DEFINE POLITICAL AUTHORITY AND ANALYSE THE SOURCES/TYPES OF AUTHORITY.GIVE EXAMPLES.
In every state there is a political entity which claims obedience to its rules but without this rules to obedience of political authority, the chain of command will be manipulated. The main purpose of the essay is to define politics, authority, political authority and analyzing the 3 sources / types of authority with relevant examples. The first part of the essay defines the concepts used in the essay namely politics, authority and political authority. The second part of the essay will further elaborates by analyzing the 3 sources / types of authority starting with traditional authority followed by charismatic authority and lastly legal rational authority. Traditional authority is whereby leadership is passed from one generation to another that is power inheritable example include the monarchy. Legal rational authority is whereby power is based on written rules, regulations and laws hence democratic. Charismatic authority is whereby leadership is by the good deeds of a person example can include democracy.
The definition above on sources /types of authority and examples, the essay tends to raise an argument on which type/sources of authority is suitable to be used. Even though all the 3 sources/ types of authority guide people, my point of view is that legal rational authority is the ideal type / source of authority that should be used in the chain of commandment to gain obedience hence democratic. The essay shall conclude by giving reasons to why legal rational is indeed the preferable type/ source of authority.
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
According to Heywood (2012) politics is about who gets what, when, how and why. Leaders or rather politician tend to use the power they have to get what they want when it suits them and for their own benefits or rather personal desires, for example in south Africa the former president Jacob Zuma used the power in politics by mismanaging and exploiting his power as a president using tax payers money to fulfill his personal desires that is by building himself an empire.
Politics can be defined as corruption as people who have power tend to misuse the resources of the government for their own benefit.
Authority refers having the right to offer discipline and encourage the behavior of members of the society that is ruling, controlling and commanding people.
According to Weber (1992) authority refers to accepted power that is people tend to listen to the person at the top of the hierarchy in chain of command.
This is whereby power is held by a political entity to claim for obedience by enforcing, commanding and ruling people.
THE THREE (3) SOURCES /TYPES OF AUTHORITY
This type of authority is inheritable that is, it is passed from one generation to the other more so that it is the way of living. This includes the practices, norms and values from our forefathers, they have been long practiced and therefore cannot be changed or ignored irrespective of the change in the trends. In this type of authority a leader or rather a ruler has no right to keep his position but it is up to the society. In the past men were believed to be heads of the family same applies to this authority men are regarded to have this power to rule over women.
A monarchy seen as an example of traditional authority since leadership is passed from one generation to the other example from a king to a prince, from a queen to a princess. In Swatziland king Moswati III succeeded his leadership, being a corrupt leader that he is, people still follow and listen to his commands because in this type of authority leadership cannot be challenged. The British Queen Elizabeth also inherited this type of leadership even though she is a woman people tend to follow her commands because it is believed to be culture more so that she has inherited the leadership. In this type of authority there are no elections involved therefore do not have a chance to raise their views.
According to Weber (2012) traditional authority is regarded as legitimate because it has always existed, it has been sanctified by history because earlier generations have accepted it. That is it is the way people have lived and generations are adapting to it.
This type of authority is determined by the supernatural power, it is regarded as a gift from ancestor or rather supreme beings. People tend to follow this type of authority since they are attracted by the persons unique characteristics some may include being wise, intelligent, having a mission and vision. A leader is not voted for but rather born by those qualities. For example Nelson Mandela was a freedom fighters that is because of him being brave he fought for racism he wanted all people to be treated equally and fairly irregardless of their skin color this attracted people to respect and follow his steps. Martin Lurther king Jnr also had a vision more so that he wanted the world to be an equal place, he fought for civil rights in America he wrote a speech which motivated and guided people on what he expected from them, this made people to love and listen to his commandments. However this leaders may claim to be above the government and choose not to follow the law of the state this leading to ethical violation because they are seen not to be fit to some organizations.
LEGAL RATIONAL AUTHORITY
This type of authority is whereby a leader is voted by the community that is it is democratic, people chose who they want as a leader. The leader is expected to make decisions of the government, parliament and all the political decisions to maintain the political stability however people get to have freedom of speech. For example Mohammad Gandi was a freedom fighter he fought for the Indian independence through ahimsa which means non violence, he was a political campaigner people voted for him because they believed he can put an end to human violation. Botswana is a democratic country, Batswana get a chance to vote for their desirable leader after every 5 years the date is put aside on which there will be polling stations in every village, town and cities, every citizen of Botswana votes for his or her leader the person with the higher votes gets to be the representation of people the leader acts as the voice of the people, whenever there is shortage of resources either land or water the leader takes the complaints of the people to the top of authority and give feedback to the people, however when the leader is corrupt people have the right to choose another leader hence freedom of speech. This is regarded as an ideal type of authority as people are give chance to speak their mind and to express their feelings the governance is guided by the principle not by men. It is fair as all genders are not discriminated, anyone can be in power.
According to Weber (1904-5) this is the power legitimized by the laws, written rules and regulation that is the person in power follow and make government decisions based on the countries desire.
Even though all the three types/ sources of authority are used to command and guide people I suggest that legal rational can be used in all the platforms as it gives every citizen in all the countries to choose or rather vote for whom the want as a leader, this authority can be used to avoid corruption as the leaders made decisions of the government and political decisions and this decisions are based on the desires of men unlike traditional authority where a leader inherits the throne even though he/she cannot rule and cannot make political decisions as most of them are not into politics even in charismatic authority whereby a leader is not chosen by the people but born with the qualities some tend to satisfy their own desires and not follow the law as they think they are above the law.
A democratic authority that is legal rational authority is indeed the ideal type of authority which can help combat wars, conflicts and corruption. This type of authority help people to excise their right and to have a friendly relationships with the leaders as they are allowed to speak their mind. The interest of people are easily managed and attended to, in a short period of time as the chain of command is flexible.
The main purpose of the essay have been covered which included the definition of politics, authority and political authority it continues by analyzing the 3 sources /types of authority with relevant examples. The essay started by the definition of concepts that are used in the paper namely politics, which is defined as who gets what, when, how and why. Authority as the power to enforce obedience, political authority as the power held by a political entity which claims obedience by enforcing, commanding and ruling people it continued by analyzing the 3 sources / types of authority which includes traditional authority which is the power legitimized by culture, legal rational authority which is power legitimized by legal enacted rules and regulations and lastly the charismatic authority which power legitimized by respect to cultural norms and values. Therefore the essay concludes that indeed legal rational is the ideal type/ source of authority because people are given freedom of speech and the governance is guided by the principles not by men.
Carter A (1979), authority and democracy ( Routledge library edition : political science volume 5)
Heywood A, (2013), politics, fourth edition, Ney Work, Palgrave Macmillian
Heywood A,( 1991), the political theory an introduction , second edition , United States of America
James M, Henslin (1969), a down to earth , eleventh edition, Australia
Weber M (1904-5, the protest ethics and the capitalism, London, Allen and UnwinUNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA
NAMES: KATLEGO PAMELA GAOPOTLAKE
STUDENT ID: 201800722
SUBMITION DATE: 14 SEPTEMBER 2018
MODULE: POLITICAL SCIENCE
QUESTION 1: EXPLAIN POLITICAL AUTHORITY AND ANALYSE THE 3 SOURCESTYPES OF AUTHORITY.GIVE EXAMPLES
I know that plagiarism is wrong. Plagiarism is to use another’s work and pretend that it is one’s own. Each significant contribution to, and quotation in this essay /report/project from the work, or works, of other people has been properly acknowledged through citation and reference. I have included internet articles references used for the assignment. This essay is my own work. I have not used the materials in the essay in any of my other essays. I have not allowed, and not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intension of passing it off as his or her own.