TOC o h 1 Introduction2
4.1 Outcomes of Focus group6
4.2 Outcomes of Sorted-napping test6
4.2.1. Socio-demographic analysis6
4.2.2 Testing sensory hypothesis6
4.2.2 Relationship between overall sensory colour liking6
4.2.3 Relationship between overall sensory taste and flavor liking6
4.2.4 Relationship between overall mouth-feel liking6
4.2.3 Testing emotion hypothesis6
4.2.4 Positioning the samples on the 2D map6
5.1 Critical reflections of the results of Focus Group6
5.2 Critical reflection of the results of Sorted-napping test6
2 Literature review6
2.1 Barry Callebaut background6
2.2 Internship at Barry Callebaut8
2.3 What is filling and its types10
2.3.1 Hazelnut fillings11
2.3.2 Importance of hazelnut fillings on the market12
2.4 Sensory attributes of hazelnut fillings13
2.5 Analysis of Bakery and Pastry market worldwide15
2.6 Backdrop on European Bakery and Pastry market16
2.7 Clean label and its significance nowadays18
2.8 Market research: its types and data analysis21
2.8.1 Qualitative research – focus group22
2.8.2 Quantitative research – sorted napping test24
3 Materials and Methods28
3.1 Experimental design 1 – Focus group28
3.1.1 Aim of the research28
3.2.2 Research design and implementation28
3.2.3 Data analysis28
3.3 Experimental design 2 – Sorted-napping test28
3.3.1 Aim and hypothesis28
3.3.2 Sample selection29
3.3.3 Consumer selection30
3.3.4 Questionnaire design30
3.4 Research implementation of experimental design 231
3.4.1 Participants and test location31
3.4.3 Data analysis32
In the last period of time consumers open their doors of a new lifestyle where the main goal is to eat healthy, clean, easy and hence feel a real product taste. They want high quality products with a competitive price bring an additional value to their lives (Annunziata 20). Since customers’ satisfaction in all aspects is the most crucial business treasure, a classical technique of market analysis is executed through sensory tests (Krishna,2012 – from Bee).
In the Global Analysis Report of 2013, the statistics concerning bakery products showed that Italy is the first European market which represents its retail sales are approximately $22.3 billion that is only 8% less than the 3 top markets with only a 0.7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) forecasted from 2014-18 (Global analysis report, 2014).
2013 was a very contributive year with bakery goods representing 86.2% of overall bakery sales. Another category is pastry where 15% sales adds an important value of the total subsector. Barilla, Bauli and Ferrero were the largest players of baked goods in Italian market although in 2013 they accounted for 13.3% of the entire market share of bakery sector (Global analysis report, 2014).
Cream plays a crucial role in any confectionery application as a convergent index of all product’s components. It gives a full taste and texture and helps baked items to be in a balance.(Bakery fillings cream).
The Italian market of fillings for bakery and pastry is a traditional and standard market. According to the internal “Sales and Marketing report of Italy” (confidential, 2017) there is a lack of innovation, the business is not in a strong position backed up with having “clean label” products (meaning no palm, vegan, gluten free) due to the poor knowledge of its definition, Italian consumers’ preferences and life style of majority. Competition context of fillings misleads consumers by wrong communication about the products what they do not always realize. Therefore there is a benchmark research ongoing which shows poverty of differentiation that opens for the Callebaut brand a possibility to invent something new and innovative in order to widen the limited range of qualitative production of fillings for the Bakery and Pastry (BaPa) segment.
One of the main difficulties claiming products with ‘clean labels’ is the use of palm oil as one of the core ingredients by almost all of the producers in the Italian bakery market as it is cheap and represents an easy solution to increase shelf life. In 2015 10% out of 21 million euros of imported palm oil was consumed by the bakery segment. Despite on the low economic impact, this ingredient should not be ignored by Research ; Development (R;D) and explored more from the approach of the influence on health (Garzia, 2016).
Barry Callebaut, as a business-to-business lead in the chocolate world defined several reasons of the problems existing on the Italian market:
There is not enough stakeholders’ education to be able to follow trends, drivers and “free-from” opportunities for introducing Italian market as healthy.
The price range represents the difference that is a result of the cost of specific raw materials, origin of special ingredients as well as the complaints to declare the necessary certifications.
There are consumers’ concerns with regards to quality issue questions, companies’ offers and competitiveness itself (Barry Callebaut Internal customer base report – confidential, 2017).
At present, the Callebaut brand has a very limited range of creams for bakery and pastry segments. After analysis by the marketing team of the last 5 years, Callebaut’s Crème Dell Artigiano (www.callebaut.com) volume has dropped by 40%. The reasons for this decline are summarized as following:
Lack of renovation and innovation in the past (Picture 1)
Picture 1: Creme dell’Atrigiano (CDA) range of fillings, Callebaut
Quality issues in the production site (Picture 2).
Picture 2: Examples of the CDA products quality issues
Source: Internal Sales and Marketing report, 2017.
Lack of end user training and strong ambassadorship locally.
Therefore the main objective of the Callebaut brand is to introduce absolutely new range of hazelnut and chocolate fillings certified with the “clean label” to bakery and pastry market.
Although the aim of the master thesis is to evaluate the clean label hazelnut fillings discovering the best combination of the product. The two research questions will be across the study for achieving the final goal:
1. How to define product innovation of clean label fillings in Italian (as a key) bakery and pastry market?
2. How to approve and validate customers’ expectations and acceptance of clean label hazelnut fillings?
In order to gain appropriate results there are two methods planned to be conducted: qualitative and quantitative research that are represented by focus group and a sorted napping test accordingly. It will help to determine the opportunities for further segment expansion throughout other countries and regions. A new product creation can build a very strong position of the BaPa market by quality, premiumness, indulgency and natural ingredients possibility.
Therefore the structure of the master thesis is planned as following: literature background will be shown after introduction, materials and methods will be explained by overview and technical details of the conducted researches, results of the both methods and their detailed discussion will be followed by conclusion and summary of the study.
The project was accomplished with the collaboration of Barry Callebaut NV and all information received from the participants was confidential.
4.1 Outcomes of Focus group
4.2 Outcomes of Sorted-napping test
4.2.1. Socio-demographic analysis
4.2.2 Testing sensory hypothesis
4.2.2 Relationship between overall sensory colour liking
4.2.3 Relationship between overall sensory taste and flavor liking
4.2.4 Relationship between overall mouth-feel liking
4.2.3 Testing emotion hypothesis
4.2.4 Positioning the samples on the 2D map
5.1 Critical reflections of the results of Focus Group
5.2 Critical reflection of the results of Sorted-napping test
Fat gives a tenderness to a baked product opening a balance texture of a finished application and also provide a flavor that keeps smooth mouth feel (bakery p.2).
2 Literature review
2.1 Barry Callebaut background
The Barry Callebaut Group is the world’s leading manufacturer of high-quality chocolate and cocoa products. It is a very innovative company which is providing a comprehensive range of services in the fields of product development, processing, training and marketing. At Barry Callebaut, it is committed to make sustainable chocolate by 2025 to help ensure future supplies of cocoa and improve farmer livelihoods. It also supports the Cocoa Horizons Foundation in its goal to shape a sustainable cocoa and chocolate future.
By 2018 facts and figures show that Barry Callebaut sales volume is around 1.9 million ton where sustainably sourced cocoa represent 36%. The company has approximately 11,000 employees worldwide and 55 factories all over the countries. 20 locations have chocolate academies where all the courses take place as well as Chefs’ demonstrations and customers’ visits (www.barry-callebaut.com)
Barry Callebaut as an umbrella company consist around 15 different brands:
Barry-Callebaut – for Food Manufactures and big customers like “Magnum”;
Karma – Swiss high quality chocolate brand for semi-industrial customers like “Milka” as well as a part of crafters;
Callebaut – Finest Belgian Chocolate brand associated for crafters, Chefs, artisanals and selected big distributors like HBi;
Cacao Barry – French chocolate brand for semi-industrials, Chefs and for 10 years is organizing the World Chocolate Masters competitions throughout the world;
MonaLisa – brand specified only on decorations;
Van Houten – brand which is the main feature is production of Cocoa powders and others.
Each brand has its own story, objective, features, target customers, sector, price list and all the needed facilities, departments that bring brand to a successful level. The Callebaut in a case of the thesis, under which the new range is foreseen to be developed, has an impressive background as one of the oldest brand.
In 1911 the first Finest Belgian Chocolate recipe has been created by a grandson of a famous brewer in Belgium. For a long time he beard an idea of creating a perfect chocolate recipe and later on expanding it into the chocolate factory. The first recipe has been considered as a very well-fined with a taste of freshly roasted cocoa beans that let Octaaf successful open his first small factory in Wieze, Belgium. Within the next 7 years he was fine-tuning the recipes and more than 100 years 3 famous recipes N811 – dark chocolate, N823 – milk chocolate, NW2 – white chocolate make the customers happy. (www.callebaut.com). Within those 100 years, the factory was growing and by 2018 became the biggest manufacturing plant which produces 80% of volume in Belgium. Other Barry-Callebaut factories can specifically take a responsibility to produce chocolate products like fillings, decorations, gelato, ice-cream, cocoa powder and others depends on a customer demand, factory capacity and a product complexity.
Callebaut, as a well-known, distinguished gourmet brand all over the world contains around twenty chocolate academies: in Russia, Canada, Italy, USA, Germany, Arabian Emirates, South Africa and the biggest in Belgium (Callebaut internal report – confidential, July 2018). The chefs in the academies give courses to professionals who want to gain their knowledge, make demonstrations of the recently launched products, together with the sales people meet the customers, develop new ideas and do lots of trials before the final product validation.
Even though the first brand’s focus is chocolate claimed as original belgian and its high quality and refining process, Callebaut became famous in other categories like Gelato, cocoa products, nut pastes and moreover after eighty years has discovered the forth chocolate category Ruby that was born from the ruby cocoa beans. It became the greatest awarded achievement in the last decades.
2.2 Internship at Barry Callebaut
In summer 2017 a chance to be a brand manager leader of the company brand as an intern was given to me for personal and professional improvements as well as for an expected contribution. This is also a great possibility for any student to apply his or her knoweldge in a practice – what every person dreams about.
To come to Barry Callebaut, based in Belgium, was pretty exciting and in the same time challengy. Changing a country, a culture, friends, a lifestyle, a timetable – everything was absolutely new and unexplored for me. Many expetations from newbies and vice verse could be a critical point of implementation of a theory as well as self-opening. I had a fear to make a mistake, take an ownership, responsibility but people all learn through failings.
As it was mentioned above, Barry Callebaut is a business-to-business (b2b) company with its own culture, structure, strategy and imagination of the world. There are two ways of running chocolate business: food manufacturing (FM) and gourmet (GM), where 80% of sellings are normally belong to FM production (clear b2b) and only 20% is get from GM business. The gourmet part is an actual business-to-customer conduction where the target group is HoReCa sector (hotels, restaurants and cafes), chocolatiers / pastry / bakery Chefs, all working by themselves in the shops – meaning real people dealing with the products by themelves. One of a biggest brand, above dicussed about, is Callebaut.
One year experience was unexpectedly tremendous: full of knowledge, new horizons, personal and professional skills’ development and the busiest but interesting period of time. Since the internship was targeted for Callebaut brand of gourmet business for Western European countries, my main focus fall to the lot of ongoing or new projects and every day communication with the trade marketers, supporting the regional brand manager what made me convenience to speak business language.
One of my biggest task was to closely work with the packaging department managing packaging development projects from A to Z. It included marketing briefs, technical support through several programs (like SAP, QDS, PackSat), communication with Quality Assurance department, plants and production sites. Research and Development (R&D) department was also one of the closest colleagues to work with. They had to develop the ideal product recipes (if it satisfies customers’ needs, trends) and check feasibility, but my objective was to request forecast from the countries therefore to negotiate if it is too little – after all gathered information they confirm or reject the potential project.
Communication to the creative agency was also an important part of my working time. First I had to be prepare a brief (with the support of the regional manager), what a market was looking for – either it was about a new product launch or a developing packaging design or any other marketing materials. With the Account Manager of the agency we had to do a total check whether the brand requirements were taken into consideration or if they can suggest something else from a creative point of view.
My unforgettable experience was to travel to Italy for the annual Gelato fair where Callebaut has presented his first new range of Gelato products to the world of ice-cream at their booth. The main goal of the brand was a product launch and communicate directly to the customers. They could try Gelato, talk to the sales managers of their regions, get the discounts on a place and become a part of the special campaigns. I personally had to be a communication lead and a receptionist to welcome customers. Being seven days close to the them I have developed how to be emotionally intelligent, proactive, informative, helpful and energetic. Day by day I was gaining the technical knowledge about the products that became an appropriate attitude for the future.
For the students who worked for Barry Calleabut, the opportunity to write his or her Master Thesis about a company based project was not available to everyone. Luckily thanks to a hard work and proper results during the first period of a round-year internship the manager has granted me with the topic for the thesis which has to be presented after the successful defense to the stakeholders in the company. The achievement of obtaining the level of master of science is one of the personal reasons and willingness to take on a responsibility to bring the project to a fruition for the company.
2.3 What is filling and its types
According to Confectionary fillings chapt.6 no national regulations exists that explains which ingredients composition a confectionary filling should have. As any food goods a filings has to be authorized with food safety certificate and follow the legislation on the additives that can be contained or not.
There is a limited amount of available literature that gives a concrete definition to a filling. Rosella Di Monaco characterize it as a semi-solid food that was also confirmed by Irving Ruiz (RnD specialist of Callebaut). The confectionery fillings range is one of the most broad gap to create something unique, bespoken, exotic combining the healthy aspects and non-existing appearance and taste. Besides the consumers preferences, marketing creativeness, millennial century those products require quite an amount of raw materials in which fat range plays an appropriative role (Filling fats, 2).
Bakery filling cream identifies that there are three types of fillings: water-based, light fat-based and heavy fat-based fillings. The names explicitly give a description on the main ingredients like fats and water.
Generally speaking, a fat-based filling does not contain water whereas the dosage of water-based fillings varies from fiftheen to seventy percent , for instance fondants, jellies, ganaches, fruit fillings ((Bakery filling cream; Confectionary fillings chapt.6) An industrial producer Barry Callebaut justifies the fruit fillings, as an example of water based ones, require to have a low water activity for ready-to-use texture ( https://solutions.barry-callebaut.com/en-OC/products/low-water-activity-fillings ).
Fat is determined as the main ingredient of the fat-based fillings. Its content in the products is about 30-35% but in some cases can also reach 50-60%. Fat characterizes many sensory attributes like hardness or softness, creaminess, speed of melting, flavour perception and identification. Confectionery fat-based fillings are considered as indulgent since may contain other raw materials that enrich the desired features. (Confectionary fillings chapt.6).
There are several parameters in confectionery fillings that have to be considered by the product developer: physical/chemical (processing, storage, stability), sensory (appearance, texture, flavour, mouthfeel) and nutritional (Confectionary fillings chapt.6). Since the technical part can be only established by the research and development specialist, the current study is dedicated to evaluation of sensorial profile. Later on it will be also identified an importance of clean nutritional profile.
There are several groups of fillings that are usually formulated based on the main flavour component: nuts, chocolate, fruit, dairy, alcohol and others (Confectionary fillings chapt.6. Since Callebaut is a chocolate brand it is logical to focus on chocolate fillings however on the company base nuts became not only interesting ingredient but also crucial and valuable.
2.3.1 Hazelnut fillings
(Confectionary fillings chapt.6 determines that the leading position among all the nuts takes hazelnut or peanuts or almonds. However the main production facilities of Barry Callebaut are peanut free, it leaves the options of hazelnuts and almonds usage in a filling. According to the internal sales figures 2016 almonds are less demanded nuts therefore the company keeps its primary focus on hazelnut products.
Hazelnut filling is a semi-solid spreadable product that contains hazelnut paste in different dosage that is requested by consumers or defined by the product developers. It is worth noting, a filling where hazelnuts are used, will contain hazelnut oil. It also contributes to the quality and shelf-life of the final product that has to be taken into account despite on the percentage of it in the filling (Confectionary fillings chapt.6).
According to the internal research of competitors who produces hazelnut fillings the quantity of hazelnut paste in the product was not exceed 20% since hazelnut paste is considered as an intense product. Hazelnut is the most commercially affordable type of the nuts however origin and its processing impacts on the price that might influence on the final decision of the paste amount. Thus low percentage of hazelnut paste in a filling is considered as a price competitive, standard level product.
2.3.2 Importance of hazelnut fillings on the market
The analyzis of hazelnut market shows that Turkey is a leader producer that reaches around seventy percent and moreover exporter of hazelnuts. Around twenty percent of hazzelnut production falls onto Italy and then rest of the main fields are in Spain, USA and Greece.
The highest consumption of hazelnut per person has Italy that counts approximately 0.520 kg kernel/person regardless that Turkey is the largest producer. The leader is ranked as the third and one person is tend to consume in two times less than Italy. However the highest production does not necessary mean the highest demand thus Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Germany and Luxembourg have the highest hazelnut consumption worldwide (2 link).
Among different market categories hazelnut is mostly accounted in the global food industry that presented as a leading segment.
Picture 3: Global hazelnut market value by the market segment
According to Persistence Market Research (PMR) 90% of hazelnuts are used as an additional product in chocolate applications, cakes, biscuits, pralines and others. It is said that the top confectionary companies like Nesstle, Mondelez, Ferrero and Barry Callebaut are operating in the hazelnut market.
High oleic acid, amino acid, vitamin A, magnesium, calcium and potassium are hazelnut wealth features that motivate consumers purchase hazelnut products since a healthy aspect became a primary demand (PMR).
Analyzing the Itaian benchmark of hazelnut fillings it is clearly traced that this type is highly ranked. The pastries or bakeries are using more of hazelnut fillings as the most requested and popular versus chocolate spreads or fruit fillings. Due to already mentioned healthy characterisitc the brands run after innovative high quality hazelnut spreads trying to use as less and natural ingredients as possible keeping the same or better taste profile. Thus a big competitor of Callebaut Irca represents three out of nine hazelnut fillings as high quality, senza palm (SP – meaning without palm) with intense flavour of hazelnut. The internal sales figures of Italy showed Irca is a primary choice among consumers.
All the facts above show an importance and moreover increasing value and customers’ potential in hazelnut fillings usage.
2.4 Sensory attributes of hazelnut fillings
Sensory perception of a food product plays the most important role in consumers’ choice. Every food and bevarage company should consider the sensory attributes on the stage of a product development. Those who carefully look after the trends, competitors, does market research as well as sensory analysis among their target group are potentially winners (Rosella Di Monaco, 2008).
In 1990 it was established by Rohm that food texture plays the most dominant role in consumer preerences rather than colour, flavour or evoked emotions. Far not every producer can afford the evaluation through sensory tests thus a product should have a format that can be measured instrumentally and foresee specific sensory attributes. The neccessary correlation is required by quality control department which is a fundamental step to overcome for a product’s launch (Rosella Di Monaco, 2008).
The Confectioanry filling groups sensory aspects in 2 sections: texture and mouthfeel; flavour and flavour release. As the hazelnu filling is a fat-based semi-solid product the texture thus moutfeel are regulated by the fat melting profile. Hardness, coolness, stickness specify the melting profile of the fats. Thus changing fat content in a filling can influence on the final sensory attributes.
Flavour release describes how long the specific flavour can stay during and after fat is melted down. In order to keep feeling the flavour the fat should be melted slow that has to be considered by product developer (Confectioanry filling). The product’s speed of becoming liquid and roundly be spread in the mouth is determined by spreadability as an important sensorial attitude (Monaco). Often sensory tests help to justify whether the flavour is intense, if after taste is nicely kept and if there are no unneccessary coarses in the end of a product melting process.
R. Di Monaco et al. on the example of sensory analysis of hazelnut-based spreads shows a table 2 of flavour and texture attributes that are corresponded to it. The table is simplified, redesigned and shown below.
Table 2: attributes and evaluation techniques of hazelnut spreads:
Attributes Attribute category Evaluation techniques
Graininess Non-oral texture Evaluate the amount of grains on sample surface
Adhesiveness to spoon Non-oral texture Dip the spoon in the cup and evaluate the rapidity of detachment
Fluidness Non-oral texture Dip the spoon and evaluate the force required to mix the sample
Spreadability Non-oral texture Evaluate the ease at which the sample is spread (on a biscuit)
Sweetness Gustative (taste) Evaluate the intensity of sweetness
Hazelnut flavour Gustative (flavour) Evaluate the intensity of hazelnut flavour
Cocoa flavour Gustative (flavour) Evaluate the intensity of cocoa flavour
Rancidity Gustative (aftertaste) After sample swallowing, evaluate the intensity of rancidity
Meltability Oral texture Place the sample between tongue and palate and evaluate its melting rate
Adhesiveness to mouth Oral texture After meltability assessment, evaluate the force required to remove the sample from the palate with the tongue
Flouriness Oral texture Evaluate how floury the sample is perceived in the mouth
Oiliness Oral texture After sample swallowing, evaluate the amount of oil coating the mouth and tongue
Source: Rosella di Monaco et al. 2008.
It is apparently not standardized table and the specific taste and falvour descriptors might change depending on dosage addition of the raw materials and application the hazelnut filling is used in (Iving Ruiz, RnD specialist of Callebaut).
Previously evaluated sensory attributes are often demonstarted as product texture or flavour definitions. Almost every brand has his own interpritation of the texture / flavour of any product on their web pages. Creamy and smooth texture, caramel and roasting nut flavour can be found as appropriate to the product descriptors.
Colour itself is not applicable in the sensory analysis but yet appearance is a meaningful indicator. During the previously demonstrated attributes from sensory analysis which was explained by Monaco, she considers only one visual attribute that is brightness. Colour evaluation is not appealed in this article and other found.
The website of several brands like Irca, Puratos and Barry Callebaut do not highlight colour of hazelnut fillings however on www.callebaut.com it is generally mentioned a colour of eah filling with defining its spector from light brown to dark brown. Thus logically colour of hazelnut filling varies in brown palette and depend on the percenatge of hazelnut paste, cocoa and other considerble ingredients in the finl product. It also shows that colour is a subjective and unneccessary attribute of the product’s sensory evaluation.
2.5 Analysis of Bakery and Pastry market worldwide
Global Annual Report of Bakery 2018 shows that that 37% share in bakery sales value are led by European market, furthermore within 5 years of the period between 2012 and 2017 CARG constitutes 2.6%. The top 2 countries of the share value are Italy with 14.6% and Germany with 13.9%. The main platform of the Sales activities is occupied by the Ethical aspect – meaning a strong focus on the messaging and communication to the customers followed by vegetarian and No additives / preservatives. Curiously enough the chocolate flavor brings a trend into the European countries but not to Italy since Italian consumers are the one who purchase the chocolate goodies the most.
On the Global level key driver is a “balance between health and indulgence at the heart of bakes products” (Global annual report of bakery). This phrase has a double definition: one of them is a direct where a heart of baked products is filling which perfectly suits to the idea development of a new range of fillings. However, indirectly it significantly differs and means a well harmony between health aspects, ingredients and packaging. The products are foreseen to be as natural, organic and with simple short ingredient list as convenient, conceptual and attractive. Nowadays, it is the only balance brings a success to a product due to trends, innovations and the most important, consumer demands.
Global Annual Bakery Report of 2018 represent key insights of bakery segment worldwide by positioning the findings in several non-cross categories:
Worldwide the bakery segment shows balance between health and indulgence. Health is continuously an important platform performed by applications formulated with natural sweeteners, wholegrain and sourdough. Indulgence absorbs millennial world and is showed as also meaningful influencer.
On a regional level Europe is the leading region for bakery launches however free from and clean label related claims are more important for European countries rather than no trans fats for Latin America and Asia.
As a positioning, clean label remains bakery innovations with no additives / preservatives claims but standing artisanal where flavours are based on naturalness and plants, fruit and veggies, nuts and seeds.
2.6 Backdrop on European Bakery and Pastry market
In a regional level European bakery segment is fueling growth by premiumization, healthy lifestyles and demand for artisanal and clean label claims. Unfortunately, during 2015 to 2017 Europe recorded negative growth in launches. Even though the market is a mature one but companies need to speed up in its adaptation to be able to meet the rising consumer preferences for convenient and nutritious bakery products.
2.6.2 Callebaut Creme dell’ Artigiano range of fillings
As it was mentioned in the introduction the idea of offering a new range of products to the markets has popped up because of the problems with the exisitig range of the Callebaut fillings that holds an Italian name “Creme dell’Artigiano”.
According to the website www.callebaut.com there five products the range contains, each of them will be shortly explained below:
1. Creme dell’Artigiano Nocciola. The smooth and a sensational baking paste of brown colour contains 11.7% of hazelnut paste and can add a velvety mouthfeel to the rolls, croissants and pastries. It is resisted to oven temperature up to 200°C.
2. Creme dell’Artigiano Bianca. It is a ready-to-use base for glazing and filling pastries with caramelly sweet taste of white chooclate. Texture is presented as a smooth and creamy. Its composition is 42.5% of sugar in the most dose.
3. Creme dell’Artigiano Gold. Smooth baking paste of intense hazelnut taste contains 17.8% of hazelnut paste. The brown colour product an fill cold pastry as well as used in baking products like rolls, croissants, Danish pastry. It also resist the oven temperatures up to 200°C.
4. Creme dell’Artigiano Fondente. Baking paste of dark brown colour with dark chocolate taste has a smooth texture as the mentioned before fillings. The composition of 5% of hazelnut paste, cocoa and non-hydro vegetable fats is perfect for fillings and baking products.
5. Creme dell’Artigiano Extra Bitter. Ready-to-use base for fillings and glazing Italin-style pastries. Smooth, silky texture has extra dark brown colour and maintenances an intense chocolate taste. Normally it is used to fill choux pastry, sable-based pastries tartlets and to glaze the cakes and pastries.
According to the explanation on the website the products are presented as easy, ready-to-use fillings which cover several types of applications: injection, baking and glazing. Three creams except Creme dell’Artigiano (CDA) Bianca and Extra Dark are bake stable and targeted for injections as well. The other two can be used fro glazing and also for filling cold applications. Combination of several objectives in one product has not reached the main goal to create a qualitative product. Moreover the range is not declared with “clean labels” that demonstrates poverty of the market’s education and lack of its need.
Additionally, the picture 2 showed the absolute similarity of the packaging and labels’ design. It is impossible to read even a product’s name thus differentiate the applications the fillings are created for.
All these again proves the necessity of the product renovation and innovation by adding natural high quality ingredients thus clean labels.
2.7 Clean label and its significance nowadays
Consumers’ demands on clarity how products are manufactured, are helping the food industry to resist a down turned economy and shows that a strong growth is possible what can happen only in the case of customer loyalty and trust. Consumer needs create actual food choices, Figure 1:
Enjoyment contains indulgence and pleasure, entertaining, satisfaction and quality requirements;
Convenience for consumers means easy and fast meal preparation as a practical necessity;
A very important statement throughout the last period of time is health needs which includes lifestyle improvements and more natural food choices (63 consumer trends).
From the figure the main percentage of consumer’s choice is remained to enjoy the goods however the health perception is increased so quickly that can overtake convenience as a driver of consumers’ choice (63 consumer trends).
Matthew Jenkins, a Marketing Consultant and Director of Slices Bread Marketing, UK believes agree that economic reasons do not have such a strong impact on customers’ choice rather than trends. Consumer spending are changed within the past years from eating outside to cheaper healthy choice to cook at home, to prepare lunch boxes by themselves not only due to economical reason but it is related to health prospective. TNS WorldPanel provided the results of their panel consumer research where on the question “If you were forced to, on which items would cut spending?” most of the respondents choose “Eating out” (63 consumer trends). Despite of such results it does not mean that the bakers, chefs, restaurants and all food related business need to stop develop themselves, their products and services. Those outcomes should only encourage food business look into that form another side and be creative, qualitative, full of ideas and healthy premium choices.
Many companies are driven to have “clean label” innovations from a product development perspective. Unfortunately, due to limited customer education and knowledge on the definition of a “clean label” product, what depends on a culture, country, region, lifestyle, economic stage, companies are missing their successful business level. Furthermore, it is quite difficult for a food company to make a quick switch to the same products but with natural ingredients (Clean label final, p.2).
There are special components which compulsory have to be on a food label: “1) statement of identity; 2) net weight of product; 3) manufacturer’s address; 4) nutrition facts; 5) ingredient list, allergen and health claims” (Hutt and Sloan, 2015; Vierhile, 2016). It is very interesting that there have been done a huge amount of studies in a “clean label” importance, it has been proved the healthier products company has the more success it gets, the millennial century brought understanding of “free from” products to a significantly high level but even though there is no legal definition for a “clean label”, except different perception for each person (Clean label final).
Nowadays consumers define those healthy products as something simple, natural, sweetened by natural ingredients, vegan, vegetarian and so. Those concepts explanation is shown hereunder:
Natural has no artificial colors, flavors, preservatives and additives
Simplicity perceives as less chemical ingredient list
Transparency shows the way products have been produced
Minimally processed says it for itself – less processed, simply understandable by consumers (Clean label final).
According to USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016) “natural product contains no artificial ingredient or added colour and is only minimally processed”. “Clean label” accepts to have natural colorants on its label whereas for “natural” labeling it is rejected.
Since the consumers’ demand becomes a growing aspect for companies to become as natural as possible, retail stores, restaurants and any other food industry took the actions for to be able to satisfy their consumers (Clean label final). It is definitely not that easy to make a full switch to a “clean label” however it starts from analysis on functionality of natural ingredients. Food safety and shelf life preservation depends on chemical agents’ content inside of a product as well as additives contribution (Chen and Hart, 2016). Furthermore a change on sensorial aspects need to be considered as such. Replacement of standard ingredient list on natural spices can render different effects on people from flavor uniqueness perception to fully product’s protest. Ingredient’s substitution has to be also considered in terms of feasibility because some elements may not work alone in a product thus need to be fulfilled with the combination of other ingredients.
An example below can show how food manufacturers are changing the attitudes towards to natural ingredients by bringing out the statements concerning clean label products such as following:
Kraft has decided to “remove artificial preservatives, flavors and dyes from Kraft Macaroni and Cheese”;
Nestle USA “removed all artificial colors from chocolate candy products, and removed artificial flavors from entire line of frozen pizza and snacks”;
Pizza Papa Johns has “removed 14 artificial ingredients”;
Whole Foods market “banned a long list of artificial colors, flavors, preservatives and sweeteners”;
Dannon decided to “use of fewer and more natural ingredients in Dannon, Oikos and Danimals branded products”
Kellogg’s is “removing artificial colors and flavors from its products by the end of 2018”;
Mars “will remove artificial colors from our human food products over 5 years in February 2016 announcement”;
Unilever is “removing artificial colors and flavors from many products” (Clean label final)
Obviously clean label policy is gaining its importance in entire big international food companies that is not only helps to develop themselves and keep up with the times but also to be sustainable, support nature and care about consumers’ lifestyle changes and health concerns.
2.8 Market research: its types and data analysis
Market research is a primary tool to reduce the complexity of issues, identify the connection between different topics, moreover to find a way to improve or change any sort of attitude towards a product or service (essentials of mrketing research, p.12). In 1985 American Marketing Association (AMA) has developed the following: “marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives”. In around 20 years it has been defined as the structured operation of communicate and delivery value to the customers as well as identification of advantages and benefits to the organization and its stakeholders (essentials of mrketing research, p.13).
It is essential for the managers to know everything about their customers, which preferences they have, how hey want to be able to get the product, which price they are ready to pay. Of course Unfortunately, often companies can not keep a track of satisfying exceptional customers for a long time just because they do it wrong. Once they fail, only then the companies come to the analysis and learning of the reasons and mistakes (essentials of mrketing research, p.14).
According to the article, marketing research is divided in two types: problem identification research which is normally done upfront of a product launch and problem solving research which helps to solve particular research issues (Picture AAA).
Picture AAA: classification of marketing research according to essentials of mrketing research, p.14)
Source: Adapted from Malhorta, N. (2004), Marketing research: An applied orientation, Pearson Education, New Jersey.
Another important part of the research should fall onto competitors (essentials of mrketing research, p.13). Bill Gates said: “Whether it’s Google or Apple or free software, we’ve got some fantastic competitors and it keeps us on our toes.” It perfectly explains need on a marketing research, does not matter if it is targeted towards to the consumers, their demands or competitors and a company’s development.
Market research is divided in two research designs: exploratory that determined by qualitative research and conclusive design that the nature is quantitative of. Both types of designs will be explained below followed with concrete examples of each (essentials of mrketing research, p.13).
2.8.1 Qualitative research – focus group
As an important company’s project which firstly is planned to be launched in Italy and afterwards to be spread all around the Europe and furthermore globally, each stage of the product innovation and renovation is important. It includes not only the quality itself but also conceptual perception of package design, weight of a bucket, potential convenience of the product’s usage, price, flavours and other aspects which customers can think about.
Since it is considered to be a large project in terms of the markets’ request, forecast and possibility to expand the Callebaut brand with high quality fillings, the thesis is aimed to have narrow focus on the most essential aspects.
Needless to say, in order to understand a human behavior in details, their attitudes and moreover theory of thinking, scientists prefer to use qualitative research (qualitative research, 2014). Often people’s actions do not correspond their own beliefs that is why Brown (2005: 485) assumes that “qualitative research is a potential for forming hypothesis”.
On the website www.questionpro.com under the section qualitative research there are explained 5 different methods of the research: one-to-one interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis and a case study research. Shortly to say, focus groups are the most expensive method of data collection but it has the main advantage of applying it into the market research of new products and concepts testing.
A helpful step to start any research with is a focus group. It provides clear comprehension of the aspects the interviewers try to target with and sometimes opens new doors, different ways and ideas where to move on (focusgroupbrief). From an economical prospective, researchers prefer to conduct a focus group rather than individual interviews as a method of delving further into information related to the chosen topic. Group interaction is the main advantage of focus groups since it spiritually stimulates participants to discuss with each other entire concepts as well as make up hidden ones. Furthermore for a coordinator is crucial to observe non-verbal communication which can help to draw the conclusions while analyzing the data (focusgroupbrief).
WHO’s Age-friendlt cities project methodology has developed the following rules of preparation for a focus group in 2007:
Conduct the participants. Depending on a topic discussion it should gather people of one common aspect: interest, workplace, age group, nationality or any other fact which explains why this group is relevant for a research.
Choose a location. It should be easy accessible for every participant, include all needed facilities for the comfort discussion like chairs, tables, screen for planned presentation and needed materials.
Plan the timing. It is always better to have not more than 3-4 hours session with a break or separate them into 2 different days so outcomes will be more sufficient while participants don’t rush.
Build a questionnaire in advance. It is necessary to brief a group in advance about the topic is planned to be raised to let them be slightly prepared to get appropriate results.
Prepare facilities. The best is to have an audio or video recorder not to miss any small information, to have a possibility to refresh a facilitator’s mind if needed, to get opinions of other colleagues. Before it has to be sign an agreement with focus group on being recorded.
Meet legal requirements. By the legal department it should be provided the document on keeping the information confidential by all participants, moreover signed by both parties.
Keep a contact information about participants. It is necessary to be prepared in case if participants are willing to follow up on the results and information gathered during the focus group.
In the end of a session, depending on a topic, pleasant signs or presents can be also essential attribute.
Normally focus group has a large amount of data which tend to be generated by analyzing it up to several hours (cambridge, p.657). According to Robson (1993), the aim of focus group data analysis is to reduce the information keeping the most relevant and appropriate idea correctly gathering respondents’ comments in one. Generally speaking, meaning of the situation is more important rather than facts’ or a truth’s seeking (cambridge, p.657). As it was mentioned above, not only actual answers, heard by during the interview, are important. It is absolutely necessary to evaluate their attitude, behaviour, intonation and emotions. That is the essential cause of audio or video recording of the conversation. The conductor can easily refer back to the collected digital files in case of uncertainty or forgotten responds (cambridge, p.657).
In the article of the Cambridge University by Ritchie & Spencer (1994), there are mentioned five key stages of the framework data analysis: familiarization, identifing a frame, indexing, charting and interpretation. ……….
2.8.2 Quantitative research – sorted napping test
Quantitative research, as well as qualitative one, has a big impact on a project, idea or a concept. It is not always easy to identify which type of the research is more relevant to a topic so quite often market researchers prefer to use both types. In Barry Callebaut, according to the actual experience and feedback from the marketing department, there is no potentially better idea than to use both methods in the research, of course one by another one. Depending on an objective, researchers establish by themselves what is better to start from. Internal practice shows the qualitative research has better perception to bring the clarity to the project and limit conceptual ways in order to get the best appropriative result (Brand Manager, 2018). Narrowing the paths of the business activity by qualitative research, the second hand of help will be an actual quantitative opinion of potential customers.
Sorted napping test is quite new holistic approach to identify how consumers position, describe and understand a large group of products with different sensory attributes. This sensory set of products is normally profiled on a paper or a table according to their sensory differences or similarities. It is clear, the samples with similar characteristics are grouped together, with the different aspects – far from each other accordingly (what is napping).
Before using any approach it has to be analyzed all possible positive sides of the method. The research has been done by www.biosystemes.com where the positive aspects of sorting are less cost, understandable for the panel list, intuitive method, practical opportunity to cover maximum sensory attributes of a big set of samples. For this method a certain amount of products is needed that is not always possible as well as doesn’t suit to every research field what still brings doubts to the approachers. Napping itself is also inexpensive and easy-to-use, understand and visualize method but from the other hand challenge to analyze, time consuming, bring difficulties for consumers to judge the products (TutoSensoMetrics).
In the sorted-napping test is preferably to use 10 and even more sample set because bigger amount helps to better see differences or similarities of the product’s attributes. The group of the panel list is not a crucial aspect of the test since it can be trained panel or not but important they should be regular consumers of the product. An expert can potentially find the descriptors he needs to focus on what makes the users think about them in depth and analyze those. It is better to also let their explanation place on the table what can even bring the research to a different direction (whgat is napping).
Data analysis for such holistic approach can be different – the most important to use multiple factor analysis. Thanks to principal component analysis (PCA) data extraction and its representation can present significant results. Often this method is used for the face recognition where minuscule details need to be identified thus provide even tiny differences. It proves his importance, exclusivity and needed feature (PCA).
As any method of data analysis PCA his advantages. The soften requirements for data scope and memory, low noise sensitivity that explains automatic decline of back-ground variations and reduced complexity to group the data are main thus meaningful benefits of the analysis. However it is not possible to avoid the main disadvantage which is those automatically excluded tiny variations do not allow to evaluate matrix in a precise manner (PCA).
As www.aims.med.uni-goettingen recognizes the basic aim of PCA is to “describe variations in a set of correlated variables x1, x2, …, xp in terms of a new set of uncorrelated variables y1, y2, … yp”.
Biplots are graphical interpretation of the variables and units which are displayed by multivariate data matrix. The numbers of evaluated components are normally presented in two or three dimensions graphic chap6(Figure 4).
Figure 4: The Gabriel form of a PCA biplot for aircraft data
The calibrated axes PC1 and PC2 on the figure above show the variables and formulate a biplot axes of two dimensions (2D) map.
A clear example on how the values are calculated, presented on the biplot graph, what do those values mean and other details will be explained in the next chapter of materials and methods.
3 Materials and Methods
3.1 Experimental design 1 – Focus group
3.1.1 Aim of the research
The aim of the focus group as an experimental design 1 was to gather the opinions from diverse level of pastry and bakery chefs allover Italy about the introduction of innovative clean label fillings. Moreover the concepts about products itself and packaging design were presented and brought to be analysed in terms of acceptance and preferences.
3.2.2 Research design and implementation
For the qualitative research it was chosen to conduct focus group. This type of interview could help to gather the opinions in an accurate manner. The capacity, company’s budget, proactive customers’ research and trained interviewer were beneficial to afford the focus group.
The workshop took place in Italy at the Callebaut Chocolate Academy of Milano. By Italian Sales responsible four big customers of Callebaut have been chosen as a crucial objective to gather relevant feedback. The customers present three informal clusters: regular Italian bakery, restaurant with a big focus on pastry and a high level bakery shop in a fashion part of Milano. This differentiation of the bakeries can help to recognize whether the products suit all the customers’ categories. Although they all have different years of experience, salary wise, gender and a work location, the background is still quite similar and considerably important for the applied methodology.
In a noise isolation room the four customers controlled by three independent experts had to answer seven questions that was asked by the interviewer. The whole conversation was recorder after the customers’ agreement and the official document on nondisclosure the information and results was also signed. The focus group research was conducted in the morning and took around three hours with the coffee break. In the end the customers got the brand complimentary packages which were containing chocolate, booklets with the recipes and chefs tools.
3.2.3 Data analysis
The method does not require a specific statistical data analysis since it has no numerical data but only informative. That is why the verbal yet descriptive analysis was used for the research.
Since the interview was with Italian customers in Italian language the notes from the experts and the recorder had to be translated by the authority agency.
When everyhting was tranlsated in a random format the interviewer with the other partcipants had a conference call since some of them were placed in Italy and the rest in Belgium. It took several hours for them to structure the answers, share their observation, exclude unneccessary information and build up the results appropriatively.
3.3 Experimental design 2 – Sorted-napping test
3.3.1 Aim and hypothesis
The aim of sorted napping test is to find out the differences and similarities between eight clean label hazelnut fillings according to overall hedonic evaluation. The method allows recording not only positive aspects of the tested products but also negative aspects, that could be linked to specific sensory descriptors influencing the final (dis)approval of the product.
Since the research is aimed to identify the preferred percentage of hazelnut paste in the clean label filling and understand which level of roasting potential consumers go more for, there were build two hypothesis relying on the previous internal feedback:
1. Consumers are tend to like high roasted hazelnut paste in a filling.
2. Consumers are tend to like higher percentage of hazelnut paste in a filling.
3.3.2 Sample selection
The two hypothesis were build according to the results of the first research and feedback from internal Chefs. After the focus group, firstly it was clearly identified that for the pastry chefs there was no answer which percentage of hazelnut paste could be better in a filling. The most important index for them was a taste and of course workability of the product. After the collection of the benchmark products and internal decision by stakeholders it was selected to use the most common and broadly used percentage of haselnut paste for fillings’ creation: 10%, 12%, 16 and 18%. It was planned to add different doze of hazelnut paste to the clean label starter as a base accordingly, mix and hit it up to 60 degrees. Afterwards the mix should be tempered until 27-28 degrees and have a creamy texture.
The second part of the sample selection was directed to the level of hazelnut’s roasting where two ways were taken: low level and high level of roasting. The product is planned to be launch in Italy as in the key market upfront of other european ones. The same focus group as well as stakeholders, internal chefs and R&D specialists did not have a clear preference, the selection was made towards to that uncertainty.
A simple calculation has demonstrated that eight samples had to be prepared in the same manner: low roasted (LR) 10% of hazelnut paste (HP), LR12, LR16, LR18, high roasted (HR) 10%, HR12, HR16 and HR18. Each product was coded with a random three-letter number.
Since filling is a very intense product itself, it is highly recommended to taste in an appliation. Normally the product is targeted to be in an injection form, the application has been chosen according to previously mentioned facts as well as its origin. Crostata was taken as italian origin but international, an easy-to-make, baking application. It looks like mini tart, pie or canape. Due to a big amount of necessary mini tarts the crostatas were baked in delicate manner (Piture 8.)
Picture 8: the set of eight crostata samples coded and provided to each participant
Source: picture was made on iPhone camera on September 10th, 2018.
3.3.3 Consumer selection
As it is known, potential consumers are general day-by-day purchasers of products. In the case of the conducted research, the company workers were perfect fit to the testing which took place on a base of Barry Callebaut in Belgium. Since the company is pretty international, there was no a specific method applied for selection of people for demographic aspects. The most important was to get appropriate quantity to be able to do a proper analysis.
After the creation of a questionnaire for the further test there was sent a general email-invitation to all Barry Callebaut colleagues with the full explanation of the goal, type of the test, teasors and necessary equipment for it. Since the tasting session was planned to be divided in 4-5 groups, depending on quantity of participants, it was also mentioned that it could take roughly an hour of their working time. Once people signed it, accepted the invitation, a link to the study was ditributed throughout ‘EyeQuestion’ platform. Basically only several days before there was a transparancy of coming people.
During those days there was an internal possibility to analyse the demographic aspect of each participant mainly focusing on their sex, nationality and the department they work in.
3.3.4 Questionnaire design
Questionnaire for the sorted napping test was designed with regards to five important stages which were colour, flavour, texture, emotions and preference / speciality. Free choice method has allowed to ‘pick up and scale’ most relevant and dominant descriptors on a scale from 0 to 10 where the less prefer sample was closer to zero and ten was the highest point of the preference. The picture below shows a randomly picked example of a scale from the questionnaire.
Picture 10: scale graph used for each sensory attribute and emotion
Source: questionnaire of the sorted napping test designed through EyeQuestion
The questionnaire with its stages was implemented to fifty trained and non-trained consumers. The screenshots of each question are provided in Annex 2.
3.4 Research implementation of experimental design 2
3.4.1 Participants and test location
The conducted research took a place in Belgium in a small village Lebbeke-Wieze where Barry Callebaut company is located. In a meeting room, which could accept maximum twelve people, the tasting has been done in five separate but identical sessions.
In total fifty trained and non-trained participants have being tested the products followed with the questionnaire. All of them had different nationalities from Belgians (more likely 85%) in majority to Polish, Russians, Dutch, Mexicans, Spanish, Italians, French, Turkish, Hungarian. Variety of the departments were involved in the research: Research & Development, Marketing, Sales, Purchasing and Pricing.
Every 12 persons who have participated in each session were invited in 1 room for an hour procedure. Before actual start 8 samples were prepared for everyone: on a white paper under eight codes were placed respectfuly to the products. Next to each sample list four-pages foldable document was as a handy tool to overcome 5 stages of the researh: colour, flavour, texture, emotions and preference overall / speciality. A glass of water, a napkin and a empty glass for spitting were necessary sensory attributes.
First the introduction has been presented with a clear objective and necessary instruction to follow. As a requirement, each participant should have come with his own laptop in order to simplify the prepearation due to very limited time as well as further on data analysis. Once everyone was set up, the procedure could be started.
Important to say that the EyeQuestion’s specialist had to give an access to each member of the research with a unique login. Moreover all of them had different order of samples to take that was organized automatilly.
In the end participants had to be careful and submit their answers by clicking the button. As sson as they submitted the specialist got a notification about it.
According to kldfjgkhohproh, for the better results the testing session must be carried out in the first part of the day before 12:00am and after 14:00pm so was it: 10:00am, 11:00am, 14:00pm, 15:00pm and 16:00pm.
3.4.3 Data analysis
Data analysis has been processed via Principle Component Analysis (PCA). This is a type of statistical analysis that can extract and interpret the most relevant information ignoring the least valuable results (PCA. 173p).
The panel leader records input of all scores into the excel sheet (Figure 6.)
Figure 6: example of the sorted napping data base (excerpt)
Following the method rules, participants had a free-choice method where they could choose more than one sensory attribute or an emotion and each one scale. Indication how strong a descriptor is received gets a score of 0 to 10 hedonic scale (where high value equal 10, the lowest 0.2). When more than one accessors add their own sensory characteristic or emotion the column is suggested to be added unless it does not bring a high value. Blank cells have to be filled in with “0.1” by the panel leader, which is crucial for running the statistical analysis.
On the Barry Callebaut base the data is analyzed via XLStat statistical program that in the end looks like figure 6. Means are the most important to be calculated and preferably generated to the separate sheet. Base on that results the program starts automatically map verbal interpretations out to the 2D graphic. The following points have to be taking into account before the final decision:
– total variance explained by PC1 and PC2. Appropriate map is normally explains more than 60% of variance;
– samples placement on the map. When the the samples are placed far from the center it means there is a strong agreement of the descriptors between the participants. If the samples placed close to the center then there was no common opinion on the samples. It might play crucial role but might be a possible deviation.
– sample descriptors. If the descriptive attributes are located close to the sample code it means they fully corresponded to the product.
– preferred sample location. The products closest to positive emotions and preference in terms of specialty and loving attitude are the desirable.
As long as the results can be read from the biplot chart with regards to the points above the main decision can be made, hypothesis confirmed or rejected and new horizon to be open.
All information above is provided by Barry Callebaut Global Quality Documentation that is confidential and can not be sourced out.
World Health Organization’s Age-friendly Cities Project Methodology: Vancouver Protocol (2007)