DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
In this assignment the author will identify the determinants of health and Illness and I will try to find a correlation between how determinants of health affect health and what steps are to be taken to prevent bad health.
Although many people believe that having access to health services is the most important factor to determine health, there are many other things that are equally important that affect our health: “to a large extent, factors such as where we live, the state of our environment, our income and education level, and our relationship with friends and family all have considerable impacts on health” (WHO, 2018).
According to WHO there are three main determinants:
• The Social and Economic Environment (education, income, equity, environment, health services, etc.)
• Biological and Behavioural determinants (ethnicity, genetic factors, lifestyle, etc.)
• Physical environment (air, water quality, land, shelter, sustainable resources)
CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS
“Health is a state of complete physical and social well-being and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity” (WHO, 2018)
“Illness is a broad term that defines the poor state of mind, body and, to a certain extent spirit, the general feeling of being sick or unwell” (docdoc, 2018)
There are many models of health used to identify health including:
The Social models of Health it is a theoretical system inside which improvements in health and wellbeing are accomplished by coordinating efforts towards tending to economic, cultural, social and environmental determinants of health. (Chris Yuill, 2010), it is a community approach and focuses on policies, education and health promotion.
The Social Model of health have five guiding principles who contribute to improvements in health and wellbeing:
• Address the broader determinants of health: more extensive determinants such as ethnicity, gender, economic state, physical environment impact behavioural determinants and are associated with health.
• Reduce social inequalities: aim to reduce inequalities.
• Empower individual and the community: enabling people and communities with abilities, learning and confidence to take clear decision about their health. (Engage Wiki, 2018)
• Access the healthcare: accesible and clear health services and information.
• Inter-Sectorial collaboration: integrated approach between health and government departments. (Engage Wiki, 2018)
Need to be mention that the Social Model of health have many advantages:
• New strategies and support from Government (immunization, Go for Your Life Strategy, Rural Retention Program (RRP), Sun Smart School Program).
• Education-improve life quality by embolden population to have a healthier lifestyle.
• Economic stability: with a healthy population productivity increase.
• Educating people that it is less costly to prevent a disease than to treat.
• Social and community approach including all dimensions of government or non-government associations. (SDOH, 2014)
• It is not possible to prevent all diseases
• Effects of this method are not noticeable until after a significant lot of time and hard to gauge its effectiveness.
The Biomedical Model
“The biomedical model of health is the most dominant in the world and focuses purely in term of physical or biological facts “(health-the biomedical model, 2018) associated with diagnosis, cure and treatment (ex: alcoholism, post-traumatism stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, etc) instead of using sociological or psychological reasons. This model is the premise for policies and practice of our NHS and is basically what defines our health care services. Has been advancing for a long-time prompting enhancement in technology, medical science, increase in cure and treatments and represent the major model in prolonging life expectancy (over 90% government healthcare funding).
The Biomedical model of health depicts the way to deal with diseases, treats the human body as an extremely complex mechanism. This model focuses on cause and effect scenarios. (Chris Yuill,2010)
In order to give examples of biomedical models, it is important to mention the two major aspects: diagnosis and intervention.
For diagnosis (identification of an illness or disease):
• Blood test
• Pap Smear Test
For Intervention (action to improve health):