Data collection is an important part of any research study. If Data collection is inaccurate, it can have an impact on the results of a project and can ultimately lead to invalid or incorrect results.
Methods for Data collection vary between quantitative and qualitative types of research.
Quantitative data gathering may include:
• The use of experiment trials
• The use of observations and recording well-defined events
• Obtaining relevant data from management information systems
• Using surveys with closed-ended questions (face-to-face and telephone interviews and different types of questionnaires)

Face to face interviews
Advantages:
• Can enables the researcher to establish rapport with potential participants and gain their cooperation
• It has the highest response rates in survey research the researches can clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate can follow up information
Disadvantages:
• Can be expensive
• Can be time consuming
• Can be impractical when large samples are involved
Telephone interviews
Advantages:
• Can be less time consuming
• Can be more cost effective
• Can have higher access to participants
Disadvantages:
• The response rate may not be as high as the face-to-face interview
• You are not able to reach participants that do not have phones
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)
Advantages:
• A more personal interviewing technique
• The information can be entered directly into the data base
• Can save time when processing the data
• Can save the researcher carrying around hundreds of questionnaires
Disadvantages:
• Can be expensive to set-up
• Requires the use of a computer
• This style means the interviewer must have typing skills
Paper – Pencil – Questionnaires
Advantages:
• These can be sent to many people
• This can save the researcher time and money
• Individuals seem to be more truthful regarding controversial issues since their responses are anonymous
Disadvantages:
• Individuals might not return the questionnaire back
• Individuals who do complete, might not be representative to the original selected sample
Web based questionnaire
Advantages:
• This is a new and inevitably growing methodology
• This uses Internet based Research
• It can be quicker and less detailed
Disadvantages:
• Not all individuals have access to a computer
• This could be completed in a hurry and might not give accurate responses
Questionnaires usually make use of a check list format along with rating scales to simplify and quantify people’s behaviours and attitudes.
Checklist – is a list of behaviours, characteristics that the researcher is looking for.
Rating scale – is more useful when a behaviour needs to be evaluated on a continuum. They

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