Topic: BusinessManagement

Last updated: April 16, 2019


0 INTRODUCTION       Communication is the process of transferring information or transferring messages from one person to another. Communication capabilities are the basic capabilities of living a daily life. Without communication, human life will be limited because communication is very important in removing all affairs. This is because, communication is important in planning, controlling, organizing and directing in order to smooth out all day-to-day affairs. Communication has several needs in identity, social, goals and others. Communication can be done either verbal or non-verbal. Communication has several types for example intrapersonal communication, mass, organization, public and interpersonal or personal communication.

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        Interpersonal communication is a communication that involves two individuals or more. In general, interpersonal communication is also called dictation or face-to-face communication where such communication is applied face-to-face without the use of complex or organizational channel or medium mediation. This communication is also dependent on one another such as in student and teacher situations. Thus, interpersonal communication is a medium in the process of information exchange, ideas and opinions of one individual to another. This interpersonal communication process is conducted face-to-face with other individuals so that the process of delivering such information does not the occurrence of repetition due to ineffective communication.

           Hence, interaction communication certainly involves communication between people who share different views, opinions, ideas and perceptions according to the individual in the communication process. This is because each individual has a different perspective and if the difference in perspective is not resolved rationally it can interfere with interpersonal relationships between individuals.           Whether consciously or not, the importance of communication can be perceived as without communication, such a human can not live. They can not interact with others and their lives will not be organized. According to George and Jones (1996), communication is the sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups in achieving a common understanding.           According to Richmond and McCrosky (1992) in their book titled Organizational Communication for Survival, they have provided six communication functions within the organization, namely to inform, control, merge, manage, coax and socialize.

2.0 WHAT IS PERCEPTION AND THE PROCESS OF PERCEPTION?       Creation of perception starts with observation through the process of seeing, listening, touching, feeling, and accepting something that later someone chooses, organizes, and decides the information he receives into a meaningful picture. The occurrence of this observation is influenced by past experience and individual individual attitudes of individuals. And this perception usually only applies to himself and not to others.

In addition, this perception does not last as long as life can change according to experience, change of needs, and attitude of a man and woman.       According to Philip Kotler (1993), perception is the process of how one chooses, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create meaningful overview. Perceptions can be interpreted as the selection process and interpretation selected. Factors affecting one’s perception are the characteristics of the person being seen and the factors of the situation.       The process of formation of perception starts with the entry of the source through sound, sight, taste, aroma or human touch, received by sensory receptors as a form of sensation. A number of sensations obtained from the first process above are then selected and accepted. This censorship function is done by factors such as individual expectation, motivation, and attitude.       The sensations obtained from the results of the examination in the second stage are inputs for the third rank, organizational sensation level.

From the sensation this stage will be obtained which is a more harmonious combination than the previous sensation. The fourth level is the level of interpretation such as experience, learning process, and personality. If this process is completed, the final result will be obtained in the form of perception.3.0 WHAT IS MISPERCEPTION?      Misperception means wrong understanding or interpretation. In communication, humans are born with cultural differences, experiences, educations and other aspects that affect one’s perception.

In this context, culture includes knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, religions, time, roles, relationships acquired by a large group of people from generation to generation through individual and group efforts. The culture consists of objective and subjective culture. In the event of a conflict between different opinions and understanding of course it affects in interpersonal relationships whether it leads to a positive and negative impact.

 4.0 HOW CAN IT HAS MISPERCEPTION      When we interact with someone sometimes the things we communicate can not be understood by the recipient well or not received directly. This shows that communication between the two parties is unsuccessful or less successful because the message being delivered does not reach the recipient. When this occurs there are other implications that may arise in the dispute or misunderstanding between the giver and the recipient of the information.

Therefore, the giver should identify the things that can prevent communication so that the message delivered can be accepted and understood by the recipient well and clearly.      Oral communication using language that may be misunderstood and transformed into difficult communication conflicts. There are many obstacles that make communication less effective.

The reason for preventing oral communication is the acceptance or assumption that the language has only one meaning. Difficult to understand language or misunderstanding causes less effective communication. In communication, one must be sensitive to the recipient of the message or study the context in which verbal communication is used so that it is understood and accepted and interprets as it is incl.      Misperception in oral communication is also due to cultural differences. The language in verbal communication provides different messages in different cultures. Generic languages are only understood by certain groups. In a low-context culture in America, the spoken word is the purpose it communicates and conforms to what the communicator intended.

The approach and its meaning are clear and clear even without the implied interpretation on the contrary. In contrast to the high cultural context, in contrast to the low cultural context. The thing communicated in high culture is the interpretation in the context of practice. This matter takes into account the feelings and implicit implications.

      While the language of a nation can be understood and applied, the failure to adapt the language to cultural ethics will lead to problems in oral communication. Communicate with someone who has age should use the appropriate language. In the situation described above, many factors need to be taken into account in oral communication in different cultural contexts. Failure to understand or adapt communication with cultural practices will often lead to misunderstandings.       Human communication also involves individual differences which also constitute verbal barriers to communication.

differences in the individual can be seen from the background of self, race, ethnicity, practice culture as well as gender. Many studies have been conducted to identify the differences between women and men. There is also a stereotype of gender barriers in oral communication which causes misperceptions in interpersonal relationships.

Therefore, it is important for individuals to know ways to solve differences in perceptions and opinions in order to avoid conflicts with each other.5.0 IMPACT OF MISPERCEPTION IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS      5.1 KEEP BLAMING EACH OTHER            When there is a perception of perceptions in interpersonal relationships, then the misunderstanding will make the relationship cool to each other. This is because, perceptions and reality are not always worth it.

Some of us are optimistic and some are pessimistic. Hence, when this misperception is not resolved in the right way, the incorrect blame for correcting one’s perception is true at their point of view. For example, in education, individual A has a different perception of how his learning is to focus entirely during teaching time while individual B uses a different way of focusing on learning time at home.

Indivdu A considers this method as inappropriate as the knowledge taught by the teacher in the classroom will not be the same as the self-understanding if studying at home. Individual B is more comfortable to focus on studying at home because it is easier to remember and quickly memorized in its own way. Therefore, individuals A and B will always keep blaming each other because of their different ways of learning. But if thought rationally and resolved in a good way, everyone has the different memory and IQ capabilities. Therefore, the attitude to accept differences of perception needs to be applied in order not to blame one another.5.2 PASSIVE AND AGRGRESSIVE STATEMENT            In the event of misperception, then passive and aggressive statements in interpersonal relationships will arise.

Passive statements refer to more statements about denying and denying statements by others. Aggressive statements refer to statements made based on emotions such as disappointment, anger, dissatisfaction with an individual in issuing improper statements resulting from conflict in interpersonal relationships. According to Azizi (2004), aggression is any behavior that is planned to harm others, ie the behavior to be avoided. Disappointment, aggravation, and attacks all make it easy for someone to feel angry. This angry feeling is one of the important elements to generate aggressive behavior and reality. Usually an angry person is more likely to be aggressive. There is also someone acting aggressively without feeling aggressive.

Therefore, the factor to control aggressive behavior is as important as aggressive. For example in religious aspects, individual A is a person who is Muslim and individual B is an Indian. In the Hari Raya Sacrifice, cattle were sacrificed to sacrifice sacrifices while for individual B it was an immoral act as the cows were “Mother” for them. The cow is the “Mother” for producing milk for individual use B. Then, individual B continues to label passive and aggressive statements by saying “animal abuse, torture and touching their sensitivity” This is because individual B has different perceptions that cause misartions to individuals A. Different cultural and religious backgrounds if not explained will exacerbate the state of interpersonal relationships. Therefore, in interpersonal relationships there must be an attitude to expose the chest to accept the culture and customs of other races so that no misunderstanding arises.5.

3 EASY TO RELEASE PERCEPTIONS TO OTHER PEOPLE            Based on the implicit personality theory, an individual must give an early perception when meeting someone he has just known. For example, the individual A sees individual B who is cheerful and positive while in silence the individual A does not know that individual B is a very shy person to be an outgoing person with a new person (a person who is not close to it) This misperception will make people around the individual A also gives the same perception as they do not see unseen reality in the individual B. Apart from that, the theory also explains how interpersonal relationships are affected if there is any hostility between individual A and individual B. This certainly gives an misperception as they only look at one’s disadvantages rather than the kindness they have in themselves. Ironically, they set aside good values ??on an individual through the misperception that exists within them and of course worsen interpersonal relationships between them.

5.4 RELATIONSHIP TO BE RIGHT        Through perceptual accent theory, an individual tends to see what they think in their thinking box, their perception. For example, individual A hopes to meet individual B in order to become someone who is expected by individual A. In this case, individual A excludes all the negativity that exists in individuals B.

In the event of misperception, individual A and B relationships will be stretched as individual A not seeing the real reality of individual B because of its own perception alone.6.0 CONCLUSION      In conclusion, communication is very important in social life. Next through our communication we can exchange views and information more clearly and in detail. Communication can also explain things more clearly so as to avoid the misunderstanding of the existence of friendly relationships in interpersonal relationships. Therefore, this misperception should be addressed in order to avoid prolonged conflict. This is because communication is the sending and receiving of messages between two or more individuals. This can cover all aspects of communication such as listening, authenticating, verbal and non-verbal communication, and many other aspects of making this interpersonal communication effective and effective in life.

Self-concept and interpersonal perceptions are necessary for achievement in communication to run more smoothly. Therefore, it should be emphasized by what is being said in the interaction with other partners as it symbolizes our identity and self disclosure so that we can avoid any risks and misunderstandings.7.0 RUJUKANAzizi Yahaya, Yusof Boon, Jamaludin Ramli, Jaafar Sidek Latif, Fawziah Yahya, Amir Hamzah Abdul (2004). “Psikologi Sosial”.

Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.George, J.M. and Jones G.

R. (1996). Organizational Behavior: Understanding and Managing.Addison – Wesley Publishing CompanyJervis, R. (1988).

War and Misperception. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 18(4), 675-700. Kotler and Phillip (1995). Marketing Management Analysis, Planning, Implementation& Control. Prentice Hall Int.

Richmond, V.P. and McCrosky, J.C.

(1992). Organizational Communication For Survival. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.


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