Devices Used to Examine the Central Nervous System Reflexes

Student Name: Haneen Burgan
Student ID: 201710496
Devices Used to Examine the Central Nervous System Reflexes
The human nervous system is an intricate and complex network of fibers that spreads across the entire body and functions in complicated and often mysterious ways.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Reflexes are actions performed involuntarily in response to impulses sent to the central nervous system. An alternation in one or more reflexes is often the first sign of neurological dysfunction. Observation of a person’s reflexes is the most objective part of a neurological exam since the reflexes are not voluntarily controlled and testing does not depend on the patient’s cooperation, attitude, or awareness.

Reflex testing incorporates an assessment of the function and interplay of both the sensory and motor pathways. It is a simple yet informative procedure that provides an important insight into the integrity of the nervous system at different levels.

Sensory test:
Healthcare providers perform a sensory examination that checks a patient’s ability to perceive stimuli. They nudge certain parts of the patient’s body and request that he/she identify the sensation he/she feels. (For example: hot or cold, sharp or dull.)
Two-point discrimination (2PD)
Is the ability to recognize whether two nearby objects that are in contact with the skin are truly two distinct points and not just one. It is often tested by using two sharp points during neurological examination and is assumed to reflect how finely innervated an area of the skin is.
***Tow-point discrimination (2PD)is the ability to discern that tow nearby objects touching the skin are truly two distinct points, not one. It is often tested with tow sharp points during neurological examination and is assumed to reflect how finely innervated an area of skin is.
4613910307975A buck reflex hammer
The reflex hammer is a medical instrument used by practitioners to test deep tendon reflexes (muscle stretch reflexes) to check the responses at the knee, elbow, wrist and ankle. Normally, when a specific area of the muscle tendon is tapped with a soft rubber hammer, the muscle fibers contract. If there is no response, that may indicate nerve damage.
42405301859280Tuning fork (Weber test):
4221480709295By placing 512 Hz tuning fork against the patient’s skull, the vibrations travel via the skull bones thus allowing the patient to hear the sound. This test is reserved for the instances where the patient complains from hearing deficiency.

Electric stimulation:
40500304084320Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulator is the application of therapeutic electro-therapy that is specifically designed to treat pain. The units are small and portable battery-powered pulsating stimulators. The stimulus Para-meters of these devices are based on the theories of pain preceptors.

Other types of electric stimulation parameters are used as an adjunct to physical therapy treatment in controlling pain and edema.
Electric stimulation can be applied for muscle reduction, strengthening, and for the reduction of muscle spasms.

Nerve conduction study (NCS) – also called Nerve conduction velocity (NCV):
4050030640080It measures how fast an electrical impulse is able to travel through nerves. This examination is performed by medical specialists to identify nerve damage.

The purpose is to evaluate the motor and sensory nerves. It is a medical diagnostic test commonly used to evaluate the function (especially the ability of electrical conduction of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body).
38976302617470Electromyography (EMG):
This test measuresa muscle’s response to the stimulation of a muscle’s nerves(effects include tingling,numbness,or unexplained weakness in the limbs). The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities in cases where the doctor suspects that there may be a problem with the patient’s foot or leg’s nerve supply.

During the test, one or more small needles (also called electrodes)are inserted through the skin directly into the specific muscle belly. The electrode then records the activity of the muscle’s contractions and relaxations. It helps the doctor in diagnosing muscle andnerve disorders,as well as determining the state of the the connection between the nerves and the muscles.
Technological advances are allowing researchers and doctors in obtaining a better insight into the human body while minimizing the risks and complications that patients face. These diagnostic procedures will continue to be an essential part of clinical research tools in assessing neurological disorders, limiting disease progressions, and monitoring therapeutic effects.

Nerve Conduction Studies.,P07657.

A Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine,


I'm Kyle!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out