Continuity of life earth
DNA, is the primary source of heritable information. The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring. The inheritance pattern of many traits can not be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA.
Example of understanding –
Would you be able operate a computer without the information stored on a hard drive?
Without the information stored on the hard drive the computer is worthless, it can not start up and can not operate. Without DNA our cells can not produce any proteins and the cell will quickly die.
how do the bases pair up in DNA>


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An example of the complementary strand of DNA sequence of bases for the following-
A T A C G T T T G C A A would be-
DNA has the ability to make an exact copy of itself. Why is this ability important for life to continue? The DNA molecule splits apart and each ½ strand of DNA is used as a template to make a new molecule. Each new DNA molecule is an exact copy of the original molecule, but contains one old strand and one new strand. In order for a parent cell to make a daughter cell, there must be a set of instructions. The ability to pass on those instructions is necessary to ensure that the cells function correctly. Making an exact copy of the instructions during replications is part of what makes DNA an information molecule.

The difference between environment and inherited traits
The expression of genes in an organism can be influenced by the environment, including the external world in which the organism is located or develops, as well as the organism’s internal world, which includes such factors as its hormones and metabolism. Inherited traits are traits that you get from your parents that are influenced by your genes. Environment traits are influenced by your environment (you can learn them or control them).
There are 3 examples inherited traits –
Natural hair colour, natural eye colour, dimples, heights, tongue roll, etc. these traits are inherited traits because they are traits that are passed down from parents and are coded for by your DNA instructions.
– Gene
– Eye colour
– Hair colour
– Mt allele
– Ms. Bland – brown
– Ms. Bland – brown
– Someone else’s allele
– Ms. Green – blue
– Ms. Francis – blond
These are 3 examples of environmental traits
Favourite music, good basketball player and language you speak, etc. these traits are environmental traits because they are traits that you choose or learn that are influenced by the place you live in.
Other important discoveries that support the claim –
What did Gregor Mendel discover? Why is this discovery important in our lives today?
Dominant and recessive traits and the role of genes, genetic counsellors can trace how a disease is passed down in a family, and help people decide weather or not to have children.
What did Rosalind Franklin discover? Why is this discovery important in our lives today?
She took the first x-ray photo of DNA, which showed that DNA is a spiral. Understanding the structure of DNA has led to modern medical breakthroughs like genetic engineering and cloning.
What did Francis Crick and James Watson discover? Why is this discovery important in our lives today?
He was on the team that discovered the structure if DNA, including the double helix shape and the base pairs. Understanding the structure of DNA has led to modern medical breakthroughs like genetic engineering and cloning.
The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation. Change in genotype can results in changes in phenotype.
Alterations in a DNA sequence can lead to changes in the type or amount of the protein produced and the consequent phenotype. DNA mutations can be positive, negative or neutral based on the effect or lack of effect they have on the resulting nucleic acid or protein and the phenotypes that are conferred by the protein. Errors in DNA replication or DNA repair mechanisms, and external factors, including radiation and reactive chemicals, can cause random changes e.g. mutations in the DNA.
Whether or not a mutation is detrimental, beneficial or neutral depends on the environment context. Mutations are the primary source of genetic variation.
Changes in genotype may affect phenotypes that are subject to natural selection. Genetics changes that enhance survival and reproduction can be selected by environmental conditions. What does genomic variation account for? Unique traits in populations of related organisms.
Organisms created with synthetic DNA pave way for entirely new life forms – from the moment life gained a foothold on earth its story has been written in a DNA helix – the lines between humans and all life on earth are spelled out.
Now, the first living organisms to thrive with an expanded genetic code have been made by researchers in work that paves the way for the creation and exploitation of entirely new life forms.
Charles Darwin, an English naturalist whose scientific theory of evolution by natural selection became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies –
What are 5 this did Darwin observe?
1) Individuals in a population have trails that vary
2) Many of these trails are heritable
3) More offspring are produced than survive
4) Competition is inevitable
5) Species generally suit their environment
Darwin proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection to refute Lamarck’s theory. He provided evidence for descent with modification (branching evolution) based on patterns in variation of domesticated and wild species, and patterns of species distributions in time and space.
Body paragraph 3- Contemporary evidence for evolution comes from five main lines of evidence: palaeontology, biogeography, developmental biology, morphology and genetics. Technological developments in the fields of comparative genomics, comparative biochemistry and bioinformatics have enabled identification of further evidence for evolutionary relationships. Darwin’s theory caused controversy among his contemporaries and his ideas were only gradually accepted, although some people still do not believe them today. The reasons for scepticism include: Darwin’s theory conflicted with religious views that God had made all the animals and plants on earth. Darwinism is a theory stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

Claim: In A Long Way Gone, Beah’s cultural surroundings continuously mold his moral traits by providing him with different concepts of what is right or wrong, and they contribute the theme of lost innocence to the memoir as a whole.
Evidence #1: Before Beah participates in the war, “We went to the river for a swim, and there we played hide-and-seek swimming games, running along the river’s edge screaming ‘Cocoo’ to commence the game. Everyone was smiling” (Beah 84).
Analysis: Before becoming a child soldier, Beah is a part of the Mende tribe. He is surrounded by his peaceful community, that passes its beliefs through the form of story-telling. The elders in Beah’s community teach him to practice good morals, such as being kind to others and being innocent. The expect children to be well behaved and not act violently. In his community, Beah does not see violent acts or pain. He is a pure boy who enjoys doing activities with his friends and only worries about issues like his divorced parents. When he lives in his community, he plays with his friends and starts discovering who he is by learning rap. He adopts the attitudes and morals that he is expected to show by his community. However, his innocence and friendliness are lost when he has new cultural surroundings.
Evidence #2: Beah says, “We had been fighting for over two years, and killing had become a daily activity. I felt no pity for anyone. My childhood had gone by without my knowing, and it seemed as if my heart had frozen. (Beah 126)
Analysis: After becoming a child soldier, Beah is among a war culture. He regularly sees guns, violence, and death, which he eventually accepts as his new life and culture. Being in this environment and participating in the violence causes Beah to develop an acceptance for violence and feels it is right to kill. When Beah mentions that killing was just another regular activity, it shows that he does not see other human life with great value. The war changes Beah’s view on death by instilling the notion that the people Beah is killing are just objects of his revenge. The feelings of sympathy and pain that Beah feels before he became a child soldier are gone and instead, they are replaced with anger and feelings of revenge. To Beah’s native culture, the decisions he makes during war would be considered immoral; However, the war culture accepts and encourages his decisions. The theme of lost innocence is supported because Beah grows from a child into an adult, after he begins fighting in the war. When Beah is escaping the rebels with his friends, he still has his innocence. He consistently recalls the memories of his culture and family, and he follows the morals he was taught in his community. His hope that he once had turns into acceptance of the horrific situations of his life. Since Beah is forced to face and respond to adult situations before he is ready, his childhood is robbed from him.


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