Crystal KumpSU200317309
PSY105: Introduction to Psychology
Assignment 1
DATE @ “MMMM d, yyyy” May 20, 2018
Section 1.
left505460There are various components in the brain that are responsible for remembering important information. To start, the two neurotransmitters that have functions that affiliate the memory are Acetylcholine and Glutamate. Acetylcholine (ACh) is function that carries information from the brain and spinal cord to the tissues and muscles. ACh uses memory to use the same movements the memory remembers to use to use certain tissues and muscles. This is important because this is the type of muscle memory used when doing day to day things, like typing keys on a keyboard. As stated in the textbook on page 2.3, Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, and it uses memory to log in pleasurable or unpleasurable things. Over stimulation can result in seizures and severe headaches. Moving on, the cerebellum helps remember skill memory. This helps during hobbies or sports. As stated on page 2.11 of the textbook, the Cerebral Cortex which is the largest part of the brain, it is responsible for life functions, enable memory, emotions and basic drives. All of these components work together to help remember important information.
0There are various components in the brain that are responsible for remembering important information. To start, the two neurotransmitters that have functions that affiliate the memory are Acetylcholine and Glutamate. Acetylcholine (ACh) is function that carries information from the brain and spinal cord to the tissues and muscles. ACh uses memory to use the same movements the memory remembers to use to use certain tissues and muscles. This is important because this is the type of muscle memory used when doing day to day things, like typing keys on a keyboard. As stated in the textbook on page 2.3, Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, and it uses memory to log in pleasurable or unpleasurable things. Over stimulation can result in seizures and severe headaches. Moving on, the cerebellum helps remember skill memory. This helps during hobbies or sports. As stated on page 2.11 of the textbook, the Cerebral Cortex which is the largest part of the brain, it is responsible for life functions, enable memory, emotions and basic drives. All of these components work together to help remember important information.
From Chapter 2, what part of the brain is responsible for remembering the important information that will be on the exam?  Describe that part of the brain and its purpose. 

Section 2. As covered in Chapter 4, psychologists have determined that age can effect cognitive development and memory.

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left579755As mentioned on page 4.14, a big part of moral development is the self-discipline needed to restrain one’s own impulses – to delay small gratifications now to enable bigger rewards later. Self-discipline is something that is not easily taught or learned. Sometimes parents teach self-discipline by telling their children not to play with their toys until after they finish their homework. Children, like me and my friend, would lie and finish their homework early, but that is not good self-discipline habits to have. A way to expand her attention is to treat herself with bigger rewards after maintain self-control. I would recommend my friend to do what I do when it comes to self-discipline. A way I have learned is to create time blocks, in which I spend time during my day doing work. I spend an hour doing work, and an hour not doing work. I must say that during the time I spend doing work, my phone is nowhere in sight. It makes a long day, but regardless, I really don’t care because I’m being productive.
00As mentioned on page 4.14, a big part of moral development is the self-discipline needed to restrain one’s own impulses – to delay small gratifications now to enable bigger rewards later. Self-discipline is something that is not easily taught or learned. Sometimes parents teach self-discipline by telling their children not to play with their toys until after they finish their homework. Children, like me and my friend, would lie and finish their homework early, but that is not good self-discipline habits to have. A way to expand her attention is to treat herself with bigger rewards after maintain self-control. I would recommend my friend to do what I do when it comes to self-discipline. A way I have learned is to create time blocks, in which I spend time during my day doing work. I spend an hour doing work, and an hour not doing work. I must say that during the time I spend doing work, my phone is nowhere in sight. It makes a long day, but regardless, I really don’t care because I’m being productive.
For your friend who is 17, how could you use what you have learned about moral development to explain why she may be checking her phone every 2 minutes for text messages and social media updates.   How could she expand her attention? 
For your friend is age 65, and having a hard time with vocabulary, explain what may be happening that prevents her from doing well on this type of activity.  How could she improve?
-857251905According to page 4.20 in the textbook, “sedentary older adults randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs exhibit enhanced memory, sharpened judgment, and reduced risk of significant cognitive decline (DeFina et al. 2013; Liant et al., 2010; Nagamatsu et al.,2013). It is best that people live an overall healthy life no matter what their age. Exercise can only help the quality of life.
00According to page 4.20 in the textbook, “sedentary older adults randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs exhibit enhanced memory, sharpened judgment, and reduced risk of significant cognitive decline (DeFina et al. 2013; Liant et al., 2010; Nagamatsu et al.,2013). It is best that people live an overall healthy life no matter what their age. Exercise can only help the quality of life.

-38100561974Operant conditioning basically means learning life lessons from the things we do. If we get complimented for opening the door for elders in public, then we learn and remember that we like the reaction from others by doing so, therefore we should do it more often. If we get a bad grade in a class, the devastation that we feel is one thing, but the reaction that we get from others is a totally different thing. Those two reactions together stick in our memory and reminds us not to do that again.
I think a good practice to demonstrate operant conditioning would be to try two different ways of motivation to study more often. The first way would be to study when they ‘felt like it’ with distractions. This way of studying will not only take longer but produce one type of test score. The second way would be to study in a time based, non-distracting setting. This would take less time and produce a different (hopefully better) test score. I would give my friend tests created by an easy test generator based on the material. When my friend and I compare the two methods, I’m almost confident my friend will choose the second method.
0Operant conditioning basically means learning life lessons from the things we do. If we get complimented for opening the door for elders in public, then we learn and remember that we like the reaction from others by doing so, therefore we should do it more often. If we get a bad grade in a class, the devastation that we feel is one thing, but the reaction that we get from others is a totally different thing. Those two reactions together stick in our memory and reminds us not to do that again.
I think a good practice to demonstrate operant conditioning would be to try two different ways of motivation to study more often. The first way would be to study when they ‘felt like it’ with distractions. This way of studying will not only take longer but produce one type of test score. The second way would be to study in a time based, non-distracting setting. This would take less time and produce a different (hopefully better) test score. I would give my friend tests created by an easy test generator based on the material. When my friend and I compare the two methods, I’m almost confident my friend will choose the second method.
Section 3.  In chapter 6, we learn about operant conditioning.  Describe operant conditioning in your own words.  Thinking of operant conditioning, how could you help your friend use rewards as motivation to study more often?
 

Section 4.  Using what we have learned in chapter 7, explain why your memory may not retain all the information learned in the cram session the night before the big exam. 
-9525202564The mind cannot store all the information on a test. We can read, rehearse, and repeat all the information we want, but only a select amount is going to get stored into our memory. As Figure 2 shows on page 7.3, before information can be in the encoding stage of the long-term memory, it must go through the working/short-term memory part of the memory. The working memory stores all types of information that can be retained during that given time, so it is not guaranteed that cramming in all the information on the test is going to make it in your memory.
0The mind cannot store all the information on a test. We can read, rehearse, and repeat all the information we want, but only a select amount is going to get stored into our memory. As Figure 2 shows on page 7.3, before information can be in the encoding stage of the long-term memory, it must go through the working/short-term memory part of the memory. The working memory stores all types of information that can be retained during that given time, so it is not guaranteed that cramming in all the information on the test is going to make it in your memory.
How would cramming effect encoding? 
left265430I would assume cramming in this situation would be to read all of the material in a time crunch, and not have enough time to reread the material again. This would affect the retrieval part of the memory because the information that was stored the first time is not being refreshed or rehearsed. Retrieval methods are best when testing the material, rather than rereading. Repeated Self-testing is a practice stated on page 7.5.
0I would assume cramming in this situation would be to read all of the material in a time crunch, and not have enough time to reread the material again. This would affect the retrieval part of the memory because the information that was stored the first time is not being refreshed or rehearsed. Retrieval methods are best when testing the material, rather than rereading. Repeated Self-testing is a practice stated on page 7.5.
How would cramming effect retrieval? 

What is one technique that each friend could use to help improve memory and prepare for the exam? 
left2540There are various techniques that my friends can benefit on how to improve their memory to help them on the exam. On page 7.15, there are 7 techniques: Rehearse repeatedly, make the material meaningful, activate retrieval cues, use mnemonic devices, minimize interference, sleep more, and test your own knowledge. Considering the circumstances, I would advise them to use mnemonic devices. Mnemonic devices, when used correctly, can be fun to create, and easy to remember. When using phrases and rhymes to remember important information, they can benefit test takers in the long run.
0There are various techniques that my friends can benefit on how to improve their memory to help them on the exam. On page 7.15, there are 7 techniques: Rehearse repeatedly, make the material meaningful, activate retrieval cues, use mnemonic devices, minimize interference, sleep more, and test your own knowledge. Considering the circumstances, I would advise them to use mnemonic devices. Mnemonic devices, when used correctly, can be fun to create, and easy to remember. When using phrases and rhymes to remember important information, they can benefit test takers in the long run.

Section 5.
It’s the night before the big exam.  You check on your friends and your younger friend is not doing well.  It turns out that things have turned out even worse.  Her boyfriend broke up with her, stole money from her bank account, and her grandmother passed away the week before.  You notice on her Facebook page that she posed, “Where can I find some rope?!?” 
In chapter 5, you learn about suicide and what to do.  Based on that, what steps can you take to help your friend?  Be sure to include any resources that you could call to get advice.

left12700As stated on page 5.10, the first thing I would do is try to listen to her situation. I need to be the person she needs by her side that will not judge her for feeling this way. The second thing I would do is try to connect or relate to her and try to find help locally so that she can get the right help with me by her side. Lastly, I would be by her side not only for support, but for her own protection. Sometimes, during the dark times in ones’ life, people tend to feel so down about themselves that they would rather risk their life than fight for it. I want to be there to make sure she doesn’t make any mistakes. If it gets to the point where I feel as though she needs immediate attention, I would advise her to call the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-TALK) or calling 911.
I wouldn’t leave after that, because people just aren’t okay after a traumatic experience like what she’s going through. She’s going to need someone there by her for when she feels down, and I’m going to make sure I’ll be there for her, regardless of how tired she gets of me.
0As stated on page 5.10, the first thing I would do is try to listen to her situation. I need to be the person she needs by her side that will not judge her for feeling this way. The second thing I would do is try to connect or relate to her and try to find help locally so that she can get the right help with me by her side. Lastly, I would be by her side not only for support, but for her own protection. Sometimes, during the dark times in ones’ life, people tend to feel so down about themselves that they would rather risk their life than fight for it. I want to be there to make sure she doesn’t make any mistakes. If it gets to the point where I feel as though she needs immediate attention, I would advise her to call the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-TALK) or calling 911.
I wouldn’t leave after that, because people just aren’t okay after a traumatic experience like what she’s going through. She’s going to need someone there by her for when she feels down, and I’m going to make sure I’ll be there for her, regardless of how tired she gets of me.

References
Myers, D. (2017). Psychology (4th ed.). Asheville, NC: Soomo Learning. Available from hMp://www.webtexts.com

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