of various management styles to achieve organization objectives. Some of these management styles include participative, autocratic, laissez- faire, paternalistic, persuasive, democratic management style among others. Among them , I would like to discuss autocratic and democratic management style.Autocratic Management StyleIn this style, the manager commands to the employees what to do. If the employees fail to fall in line, they face consequences. Employees are motivated mostly through fear of discipline. Every employees must be followed company’ specific, clear policies. Management isn’t interested in hearing feedback from employees.That is heading toward bad situation to this style. Employees are completely dependent on management to do their jobs. New and innovative ideas are unlikely to emerge in this system. There’s also no room for employee value of collaboration. A lack of critical feedback means that the company will continue to use management’s worst ideas.Especially in specific solutions, there are some benefits. In the autocratic style, management sets clear expectations for what employees need to do. In every organizations, each employee has a specific role in the department by department. Decision-making is also streamlined. When fast, decisive action is necessary, this style may be useful. However, in the long term, it should be used rarely, this top-down management style isn’t going to work .DemocraticIn this style, the manager allows the employees to take part in decision-making; therefore, everything is agreed upon by the majority. The communication is extensive in both directions .In democratic management style, every employee is given a seat at the table, and discussion is relatively free- flowing. Organization should be add value of employee’ feelings, ideas, share their thoughts .Thus is motivated for employees. The manger takes into consideration the opinions of the employee before making a decision gains a variety of ideas from the suggestions from employees. It will lead to a better decision making outcome. Different situations require different leadership styles. When there is little time to coverage on an agreement and quick work is required and where a designated authority has significantly more experience than the rest of the team. Autocratic management style may be most effective, but in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise. Democratic style may be more effective and participative. It style is one of the most effectively meets objectives of the team during balancing the interest of its followers and team members which led by an effective leader. Ref: CITATION htt25 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt26 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt27 l 1033 (—-Performance-in-Small-Scale-Business-Enterprises-in-Akwa-Ibom-State-Nigeria.pdf, n.d.) (iii)Two Leadership Styles and Suitable Leadership theory for the development of organization.An organization’s leadership style is reflected in both the nature of that organization and its relationships with the community. If a leader is suspicious and jealous of power, others in the organization are likely to behave similarly, in dealing with both colleagues and the community. If a leader is collaborative and open, this behavior is likely to encourage the same attitudes among staff members, and to work collaboratively with other organizations.The style of its leader is depend on organization. If the organization is to be faithful to its philosophy and mission, its leader’s style must be consistent with them. A leader concerned only with the bottom line in an organization built on the importance of human values may undermine the purpose of its work. For that reason, being guarded of both your own style as a leader and those of others you hire as leaders can be significant in keeping your organization on the right track.Most successful leaders have strengths in several areas. They are usually self-aware, motivated, and genuine. Your strengths can help you determine which leadership style you are most comfortable with. Before you do that, it is important to answer the question: “What are Leadership Styles?” Leadership styles can be defined as the techniques in which a leader they can chooses to perform himself in order to achieve desired outcomes. Two common leadership styles are the Transformational Leadership Style and the Transactional Leadership Style. Each of these styles can be learned, however, transformational leaders are more likely to be born leaders rather than developed leaders. Below are the strengths of each.The Transformational Leadership StyleBy definition, transformational leaders have the ability to transform their followers. They can inspire their followers to achieve levels of productivity beyond their expectations and the expectations of others. This can be done through the following actions:They communicate the visionA transformational leader, they believe in the organization’s vision and communicate that vision to their team in a clear and clarification manner. When you believe in a vision, your passion to see that vision come to pass can create a driving force. If you are passionate about something, you can force a passion in others.They foster a trusting environment In order to exceed your expectations, your team needs to know whether they can trust you and their colleagues. Promoting each employee to take calculated risks can foster trust. It can help trust in each other and increase the employee’s trust in their own abilities.They empower their peopleIn all of organization , they can communicated the vision and built a trusting environment. It is important to empower people. If you have already trusting environment, have already created to higher level. This is where the transformation can begin to formulate. People can become increasingly creative and excited about their goals.The Transactional Leadership StyleThe Transactional Leadership Style is based upon a transaction. Its definition is rooted in the phrase: “If you’ll scratch my back I’ll scratch yours.” They believe that people are motivated by reward and punishment. Good behavior is rewarded and bad behavior is punished. Although this leadership style is not as popular as the transformational leadership style, it is used more often and can be effective. In order to ensure the effectiveness of this style it is important to consider the following areas:Know what motivates your employeesEach of employee will have different wants and needs in their life. It is useless to reward someone with an office with a window, when what he truly values is time-off. If you know what your employees value, you can reward them accordingly, thus making the transaction worthwhile.Avoid using punishment as a motivatorIn implementing transactional leadership styles, they can be used punishment method, it is better to avoid it. This method can be motivating but usually results in long-term negative effects and short-term positive effects.Create a structured environment A transactional leader, they have ability to create a structured environment. Every organization can set up goal for their employees and give them a step-by-step plan to achieve those goals, motivated by rewards for performance. If we achieve “x” we will receive “y” in return. Many people enjoy this type of environment because unknown factors are limited.Leadership style is different on leader accomplishes and his purposes. We can determine whether the organization is effective or not on organization’s leadership style and staff members performance.All of organization has different leadership style. It can be depends on their organization’s conception. Leadership style has variety styles, each method reflected in the way the organization operates and the way its staff members relate to one another. Regardless of which leadership style we choose, choose the best fit for organization and our people. Recognize that both leadership styles can be learned and both can be effective. Ref: CITATION htt23 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt24 l 1033 (, n.d.)4.(i)Importance of employees’ motivation and job satisfactionImportance of Employees’ MotivationToday’s business environment as it is true with high job losses due to layoff and retrenchment to create a lean organization, it is also noteworthy for organizations to stop loses of performing employees due to decreasing job satisfaction and lack of motivation to continue with the organization for long. Motivated and satisfied employees will have committed approach towards organizational objective; in turn organizations will also have to show similar commitment towards employee objectives. The role of HR is to continuously work towards alignment of aspirations of the employee with the goals of the organization. HR manger should be created inspiring work environment which promotes and addresses employee need for growth and development. These factors although complex in nature and as they could not be addressed for individual employee basis as it may vary case to case it is important for HR to explore the common areas of intersection. Job satisfaction is studied not just to handle the turnover but also there are other adverse effects of dissatisfaction like absenteeism, low performance, lower morale, low contribution to the team, less coordination, less orientation towards organizational objective these could affect the organization capacity to compete in the highly competitive business environment.Motivating our employees is vital to any business. Our business and achievement goals are depend on motivate workforce and highly productive staff. And this should be a main objective in our organizational and business plan.Before build a motivational strategy, the first step we need to take is to understand what motivates our employees. What drives them to their peak performance will better help our develop programs that both the best employees for our business.Motivation program can help employee motivation. Our plan can include everything from monetary incentives, rewards and recognitions, building programs that support work-life balance, to simply creating a fun, relaxed office environment. The opportunities are endless and the reward substantial.Employee incentive programs are one of the easiest ways to incentivize our workforce. While not every program needs to be monetary in nature, should we have limited budgets, the end results are the same; employees become more motivated when they are recognized and rewarded for good work.These types of programs could include anything from bonus pools, rewards recognitions such as “Employee of the Month”, to spotlighting employees on corporate websites or internal intranets. Apart of the success of the business is depend on employees feel connected.Many employers leave feedback for their annual reviews alone; this can be detrimental. Every employees need to feel recognized and appreciated from their manger and taking time out to give a simple “thanks” for a job well done is another strong employee motivator. Frequently acknowledge good work.Employees want to feel about they are good at their jobs; they seek face-to-face feedback from their line managers. Constructive comment and address issues are going to employees perform and for their jobs more effectively. While conducting formal reviews should be part of our ongoing strategy, periodic reviews and impromptu sessions will provide our employees with the feedback they need to succeed.Every employees want to listen that they are being heard, and more so in team members. Encourage feedback. This will help them feel that their opinions matter and they have a role in defining the success of our business.Every organization should be step up a positive tone. The tone of any company begins at the top and trickles down; it’s our job to inspire our employees to have and create a positive work environment. This can be accomplished by employing simple techniques from asking our receptionist to greet everyone with a smile, to encouraging employees to express their ideas openly.The importance of employee motivation cannot be down-played. When employees are motivated, it heading to their increases productivity, lowers turnover, and improves overall performance.Job SatisfactionIn organization , employee job satisfaction is highly important . Every employer should be understood why job satisfaction is important for an employee. Being satisfied with the job will have the employee be happy at work and result in lesser and worry. But, how does job satisfaction affect the organization? The happier the workers are, their status and mind are towards their best performance , Employees who are unsatisfied with their job ,they will be more escaping their duties and not be motivated and will not be motivated and towards any chores assigned to them, and them and higher levels of absence from work. Even when they are present, they will show very less concern in the issues of the organization, which will certainly affect the organizations’ performance negatively.If employees are highly satisfied with their job have a tendency to be more friendly, cooperative and helpful with their colleagues and co-workers. This kind of cooperation brings in sharing and learning. Security and superior workplace feelings with lesser negativity and clashes are include in job satisfaction, thus aiding in smooth running of the organization. Thus, it can be concluded that satisfied employees are more likely to perform superior than unsatisfied ones.In organization, the employees are happy at work, they will also deliver their best. Satisfied employees will be loyal towards their organization and stick to it even in the worst situations. Such employees don’t work out of compulsion, but out of passion. Thus, even in the worst scenarios, they will try to find possible solutions to take the organization to the next level. Employees who are not happy will never put in efforts for their job. In fact, they will think of leaving their job in case a complicate situation arises. We need to maintain talented employees for long term growth and success. We can always hire new candidates, but it is always better to have current trained employees sticking to the organization.If the current employees in an organization are happy and passionate towards their work, it will lead to a positive ambience at the workplace and higher levels of productivity. This will in turn affect customer satisfaction and bring in more loyalty. Thus, job satisfaction holds a good relationship with the progress and success of the organization.12 Steps or things which we can do to increase employee satisfaction and loyalty there by increasing our business revenue and profit are as follows:1. Clear, Concise and Consistent CommunicationIn many organizations, employee doesn’t know what is mission, vision, objects. We should require to build a corporate culture in organization that is to be an integral part of the organization can be an effective way of getting the most from the talents or competencies brought to the organization by every employee. We should keep Employees informed on the company’s position, progress made, new challenges, and how they directly contribute to the success of the business.2. Getting to Know Your Employees and Create a TeamEvery manger should be select by the hiring suitable employee for right job and clearly communicated with employee expectations on first day. All of organization should spend time to loyalty and accountability, cheat out clear expectation and securing their commitment to the business and build a culture around working together to meet challenges, create new advantage, and propel the business to greater success.3. Training and Other Improvement ProgramsProvide necessary education, training and coaching that increases employees skills and shows the employee that you are interested in their development and readiness for new responsibility.4. Empower Employees Across the CompanyWe should step up appropriate levels of new responsibility across the company. Push appropriate decision making and allow people close to the issue to make the call. Make sure your employee knows that you trust them to do their job to the best of their ability.5.Work ItFor employee satisfaction can increase such as making job rotation, job knowledge and task enlargement as well as enrichment. Target should be accessible for employee.6. Fair Compensation and BenefitsFor every organization, policies of compensation and benefits are most important part of organization. But we should build our policies at “suitability” not “the best”.7.Opportunity for Promotion and Career DevelopmentEvery organization should be make development program in their organization. This program is going to employee’s motivation and highly performance. Organization should give opportunity to every employee for using their abilities, skills and creativeness. 8. Monitor Performance and Reward for ContributionPeople naturally keep score. Use this to as advantage by monitoring positive contribution and behaviour, rewarding as appropriate. Motivate others to reach new performance levels by knowing how they measure up to expectation. We should build the proper evaluation and fair and encourage employees perform work.9. Provide Regular, Honest FeedbackDon’t wait for a crisis situation to give feedback. Instead, we should give regular constructive input into the employee’s performance across a wide variety of issues, build trust, challenge to new levels of performance to employees and keep it real.10. Build Corporate CultureWe should focus on making proper communication channel, good and supportive relationship with co-workers and with supervisor. Employee satisfaction can be increased by show their respect for everyone in the our organization . 11. Provide Best Equipment and Safe Working ConditionInvest in employees by making sure their tools and equipment don’t keep them from beingsuccessful. Give them the very best tools to deliver the very best performance to the company, customers and the marketplace. Companies should build employees health and safety program.12. Use of Information TechnologyEmployees are productive is essential to increased employee productivity, their satisfaction as well as profits for any organization, corporation or small business. There is no shortage of information on ways to motivate employees, but more and more companies are realizing that there is a strong correlation between flexibility in the workplace and employee satisfaction and productivity. The concept of telecommuting is certainly not new. Telecommuting program is easier to implement from technological standpoint. Concerns about cost, security, features and reliability have all been laid to rest with the introduction of hosted, Software as a Service applications. With an Internet connected computer, employees can securely access centralized data, collaborate and host interactive web meetings and presentations. The rise of cloud computing technology and Wi-Fi availability has enabled access to remote servers via a combination of portable hardware and softwareImplementing an employee’s happiness planHappiness assessment plan is the first step toward improving their job satisfaction. Your next step should involve making sure that the discussion is turned into action. This can entail:Regularly updating the employee’s career development planAgreeing on a flexible work schedule that takes advantage of those times of day when the employee is most productive and engagedSuggesting stress-reducing activities, such as a health and fitness program Calling a team meeting , discuss and sorting out any team-related problems that are presentTheir next job satisfaction review and suggestion points.The happiest employees feel supported by peers and managers, are passionate about their work, and have the tools and resources they need to be effective. Open and honest discussion with our employees is an important first step towards making these a reality.Ref: CITATION htt22 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt21 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt19 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt20 l 1033 (, n.d.) (ii)Effective control can improve organizational performanceEffective organization is one where managers understand how to manage and control to employees. Effective control process is to help motivate and direct employees in their roles. Manager should be understanding managerial control process and system is essential for the long-term effectiveness of organization.Without enough control systems in place, confusion and chaos can overwhelm an organization. However, if control systems are “choking” an organization, the organization will suffer from erosion of innovation and entrepreneurship.Many people are averse to the concept of control for the following reasons:(i) New, more “organic” forms of organizations (self-organizing organizations, self- managed teams, network organizations, etc.) allow organizations to be more responsive and adaptable in today’s rapidly changing world. These forms also cultivate empowerment among employees, much more than the hierarchical, rigidly structured organizations of the past.(ii) Many people assert that as the nature of organizations has changed so must the nature of management control. Some people go so far as to claim that management shouldn’t exercise any form of control whatsoever.They claim that management should exist to support employee’s efforts to be fully productive members of organizations and communities – therefore, any form of control is completely counterproductive to management and employees.(iii) Some people even react strongly against the phrase “management control”. The word itself has a negative connotation, e.g., it can sound dominating, coercive and heavy-handed. It seems that writers of management literature now prefer use of the term “coordinating” rather than “controlling”.(iv) People also oppose controls as they are thought of decreasing autonomy, stifling creativity, threatening security, and perpetuating oppression. This may lead to change in expertise and power structure, and social structure in the organization.Types of Control:Controls can be numerous in kind. These may be classified on the basis of (a) timing, (b) designing systems, (c) management levels, and (d) ResponsibilityOn the basis of timing:Control can focus on events before, during, or after a process. For example, a local automobile dealer can focus on activities before, during, or after sales of new cars. Such controls may be respectively called as Preventive, Detective, and Corrective.On this basis the control may be:(i) Feed forward Control(ii) Concurrent Control(iii) Feedback Control1. Feed forward Control:The objective of feed forward control or preliminary control is to anticipate the likely problems and to exercise control even before the activity has started or problem has occurred or been reported. It is future directed.This kind of control is very popular in airlines. They go in for preventive maintenance activities to detect and prevent structural damage, which may result in disaster. These controls are evident in the selection and hiring of new employees. It helps in taking action beforehand.In case of feedback control, one relies on historical data, which will come after the activity has been performed. This means information is late and the rectification is not possible. One can make correction only for future activities.That means whatever wrong has been done is done, and it cannot be undone. Though, future-directed control is largely disregarded in practice, because managers have been excessively dependent on accounting and statistical data for the purpose of control. In the absence of any means of looking forward, reference to history is considered better than no reference at all.However, the concept of feed forwarding has been applied now and then. One common way managers have practiced it is through careful and repeated forecasts using the latest available information, comparing what is desired with the forecasts, and introducing program changes so that forecasts can be made more promising.2. Concurrent Control:Concurrent control monitors ongoing employee activity to ensure consistency with quality standards takes place while an activity is on or in progress. It involves the regulation of ongoing activities that are part of transformation process to ensure that they conform to organizational standards.The technique of direct supervision is the best-known form of concurrent control. Concurrent control is designed to ensure that employees’ activities produce the correct results and to correct the problems, if any, before they become costly.In case of computer typing, if the spelling is wrong or construction is incorrect, the programme immediately alerts the user. Many manufacturing operations include devices that measure whether the items being produced meet quality standards.Since concurrent control involves regulating ongoing tasks, it requires a complete understanding of the specific tasks involved and their relationship to the desired and product.Concurrent control sometimes is called steering, screening or yes-no control, because it often involves checkpoints at which decisions are made about whether to continue progress, take corrective action, or stop work altogether on products or services.3. Feedback Control:The control takes place after the job is over. Corrective action is taken after analyzing variances with the planned standards at the end of the activity. It is also known as ‘post action control’, because feedback control is exercised after the event has taken place.Such control is used when feed forward or concurrent is not possible or very costly; or when exact processes involved in performing a work is difficult to specify in advance.Advantages of feedback control are that meaningful information is received with regard to planning efforts, and enhances employee motivation.Controls at every level focus on inputs, processes and outputs. It is very important to have effective controls at each of these three stages.Effective control systems tend to have certain common characteristics. The importance of these characteristics varies with the situation, but in general effective control systems have following characteristics.1. Accuracy:Effective controls generate accurate data and information. Accurate information is essential for effective managerial decisions. Inaccurate controls would divert management efforts and energies on problems that do not exist or have a low priority and would fail to alert managers to serious problems that do require attention.2. Timeliness:There are many problems that require immediate attention. If information about such problems does not reach management in a timely manner, then those information may become useless and damage . Accordingly controls must ensure that information reaches the decision makers when they need it so that a meaningful response can follow.3. Flexibility:Economic and Business sectors has highly dynamic in nature. Today, Technological changes occur very fast. A rigid control system are not suitable for a changing environment. These changes highlight the need for flexibility in planning as well as in control. Strategic planning must allow for adjustments for unanticipated threats and opportunities. Similarly, managers must make modifications in controlling methods, techniques and systems as they become necessary. Effective control system is one that can be updated quickly as the need arises.4.Economic feasibility:The cost of a control system must be balanced against its benefits. The system must be economically feasible and reasonable to operate. For example, a high security system to safeguard nuclear secrets may be justified but the same system to safeguard office supplies in a store would not be economically justified. Accordingly the benefits received must outweigh the cost of implementing a control system.5. Strategic placement:Effective controls should be pride of place at such critical and strategic control points where failures cannot be forbore and where time and money costs of failures are greatest. Controls is essential apart of business where deviation from expected standards will make greatest. To apply controls to the essential aspect of a business where a deviation from the expected standards will do the greatest harm. Production, sales, finance and customer service are include in control areas.6. Emphasis on exceptionIf a effective system of control should work on principle. Important ways are bought to attention of management, because does not have to bother with activities that going cleanly . In Managerial attention is directed towards falseness and not conformity. This would eliminate unnecessary and uneconomic ,marginally beneficial reporting and waste of time.Ref : CITATION htt17 l 1033 (, n.d.) CITATION htt18 l 1033 (, n.d.)


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