Contributions of Philosophers and Eras
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
It was believed by Rousseau that man is a social animal who wants to live in consonance with other people.
He stated that if man was allowed to live with freedom they would be happy and contended.

He introduced the concept of “noble savage”. He stated that man is born with good nature but they are corrupted by society.
Like Piaget and Locke, Rousseau also believed that children are naturally curious and that they have to be at a befitting level of development to follow instructions i.e. one cannot teach a child calculus.
Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1885)
Soren Kierkegaard was a very intense and productive writer in the golden age of Denmark.

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His work includes devotional literature, philosophy, theology, literary criticism, psychology and fiction.

Kierkegaard spent most of his writing in diagnosing despair, boredom and anxiety.

It was believed by Kierkegaard that death is inevitable and that each person has a soul or immortal self that will live forever.

He also stated that anxiety can also be caused by discord between ones religious duty and ethical duty.

Early Research on Brain Functioning
Paul Broca (1824-1880)
Paul Broca was an idol of neurosurgery, anthropology and neuroscience.
Broca established in his anthropological work, that not only were skulls trepanned but also operations were performed on living persons by people.
He turned to much older trepanned skulls in the French soil after commenting on a pre- Columbian skull in 1867.
He concluded that the brains of the modern people were bigger than the ancient people.
He also concluded that men are more intelligent than women. Galton and many others supported this idea as his concept was a social acceptance at that time. Psychology Testing Movement
Alfred Binet (1857- 1911)
Alfred Binet was a self-taught psychologist by reading the books of Alexander Bain, Charles Darwin, etc.
He became the member of a society for psychological study of children. Binet measure the differences and established the differences between the abnormal and normal children.

Published in 1903, he described his methods in his book L’Etude expĂ©rimentale de I’ Intelligence (Experimental Studies of Intelligence).
Binet worked on new intelligence tests alongside Simon his research assistant, in which Binet shared his name with him.
Intelligence tests were introduced in 1905 for measuring intelligence, which was known as the Binet-Simon scale.
Clinical Psychology Movement
Lightner Witmer (1867-1956)
In 1893, Witmer founded clinical psychology under the education of Cattel and Wundt, at the University of Pennsylvania.
In 1907, Witmer presented his work after doing research for 10 years at APA under the article: clinical psychology. Witmer scrutinized impairment and mental development in children; he opened a clinic for impaired children and helped professional workers to cope with children with mental illness.
He also trained graduated students to work in the clinical psychology profession.
Witmer developed the fields of developmental and educational psychology by training the students who took on special cases with significant interests.

Industrial/ Organizational Psychology Movement
Hawthorne Studies
In the 1920’s, Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger conducted Hawthorne studies on workers of the Western Electric Company at the Hawthorne plant.
Those studies showed whether workers could work efficiently in specific environmental conditions or not.
The results were quite different, as they had gone to check environmental factors such as lighting, but they were surprised to found that workers responded more to social factors like how much interest the manager takes in his job and people with whom they worked as a team.
Studies found that extra attention from managers, how much they cared about their employees and their interest in their employees work had a great impact and was equally important in their work progress.

Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916)
Munsterberg is famous for his work on applied psychology, specifically in forensic, clinic and industrial psychology.
His “Psychology and the Market” paper recommended that psychology could be used in a lot of different applications like employee motivation, management, advertising, vocational decisions and job performance.
In 1908, in his book “On the Witness Stand” was discussed in detail that various psychological factors affect the result of a trial. Interrogations, eyewitness testimonies, and false confessions were also discussed in this book.

Theoretical psychology consists of Munsterberg’s chief contribution was in “action theory”. Attention is defined as “impartiality of nerve paths to adjust muscles”.


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