CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBackground of StudyOver the past few decades the stress had become growing dilemma in organization and cause unfavorable effects on job performance.
The idea of stress present in to life science by Selye (1936). Stress is a universal element that affecting employees worldwide (Imtiaz & Ahmad, 2009). There are many barriers that affect the employees in the employment world especially work stresses play big part in organization. Work stress often affects the employees in the workplace, where each employee will feel it at least once in their workplace. Work stress in an organization is a practical problem that not only affects the organization only but the employees mainly become victims of stress. Stress become a familiar element in organization and nowadays the workplace become more complicated which bring more negative impacts to the employees compared to positive impacts. Stress among workers has been greater than before which also effect on the whole performance of the employees (Shah & Hasnu, 2013). Apart from that, most of the work stress are seen in developing countries organization, this is because the employers are not really aware of the their employees’ status in their organization and most of the organization not concern about the employees’ benefits but they more focused on profits and ignore the employees’ emotion in the workplace.
Stress which occurred in workplace declared as harmful to physical and emotional responses that happen within a human being when the requirement of the job do not match the employees’ capacity , resources and needs. In addition, according to Shahu and Gole (2008) higher levels of stress are connecting to lower performance whereas higher job satisfaction point out higher performance. Besides, according Meneze (2005) work stress has become challenges to the employers because this issue considers rising in employment world and it also cause high level of the stress which bring result in low productivity, increased absenteeism and collection other employee problems like alcoholism, drug abuse, hypertension and also host of cardiovascular problems to the employees. The employees should realize that the stress cannot be avoid or ignore from the organization and they have to aware of the employees situation in organization and try to find out some solutions to create satisfaction for the employees make sure they able handle their work stress in organization and perform well in their job to bring benefits to the organization and also themselves. There are many authors that provide different definition for the meaning for the stress and as adoption of a study explains that the impact of the work stress will affect all the employees without acknowledge the gender of the person, all type of organization have the work stress which affect the employee including the size of the organization and department either large or small will be same work stress affect to the employees (Bashir & Asad, 2007).
Besides, the stress have many factors that stimulate stress among the employees such as long working hours, poor relationship among the workers, lack of increment or promotion in the job, poor leadership who not able to lead and organize the team will give work stress to the followers as stated by Matteson and Ivancevich (1987). Thompson and Prottas (2006) argued that most of the employees who get stress through their personal life will express in their working life and it will affect their job performance but this kind of stress can be improve or cure through good leadership, add on employees benefits like insurance for the employee or vacation chance once in year and fair working hours, increment or promotion provide for the employees who perform well as recognition for them ways to reduce the employee work stress in organization. In addition, when the organization start to ignore the work stress problem it might later become big issues in organization which will affect the main goal of the organization because when employees faced work stress, the job satisfaction automatically will reduce simultaneously then the productivity of the organization low and profit of organization reduced. As adoption when the cooperation among the employees found in the organization team and the relationship among the colleague good the job performance will be better but if the organization obtain the work stress issues as small subject which later it cause low production in organization, employees will feel demotivated to work under the organization (The Office of Radiation, Chemical and Biological Safety, 1999), thus the organization should concern about the employees work stress so that organization able safe the job performance in organization.Problem statementThe Researcher tends to examine the factors that cause work stress influence on job performance in academic institution. There are several factors of work stress influence the employees and why they faced high level of stress in their organization. There are many continuous stress levels increasing in the workplace that affect the employees’ performance and will reduce the job satisfaction among the employees. Job satisfaction for an employee is important because it link up the employee’s comfort level and psychological or emotional health which contribute to organization by enhance the job performance (Yang & Kassekert, 2010).
The researcher focused on the effect of work stress towards job performance which causes many other negative impacts to the employees. Borneo Post (2013) suggest that, they mentioned that increasing of work stress among the Malaysian organizations is famous issue. Chairman of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Niosh) Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye stated that employees are facing the high stress level since is an ignore issue in organization which result them to falling in sick, unable to control their emotional in workplace create many problems to the organization from the survey did shows that 70 percentage of Malaysian employees are suffering with the work relate illness.
As consequences, organization will suffer to recover the situation since employees is their main asset. Factors of work stress important predictors which related to job performance in organization, because it was important consideration affect employees physically and mentally at workplace. Yet, some of the work stress factors that have been considered include job insecurity (Chirumbolo & Areni, 2005; Jordan, Ashkanasy & Hartel, 2002; Sverke & Hellgren, 2002; Rosenblatt & Ruvio, 1996; Yousef, 1997), working environment (Imran, Fatima, Zaheer, Yousaf & Batool, 2012; Ollukkaran & Gunaseelan, 2012; Naharuddin & Sadegi, 2013; Jose, Ricardo, Szabolcs & Carmen, 2011; Ardakani, Jowkar & Mooghali, 2012), work-family conflict (Li, Lu & Zhang, 2013; Karatepe, 2012; Wang, Lin & Tsai, 2012; Jayaweera, 2007; Mohsin & Zahid, 2012), workload (Tien, Kun, Wei, Wen, & Chich, 2010; Willis, Elvey & Hassell, 2011; Hombergh, Kunzi, Elwyn, Doremalen, Akkermans, Grol & Wensing, 2009; Dasgupta, 2013; Maestad, Torsik & Aakvik (2010); Oron-Gilad, Szalma, Stafford & Hancock, 2008). In general, these studies found that work stress reduce the intention for the employees to work and decrease the job performance.Even though the previous empirical studies on factors of work stress influence job performance at workplace, literatures indicates that lack of interest on investigate about job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support towards job performance.
Therefore, there is a necessity to investigate the relationship between job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support and job performance. According to Idris, Dollard and Winefield (2009) Eastern and Western countries’ culture have similarity and differences in handling their work stress. As an example they mentioned Malaysia context intern of work stress management is more different than western countries that Malaysian would likely to direct dealing with the managers and have smooth talk with them trying to solve problems at workplace together. However, western countries they more focus on time management and individually handle their work stress and problem faced in organization (Kinman and Jones, 2005).Apart from that, literature review suggest many studies on factors of work stress influence job performance, however, most of the studies were conducted mainly in corporate sectors (Musyoka, Ogutu ; Awino, 2012; Ashfaq, Mahmood ; Ahmad, 2013; Mathur, Rigg, Sandhar ; Holani, 2007; Musyoka, Ogutu ; Awino, 2010; Ismail, Yeo, Ajis ; Dollah, 2010; Fried, Alian, Tiegs, Avita ; Yeverechyanu, 1998; Singh, 1993; June ; Mahmood, 2011; Moore, 2000; Nagami, Tsutsumi, Tsuehiya ; Morimoto, 2010), health sectors ( Ghavkadehi, Chegini, Dizgah ; Khodashahri, 2012; Jehangir, Kareem, Khan, Jan ; Soherwardi, 2011; Azizollah, Zaman, Khaled ; Razieh, 2013), banking industry ( Velnampy ; Aravinthan, 2013; Masood, 2013; Joshi ; Goyal, 2012; Ali, Hassan, Ali ; Bashir, 2013; Bashir ; Ramay, 2010; Shahid, Latif, Shali ; Ashaf, 2013) thus lack of interest to educational industry. Therefore, job performance deserves further investigation in Malaysia because the findings of past studies may not be generalizable to Malaysia context.
Research ObjectiveThis research will investigate the factors of work stress influence the job performance. The objective is to find of the work stress influence job performance of employees. The objective for choose this topic is employees are asset of an organization so when they having stress in the workplace it will bring negative effect to the organization performance. The research objectives are as followed:To investigate the influence of job stress on job performance;To determine the effect of role ambiguity on job performance;To examine the influence of role conflict towards job performance;To determine the effect of the job control towards job performance.To examine the effect of social support as moderator between independent (i.e.
job stress. Role ambiguity, role conflict, job control) and dependent variables (i.e. job performance).Research questionsThis study intends to identify UUM Administration staffs affect by the work stress in their workplace and the effect to their job performance. Few important questions led the focus of this study.
The following research questions were developed by the researcher in order to guide through the conduct of research in which by answering the questions, the research objectives could automatically been achieved.What is the relationship between job stress and job performance?What is the relationship role ambiguity and job performance?What is the relationship between role conflict and job performance?What is the relationship between job control and job performance?Does social support moderator the effect that independent (i.e. job stress. Role ambiguity, role conflict, job control) have on dependent variables (i.e.
job performance)?Significance Of Study First of all this research will contribute general body of knowledge about work stress, factors of work stress and influence towards the job performance. Besides, this study also will assist to develop a new framework on the effect of work stress towards job performance. If the findings of this research maintain, so they able to offer empirical evidence about the relationship between factors of work stress (job stress, role ambiguity, and role conflict and job control), social support and the job performance. There are several studies that examine the employee performance in the workplace.
There are plenty of studies that established about the factors of work stress towards job performance (Bashir, and Ramay (2010); Ali, Farooqui, Amin, Yahya, Idrees, Amjad, Ikhlag, Noreen ; Irfan (2011); Nawaz, Mohsan, and Khan, (2011); Mirela, and Adriana (2011); Smith, Mills, Rasmussen, Wefald, and Downey (2012); Shahu and Gole (2008).; Kotteeswari, ; Sharief, 2014). Although the empirical studies examined many others factors of work stress influence job performance, yet most of the studies mentioned about workload, job insecurity, working environment, job satisfaction, job involvement, work-family conflict, job demand, motivation. The implies of other work stress factors have been given less attention, this study will fills in the gaps by with other factors of work stress towards job performance. In additional, as mentioned earlier, a comprehensive review of literature suggested plenty of studies about factors of work stress influence job performance, however, most of the studies was conducted mostly in corporate sectors (Musyoka et al., 2012; Ashfaq et al., 2013; Mathur et al.
, 2007; Musyoka et al., 2010; Ismail et al., 2010; Fried et al., 1998; Singh, 1993; June ; Mahmood, 2009; Moore, 2000; Nagami et al., 2010), health sectors ( Ghavkadehi et al., 2012; Jehangir et al., 2011; Azizollah et al., 2013), banking industry ( Velnampy ; Aravinthan, 2013; Masood, 2013; Joshi ; Goyal, 2012; Ali etal.
, 2013; Bashir ; Ramay, 2010; Muhammad et al., 2013) thus lack of interest to educational industry. Therefore, the present study contrivutr to the literature on job performance by investigating the relationship between job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support and job performance among administrators staffs working in University Utara Malaysia which located in Sintok, Kedah State, Malaysia, with the intention that the findings of present study can be generalized to Malaysia context.Scope of StudyThe scope of present study will cover the employees from the University Utara Malaysia (UUM) which is from administration department.
The participants for this study will be the all the administration staff in UUM. This study able the researcher to investigate the factors work stress influence the job performance among the employees from the institution and make sure which type of factors affect the employees in the workplace most. Future research could study the same factors to increase consistency of research findings and also other work stress factors in order to expand the knowledge in this topic. Furthermore, the methods used in evaluating the factors of work stress should be explore and further as it is not easy to measure the influence of work stress towards the job performance.
Organization of StudyThis research consists of five chapters. Chapter one from this research discuss the background of the research, problem statement, research objective, research question, scope of study and significance of the study. Besides, chapter two consists the revision of literature review which related to this research variables, discuss of hypotheses formulated and the frame work developed for this research. Chapter three focuses on research methodology. This also research design, instrument of measurement, population, sample, data collection and questionnaire. Chapter four is the findings of this research which collect from the data collection. Demographic profile of the respondents, interpretation of analysis, and hypotheses testing results are included. Finally, Chapter five represent summarizes of the findings and some discussion will be presented to show the relationship among the variables.
Besides, implications and limitations of the research followed by the implication for the future research and recommendation part.Chapter TwoLiterature Review2.1 IntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to state the review of related literature from the previous study that did by other authors regarding this topic and the both conceptual and empirical studies related to the research variables will be reviewed in this section. The study includes the conceptual define of the variables in the research and brief view about the job stress towards the job performance will state in this chapter. 2.2 Job PerformancePerformance define as accomplishments of employees and output, that acknowledged by organization in employees works adoption from Robbins (1996).
Skill, effort and nature of work condition are mixture which stated as part that represents job performance. Skill is the knowledge and the capacity of the employee; effort is action which brings motivation to get a task done: and nature of work conditions represent the degree of accommodation of these conditions in facilitating the employee’s output (Kazmi, Amjad, & Khan, 2008).Furthermore, Ashfaq, Mahmood and Ahmad (2013) illustrated that the job performance be able to create the flexible working environment, conducting the training section, improve technology skills regarding production sectors to make the employees feel more convenience and should enlarge the employees’ quality and contribute towards job performance. Actually the job performance refers to the employees’ involvement and the degree could achieve by them by handling all the problems that occur at workplace.
The rewards that the organization provide to employees either can be in financial form like bonuses, increment in salary or non financial type like vacation benefits, recognition of certificate for the particular achievement of an employee in organization make employee experience high job satisfaction and motivated to achieve high job performance.Giga and Hoel (2003) stated that job performance is a measurement of a person that how he or she perform to the job assigned, the job performance will be good if the organization give rewards to the employee who perform well in their job so the rewards able to create high job satisfaction to the employee in the workplace. Cascio (2006) stated that high management should have a Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as measurement of job performance for their employees to make sure employee aware of expectation from organization that what the employees should achieve in their job task.Besides, the Mahmod, Hussain, Hannan and Muhamamad (2010) stated that the most common factor that affect the employee performance and create stress to them is heavy workload and time pressure which need to complete their big task in short period make employees experience job stress in work place.2.3 Job Stress and job performanceJob stress is extremely an individual feedback and is different from general stress as it is also organization and job related (Montgomer., Blodgett & Barnes 1996). Taylor, Lerner, Sage, Lehman and Seeman (2004) defined stress as a familiar complaint of the employees worldwide.
Mead (2000) job stress should identify in the early stage because most of the absence of an employee is because from the occupational stress experience by them in their workplace discourage them to perform well their organization. An employee able to go through the stress in several level in their workplace while the job stress continuously increase it will harm the employee performance and they will perform low in their organization (Jeanne, Laura, Ellen, Melinda, & Robert, 2008). Elizabeth, (2009) mentioned that there many factors that can be fix as common symptoms of stress and stress will affect everyone in a different or unique way while according to Paula Silva (2006) stated that when a person affected by stress will have problems like headache, frequently get cold and flu, having sleep problem often, fuzzy thinking and so on which give impact to physical and psychological of a person.
The job stress become big problem in organization and challenge for the employer to handle with which cause low productivity performance, increase in absenteeism and collection to other problem like hypertension, cardiovascular problems (Kazmi et al., 2008). Firth, David, Kathleen and Claude (2007) mentioned that when an employee face stress in workplace it makes the person quit from the organization or quit from the job. A case study of which did at bank sector state the main or high tendency of getting stress is at workplace because plenty of the time they spend at their bank (Jamshed, Muhammad, Ayaz, Muhammad & Amjad, 2011).
Malta (2004) the insecure feeling or worrying for loss job is basically stressful so although they are not satisfy with the current job but they will try to keep on that job to because without job is more stressful.Several have shown that job stress has a significant influence on job performance Ismail, Yeo, Ajis, and Dollah (2009); Bashir, and Ramay (2010); Ali, Farooqui, Amin, Yahya, Idrees, Amjad, Ikhlag, Noreen & Irfan (2011); Nawaz, Mohsan, and Khan, (2011); Mirela, and Adriana (2011); Smith, Mills, Rasmussen, Wefald, and Downey (2012). However, the findings of these studies were inconclusive.
For example Mathur, Rigg, Sandhar and Holani (2007) examined the relationship between job stress and job performance among 110 employees in manufacturing sector of Gwlior region. The study showed that job stress positively related with job performance. Similarly, Musyoka, Ogutu, Awino (2010) examined relationship between job stress and job performance on 32 National Stock Exchange (NSE) listed company in Kenya. The study showed that job stress positively related with job performance. Ismail, Yeo, Ajis, Dollah (2010) conducted a study to examine the effect of psychological stress, emotional intelligent on the job performance among 104 employees who attached to the private institutions of higher learning in Kuching City, Malaysia. The study showed that occupational stress and emotional intelligent significantly related to job performance and represent positive relationship between the variables.
There is a study conducted by Bashir and Ramay (2010), banking sector employees as study to investigate that job stress has negative influence on job performance among 144 employees including the managers and customer services officer as respondent in Pakistan. The results showed that job stress significant decrease the job performance for the employees. In additional, Jehangir, Kareem, Khan, Jan & Soherwardi (2011) conducted a study to examine the relationship between job stress and job performance among 315 nurses staff at Public Sector Hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. The study established negative relationship job stress on job performance exists.
While, Muhammad, Khalid, Nadeem, Muhammad, (2013) conducted a study to examine the combined effects of job stress, employees performance among 144 bank employees from various level bank sector in Faisalabad, Pakistan. The result provide a strong support for the proposed hypotheses that job stress has negative influence on job performance as evidence findings shows that majority banker felt that when the job stress increase in unison the job performance decrease among the bank workers. Azizollah, Zaman, Khaled and Razieh (2013) examined the negative relationship between job stress and job performance among 491 Nurses from Hospitals in Iran.
The study showed that job stress negatively related with job performance. 2.4 Role Ambiguity and Job PerformanceRizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970). role ambiguity refers to “lack of clarity and predictability of outcomes of one’s behavior” (p.
475). Glissmeyer, Bishop and Fass (2008); Shen (2005) stated that role is an expectation from organization towards employee’s behavior who hold position in an organization, and role ambiguity mentioned as a prediction towards a person behavior responses and clarification of a person role or behavior requirement. Role ambiguity mostly show that an employee not clear or do not know the real responsibility in their work or job description.
Onyemeh (2008) mentioned that job performance of employees affected by role ambiguity and role conflict. Besides, job anxiety will become higher when the role of an employee not understandable for him or her and it frankly will decrease the job performance of an employee (Slatterya, Jeffrey, Selvarajanb, Andersonc & John, 2008).Jamal & Preena (1998) when there is imbalance between job demand or job control and unable of employee to control or handle situation will create high stress towards the employee which show that when an employee unable to handle a situation that he or she facing role ambiguity in their task performance. Wright and David (2003); Daley (1986) argue that when employees not affected by the role ambiguity they are very clear about their job description and what expectation of their job it will automatically increase emplyees’ job satisfaction they able to increase their productivity in organization.Substantial amount of the past studies have showed role ambiguity and also studies about role ambiguity are related the job performance, Abramis (1994); Bhuian, Menguc and Borsboom, 2005; Chang and Chang (2007); Fried et al.
, (1998); Gilboa And Shirom, Fried and Cooper (2008); Harris, Artis, Walters, and Licata (2006); Idris (2011); Jamal & Preena (1998); Murkherjee and Maholtra, 2006; Nygaard and Dahlstrom (2002); Ngo, Foley and Loi (2005); Lang, Thomas, Bliese and Adler, 2007; Singh (1993); Shabaz and Shakeel (2012).A meta-analytic study of 169 independent samples from 104 published and 33 unpublished empirical studies which involved 35,265 individual participants, Gilboa And Shirom, Fried and Cooper (2008) conducted a study that examine the negative relationship between role ambiguity and job performance. The results provide strong evidence that role ambiguity was negatively and significantly related with job performance. While Fried et al.
, (1998) conducted a study to examine the role conflict and role ambiguity have negative relationship with performance among 359 employees from the industrial organization in Israel. The study established significant and negative relationship between role conflict, role ambiguity and also job performance. The study showed that role conflict and role ambiguity higher will reduce the job performance. Similarly, a study to examine the negative relationship between role ambiguity and job performance conducted by Singh (1993) among 472 sales and Marketing executives (SME) from Small and medium size business in United State (US). As predicted, the results indicated that role ambiguity was negatively related to job performance. Besides, the study also mentioned that the job performance strongly affected by the role ambiguity as the findings from the research. Similarly June and Mahmood (2011) conducted a study to examine the negative relationship between role ambiguity and job performance among 1500 employee from service sector in Malaysia. The results showed that role ambiguity was negatively and significantly related with job performance.
Similarly a study conducted by Celik (2013) reported a significant and negative relationship of role ambiguity towards job performance and job satisfaction among 200 principal in high schools in the city of Denizli and Manisa. In a sample of 169 administrators of auditors in New Zealand, Fisher (2001) found significant and negative relationship between role ambiguity with job performance and job satisfaction. In a particular, Knight, Kim and Crutsinger (2006) examine the effects of role stress on job performance among 259 participants from sale department at supermarket in United State. The results showed that role ambiguity was negatively and significantly related with job performance.2.
5 Role Conflict and Job PerformanceRole conflict defines as multi role play by an individual creates incompatibility of conditions and expectations from the role (Rizzo et al., 1970). The role conflict achieve extremely in the jobs that require for critical thinking and high level of decision making. According Rizzo et al.
(1970) lack of wide resources, then bend of rule or policy of which fix by the organization and employee who receive conflicting request define as employee’s impact by role conflict. Fried et al., (2008) mentioned role stressors affect the job performance in various like switch away the effort to work from employees, it was proven in the theoretical and empirical studies that role conflict negatively affects the job performance. Similarly, Frone (2000) stated that conflict between supervisors and workers not only affect the emotion of employees but affect the job outcomes and it leads to burnout.There are studies did by Dua (1994); Sharpley, Reynolds, Acosta and Dua (1996); Gillespie, Walsh, Winefield, Dua and Stough (2001); Taris, Schreur and Silfhout (2001) said that most of the stress experience of role conflict among the academics.
As adoption from Rowley (1996) given an example that when there are role conflict within employees when they assign to complete task with inappropriate resources so they are forced to bend the rules and policies of organization so that they will able to handle the task assign to them. According to Kay, (2000) support the argument by said that case study about clergy they are playing multiple role by handling various situation and people from different background which happen in church, high expectation put on clergy from different churches have different demand to complete their job.Substantial amount of past studies have shown that role conflict has negatively related to the workers behavior causes drop in the job performance (Augstine, 2009; Viator 2001). Besides, past research of Abraham, 1997; Almer and Kaplan, 2002; Fogarty, 2000) conducted studies with auditors as sample, the result found that role conflict influence employees job performance. According to Fogarty, 2000; Augstine, 2009 established that role conflict influence the job satisfaction and job performance of employees in an organization.
In particular, Pool’s study (1999) showed that the role conflict is related to job tension negatively related with the job performance. Pool conducted the study to examine the relationship among 305 corporate all over north-eastern Ohio. The relationship was found significant of increase in role conflict will make job tension higher and affect or harmed the work outcome or job performance of the employees in organization. A Meta analysis accessible researcher conducted by Gilboa, Shirom and Cooper (2008) examine the relationship between role conflict and role overload have negative relationship with task performance or job performance among 23400 employees. The results provide a strong support the proposed hypotheses that role ambiguity and role overload has a negative effect on job performance. According to Rum, Troena, Hadiwidjoyo and Surachman (2013) conducted a study about role conflict towards employee performance to examine the role conflict have negative and significant relationship with job performance among 131 Civil Servants in Regional Apparatus Work Unit (RAWU) in Indonesia. The study established negative and significant relationship between the role conflict and job performance that the role conflict decrease the job performance. Meurs, Gallagher and Perrewe (2010) conducted a study to investigate the role of political skill in the stressor and job performance relationship, among 839 employees from automotive field.
The results provide a strong for the proposed hypotheses that role conflict has a negative towards job performance.2.6 Job Control and Job PerformanceAccording to Ganster (1989) define job control as herein, perceived ability to exert and also influence on employees’ working environment with the intention to make work condition more favor and reduce the threats.
There are plenty research which explore the importance of the job control and employee benefits as important element for create well performance in organization (Boswell, Olsen-Buchanan, & LePine, 2004; Dejong, Bosma, Peter & Siegrist, 2000; Ganster, Hochwalder, & Brucefors, 2005; Karasek, 1989; Leppanen, Hopsu, & Klemola, 2005: Rphael, 2004; Tsutsumi et al., 2006). There much research did in job control which state that relationship between job control and job stress, work condition and job performance.
As adoption from Bakker and Demerouti (2007) and Hobfoll (1989) stated that job control is when lack or loss of resource in workplace will cause job stress to the person since unable to complete the job demand. According to Ganster, Fox & Dwyer, 2001; Michie & West, 2004 stated that job control and job autonomy are most important elements that will make employee to experience job satisfaction and perform well because they have authority in their own task they feel comfortable with the job. According to the Spector (1998, 2002) stated that there are three suggestions about the relationship between job control and job stress. Firstly, perception of an individual towards workplace stress will reduce if they face high job control over specific work condition. Second, the job control in workplace will moderate the relationship between work-related stressors and stress, the relationship is weak between the working environmental stressors and stress when consider job control is high but when job control low the relationship between working environmental stressors and stress are high.
Third, job control consider have good sense to make decision. An employee will behave to solve problems in workplace if level of job control high which create productive situation for the organization, besides if a person do not have high level of job control he or she will has less confident to handle a problem or situation in workplace. Adaption from Moore, (2000) a study about the information system (IS) professionals they have limited control towards their job this is because their job are require to face the technology gadgets and computers bout 24 hours and they also need to upgrade themselves with the new technologies although they are not interested, additional they will facing problem in time management need to sacrifice their rest time, no freedom in choose for their holidays and so on this is an example of job control application in workplace.
Same job control application discuss by Igbaria and Siegel (1992); Thatcher, Stepina and Boyle (2002) that problem of taking vacation as their wish for the IS professionals. According to Ippolito, Adler, Thomas, Litz and Holzl (2005); Trop and Dewe (2002) stated that more clarity is needed to identify the best measure of job control and what aspect of job control are most important to the employee themselves. According to prior studies (Greenberger, Strasser, Cummings & Dunham, 1989) stated that job control has significantly and positively relationship with job performance. Adoption from Bond and Bunce (2003) they did research with customer service workers with the sample of worker 412 workers to test the ability of acceptance and job control to explain the mental health, job satisfaction among the employees and their performance in their workplace. The result of the research shows that employee have better mental health and job performance when there are high level of acceptance compare with high job control.
According to Bond and Bunce (2001) define acceptance as freedom for a person determine his or her action without any control, they also given opportunity to experience thoughts, feelings and sensation which lead them achieve their job satisfaction at workplace. However Karasek, 1990; Schnall, Belkic, Landsbergis and Baker, (2000) suggested that protection for mental health and lower risk for heart disease if there are exist job control over the work demand. Bond and Flaxman (2008) conducted a study examined the relationship between job control increase learning and job performance among 448 employees from call center in United Kingdom. The study established a significant and positive relationship between job control towards learning and job performance. In a sample of 777 manufacturing employees in Japan, Nagami, Tsutsumi, Tsuehiya and Morimoto (2010) found job control and coworker support significant and positively related to job performance. 2.7 Social Support as Potential ModeratorSocial support defined as “verbal and nonverbal communication between recipient and providers that reduces uncertainty about the situation, the self, the other or the relationship and function to enhance a perception of personal control in one’s life experience”.
(p.19). There much authors have classify the social support to certain categories for example there are two dimensions for the social support organization support and supervisor support (Krainer & Wyne, 2004; Kraimer, Wayne & Jaworski, 2001). Recently social support has divide to two categories which are co-worker and supervisor support by Stroppa and Spieb (2011). According to Caligiuri and Lazarova, (2002); Kraimer et al.
(2001); Kupka and Cathro (2007) mentioned that social support have various sources which consist of organization, supervisor and co-worker support which able to enhance the confident level and reduce the mental stress prepare workers make adjustment in multi-cultural situation. According to Kim, Kirkman and Chen (2008) mentioned social support as giving beneficial help to individual make sure help to reduce psychological distress and increase the emotional well-being. According to Stansfeld (2006) stated that social support can be divide to two categories which consist emotional support and practical support. Emotional support define as informational support from the management to the person so that it will help the person have self-problem management will increase the confident level of the person to behave positively in their workplace. besides, the practical support define as practical help which get in the workplace can help to increase self-motivation and also financial support will boost up the energy level of an employee which consequence good job performance.Social support is well established factor that influence variety of attitude and behavior, including turnover intention (Brough & Frame, 2004; Balogun & Olowodunoye, 2013; Beecroft, Dorey & Wenten,2007; Lobburi, Kokkrabrue, Maung & Samutsakon, 2012; Kalliath & Beck, 2001; Karatepe, 2013; Nohe & Somtang, 2014; Logue & Ayman, 2009; Pienaar, Sieberhagen & Monstert, 2007; Rahim & Psenicka, 1996; Sieberhagen & Francois, 2006; ), Work family conflict (Selvarajan, Cloninger & Singh, 2013; Kossek, Pichler, Bodner & Hammer, 2011; Ahmad, 1997; Wadsworth & Owens, 2007; Md-Sidin, Sambasivan & Ismail, 2010; King, Karuntzos, Casper, Moen, Davis, Berkman, Durham & Kossek, 2011; Ojha, 2011; Rathi & Barath, 2013; Nasurdin & O’Driscoll (2012) and employee well-being among others (Thompson ; Prottas, 2006; Shani, Bamberger ; Bacharah, 2011; Chay, 1993; Schaufeli, Taris ; Rhenen, 2008; Stansfeld, Shipley, Head, Fuhrer ; Kivimaki, 2013; Jonge ; Schaufeli, 1998; Grant-Vallone ; Donaldson, 2001; Lu, 1999; Doest ; Jonge, 2006).
According to Park et al. (2004) social support at work is an important consideration in increase of organization productivity.As adoption from Cohen, Gottlieb and Underwood (2000); Saltzman and Holahan, (2002); Schwarzer and Leppin (1991); Thoits (1995) stated that social support connected to improve the job performance.
Research also suggested social support at work is positively related to job performance for example like according Park et al. (2004) conducted a study to examine the relationship of social support towards job performance among 240 public hospital workers in Southeastern, United State. The result that high job performance can be achieve if there is high social support from the supervisor at the workplace. Rees and Freeman (2009) examined the effect of social support as moderator towards stressors and task performance among 197 participants from British amateur golfers in United Kingdom.
The result showed that social support has positive relationship with task performance. According to Hauck, Snyder and Cox-Fuenzalida (2008) conducted a study examined the social support will increase the job performance compared to no social support among 281 students from University of Oklahoma in United States. The study established significant relationship between social support and job performance. In additional directly job performance might strengthen the relationship between independent variables (i.e., job stress, role ambiguity, and role conflict and job control) and dependent variable (i.
e., job performance). Indeed, social support exchange theory suggests that individual who perceived high level social support at work a likely to be more productive.
Therefore, consistent with the empirical studies and theoretical standpoint, the following hypotheses developed:H5:Social support positively influence on job performance H6:Social support moderate the relationship between job stress and job performanceH7:Social support moderate the relationship between role ambiguity and job performanceH8:Social support moderate the relationship between role conflict and job performanceH9:Social support moderate the relationship between job control and job performanceResearch FrameworkThis research framework is shows the conception of the research which describe the relationship between the independent, dependent and moderating variables. The job performance as dependent variable is the main purpose of this research. These specific variables are selected from extant literature in the area work stress and job performance. This research investigates the job performance among Administration staff of UUM.
The independent variables are job stress, role ambiguity, and role conflict and job control. Besides, the moderating variable which influences both dependent and independent variables is social support. Consequently, in present study, nine hypotheses been advanced for testing and validationFactors of work stressJOB STRESSROLE AMBIGUITY1899920-2603500ROLE CONFLICTJOB CONTROL1823085248920Job Performance00Job Performance7086604832350018764256350Social Support00Social Support Fig. 2.1 Research FrameworkHypotheses DevelopmentIn explaining the relationship between job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control and job performance the present study depend on affective event theory (Weiss ; Cropanzano, 1996). The affective theory is emphasis the function of work events as proximal foundation of work attitudes. First of all, job stress high in workplace causes employees face stress decrease in job performance (Azizollah et al., 2013; Bashir et al.
, (2010); Jehangir et al., 2011). High level of role ambiguity will decrease the job performance (Celik, 2013; Mahmood, 2011; Shirom et al.
, 2008; Singh, 1993), whereas role conflict high mean cause decease in job performance (Gilboa et al., 2008; Rum et al., 2013; Meurs et al., 2010). Besides, when job control high in workplace employees will performance better and job performance increase (Boswell et al., 2004; Dejong et al., 2000; Ganster et al., 2005).
The present study has six variables, namely, job performance (i.e. dependent variable), job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict and job control as independent variables, social support as moderator. Consequently, in present study, nine hypotheses have been developed for testing and validation.2.
91 Job Stress and Job PerformancePrior research assists a negative relationship between job stress and job performance (Azizollah et al., 2013; Jehangir et al., 2011; Muhammad et al., 2013). According to Bashir and Ramay (2010) conducted a study towards employees from bank sectors among 144 employees including the managers and customer services officer as respondent in Pakistan. The results showed that job stress significant decrease the job performance for the employees. Another study conducted by Jehangir et al., (2011) among 315 nurse staffs at Public Sector Hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan to examine the relationship between job stress and job performance.
The study established negative relationship job stress on job performance exists. Consistent with the previous empirical studies, the following hypotheses is advanced:H1:Job stress negatively influence on job performance2.92 Role Ambiguity and Job PerformanceJob performance is affects by role ambiguity and role conflict Onyemeh (2008). There are previous researcher conducted proven it for example in a sample 359 employees from the industrial organization in Israel, Fried et al.
, (1998) found role ambiguity and role conflict have negative relationship with performance. The study established significant and negative relationship between role ambiguity and role conflict towards job performance. The study showed that role conflict and role ambiguity higher will reduce the job performance. Likewise, according to Sing (1993) conducted a study to examine the negative relationship between role ambiguity and job performance among 472 sales and Marketing executives (SME) from Small and medium size business in United State (US). The results showed that role ambiguity was negatively related to job performance.
Besides, the study also mentioned that the job performance strongly affected by the role ambiguity as the findings from the research. Recent evidences (e.g., Idris, 2011; Shabaz et al., 2012) suggest that high level of role ambiguity will reduce and negatively related to job performance.
The aforementioned contributions, lead to following hypotheses: H2:Role ambiguity negatively influence on job performance2.93 Role Conflict and Job PerformanceRole stressors affect the job performance in various like switch away the effort to work from employees, it was proven in the theoretical and empirical studies that role conflict negatively affects the job performance (Fried et al., 2008). Past studies conduted by Abraham, 1997; Almer and Kaplan, 2002; Fogarty, 2000; Agustina, 2009 showed the relationship between role conflict and job performance.
As an example Meurs et al., (2010) conducted a study examined the role of political skill in the stressor and job performance relationship, among 839 employees from automotive field. The results found that role conflict is negatively and directly correlated to job performance. Therefore, the following hypotheses are developed:H3: Role conflict negatively influence on job performance2.94 Job Control and Job PerformancePrior research supports a positive relationship between job control and job performance (Greenberger et al., 1989; Bond and Flaxman, 2008); Tsuehiya, Morimoto, 2010).
In particular, Bond and Flaxman (2008) conducted a study investigated the relationship between job control and job performance among 448 employees from call center in United Kingdom. The results established a significant and positive relationship between job control and job performance. While, Tsuehiya, Morimoto (2010) conducted a study to examined the relationship between job control and job performance towards a sample of 777 manufacturing employees in Japan, Nagami, Tsutsumi. The results found job control and coworker support significant and positively related to job performance. Consistent with the previous studies, the following hypotheses is developed:H4:Job control positively influence on job performance2.9.5 Social Support and Job PerformanceSocial support is well established factor that influence variety of attitude and behavior, including turnover intention (Balogun ; Olowodunoye, 2013; Beecroft et al.
, 2007; Lobburi, Kokkrabrue, Maung ; Samutsakon, 2012;; Karatepe, 2013; Nohe ; Somtang, 2014; Logue ; Ayman, 2009; Sieberhagen ; Francois, 2006; ), Work family conflict (Selvarajan et al., 2013; Kossek et al., 2011; Wadsworth ; Owens, 2007; Md-Sidin et al., 2010; King et al., 2011; Ojha, 2011; Rathi ; Barath, 2013; Nasurdin ; O’Driscoll (2012) and employee well-being among others (Thompson & Prottas, 2006; Shani et al., 2011; Schaufeli et al.
, 2008; Stansfeld et al., 2013; Grant-Vallone & Donaldson, 2001; Doest & Jonge, 2006). Prior research of (Cohen, 2000; Saltzman & Holahan, 2002; Schwarzer & Leppin, 1991; Thoits, 1995) stated that social support connected to improve the job performance.
In particular, in a sample of 197 participants from British amateur golfers in United Kingdom examined the effect of social support as moderator towards stressors and task performance and the results reveal that social support has positive relationship with task performance (Rees and Freeman, 2009). According to Hauck, Snyder and Cox-Fuenzalida (2008) conducted a study examined the social support will increase the job performance compared to no social support among 281 students from University of Oklahoma in United States and fund social support were significant predictor for job performance. Therefore, following hypotheses are advanced:H5:Social support positively influence on job performance H6:Social support moderate the relationship between job stress and job performanceH7:Social support moderate the relationship between role ambiguity and job performanceH8:Social support moderate the relationship between role conflict and job performanceConclusionThis chapter two consists of literature review from previous research related to the research topic. There are much adoption of the definition and concepts from various authors. The review of literature, focuses on research that investigate job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control and also the moderate of social support between factors of work stress and job performance which is evidence that support hypotheses of this research. CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY 3.
1 IntroductionThis chapter will explain about the factors and context that able to answer the research questions which developed in chapter one and also create awareness of participants towards the subject of study in questions. Each of study is committing to the methodology style that needs to follow for complete the research. First of all, the certain ways includes systematically investigate, data collection, and data analyze. Methodology part will help to guide the research towards a clear path to get the research complete.3.2 Research Design The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support and job performance among administrator staffs in UUM, Malaysia. The research will explain deeper about the influence of work stress towards the job performance and moderate by social support.
The research was designed by using quantitative approach. Quantitative research design apply in present study by distribute the questionnaires to participants. Present study adopts Cross-sectional research design. UUM was selected as the context for present study since it has highest concentration of university in Kedah state, Malaysia.3.3 Unit of Analysis Unit of analysis is individual the administration staffs of University Utara Malaysia, Kedah. 3.
4 Cross-sectional Cross-sectional study used in present study, whereby the data collection will be at single point at time (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010). The formal letter which got from the school stated asking permission for collect data from the participants will sent to each head department of administrator staffs to get permission and allow to collect data from those staffs. After the head officer allow for data collection, distribution of questionnaires operate, collect questionnaires and data will be prepare to analyze. 3.5 Sample and Population 3.5.1 Population of StudyThe population for this study consists of 1961 administrator staffs in whole UUM which located in Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.
Whose name listed under the registration of University Utara Malaysia (2014).Sampling SizeTo determine the require sample size for the present study, Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) sample size determination procedure was used. Therefore, following Krejcie and Morgan’ (1970) sample size determination procedure, a sample size of 322 would be require for population of 1961 as showed in Table 3.1 the sample size was adopted the sample size table that suggested by Krejcie and Morgan’ (1970). The present study employed convenience sampling (i.
e., a non-probability sampling technique). Convenience sampling is a way to get respondent that self selection of respondent who are willing to take part in present study (Spector, 2008). Besides, according to Canvana, Delahaye and Sekaran (2010) convenience sampling most suitable method for collect the basic data or information within short period and efficiently to complete the research.Table 3.
1: Sample Size for a Given Population SizeN S N S N S10 10 220 140 1200 29115 14 230 144 1300 29720 19 240 148 1400 30225 24 250 152 1500 30630 28 260 155 1600 31035 32 270 159 1700 31340 26 280 162 1800 31745 40 290 165 1900 32050 44 300 169 2000 32255 48 320 175 2200 32760 53 340 181 2400 33165 56 360 186 2600 33570 59 380 191 2800 33875 63 400 196 3000 34180 66 420 201 3500 34685 70 440 205 4000 35190 73 460 210 4500 35495 76 480 214 5000 357100 80 500 217 6000 361110 86 550 226 7000 364120 92 600 234 8000 367130 97 650 242 9000 368140 103 700 248 10000 370150 108 750 254 15000 375160 113 800 260 20000 377170 118 850 265 30000 379180 123 900 269 40000 380190 127 950 274 50000 381200 132 1000 278 75000 382210 136 1100 285 1000000 384Note: N= population size and S= sample size Data Collection MethodPresent study data collection was collected by distributing of self-administered questionnaires to the participants. This method was proper in this research for the study of job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support and job performance. In additional, self-administered questionnaire suitable method for data collection since researcher will be able to go through information from the participants within short period of time, according to participants’ convenient time without comprising their productivity at work (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009; Sekaran & Bougie, 2010; Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & Griffin, 2009). According to Chauvel and Depres (2002) stated that questionnaire covered huge coverage of participants in the sample of study and provide clear information for conduct the present study.
The survey was conducted between 6th until 17th April, 2014. Besides, secondary data refer to some previous studies which related to present study’s field for example suggested by the previous researchers, information took from websites regarding the research topic, various journals literatures and books as guideline to conduct the study. InstrumentationData collection of this research is primary depending on questionnaire which distribute to respondents to gather the information. The questionnaire which design by the researcher is the adoption from the previous study which measure job performance, based on the learning outcome classification developed from Shah and Hasnu (2013). The researcher used questionnaire as main tools for collecting data from the respondents. The compared between one of the independent and dependent adopted from the same journal Shah and Hasnu (2013). Other independent variables like role ambiguity and role conflict measurement adopted from Rizzo et al.
, (1970). The independent of job control adopted from Karasek (1985). Items for social support adopted from Morgeson and Humphrey, (2006).
Questionnaire consisted of two main sections which stated in English. The first section consists of demographic profile of the respondent (gender, age, marital status, race, religion, education level and length of working in current job). Section two consisted of 5 items measuring the of job stress, 5 items for the role ambiguity, 8 items for the role conflict, 4 items for the social support and 4 items for the job performance.
Questionnaire Design There questionnaire design with close-ended questions and some questions with open-ended. All the questions adoption from the previous studies which the questions are validity was rectified. Section A is related to demographic profile of respondent which consist of personal information will be question in this section, the purpose for this information just for the statistical use only. The section B is the most important part which related to this study that explain the independent and the dependent variables and also the moderate variables. Section B is to identify the work stress factors influence the job performance among respondents. Besides, in section B also there are social support as moderate variable which included to test together with the factors of work stress and also job performance. Therefore, five-point scale questions were adopted in section B of the questionnaire. The items for the research and also for the questionnaire for this research were adopted from the same sources.
Then a five-point Likert-scale used and anchored by “strongly agree” (1) to “strongly disagree” (5) which was adopted from Rahim et al. (2012), a five-point Likert-scale anchored by “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (5) was adopted as the attitude measurement for independent variables, moderator and dependent variable, including: “factors of work stress”, “social support”, “intention” and “job performance”.Description of QuestionnaireTable 3.1 Questionnaire Description Section A This section contained of demographic profile of respondent (gender, age, marital status, race, religious, educational level, length of working current job)Section B This section contained 32 questions measuring all the independent, social support and dependent.Job PerformanceIn the present study four items adapted to measure job performance from prior research Ouyang and Yenhui (2009); Shah and Hasnu (2013). Items in this scale are: (1) “I am able to complete each work quickly and record effectively”, (2) “The work which was assigned to me by my supervisor can be completed on time easily (Realistic and achievable tasks)”, (3) “I feel I can easily get along with my colleague and they are very helpful (supportive environment at work)”, (4) “I usually program and arrange the progress of my job”.
Participants were asked to respond to questions in the job performance scale using a 5-point Likert scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Job Stress To assess job stress construct, 5 items were adapted from Ouyang and Yenhui (2009). In additional, following the initial development and validation of this scale, multiple sample investigation was conducted by Shah and Hasnu (2013) to further validate the scale. Sample items in this scale are: (1) “I often feel tension while I am working (due to some kind of job stress”, (2) “It is sometimes difficult for me to sleep at night due to stress of workload on job”, (3) “My job loading (workload or tasks assigned) is too heavy”, (4) “I feel very tired when I come back from my office”, (5) ” Sometimes I feel depressed (due to stress at job)”. In the present study, participants were asked to respond to questions in the job performance scale using a 5-point Likert scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).Role AmbiguitySix items were adapted to measure the role ambiguity from prior research (e.g.
, Nygaard ; Dahlstrom, 2002; Glissmeyer, Bishop ; David, 2004; Shahbaz ; Shakeel, 2012). Items in this scale are: (1) “I feel certain about how much authority I have”, (2) “I have clear, planned objectives for my job”, (3) “I know that I have divided my time properly”, (4) “I know what my responsibilities are”, (5) “I know exactly what is expected of me”, (6) “I receive clear explanations of what has to be done”. Participants were asked to respond to questions in the job performance scale using a 5-point Likert scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
Role ConflictIn order to measure employees’ perception towards role conflict 8 items were adapted from Glissmeyer, Bishop and David, 2004. Sample items for the scale are: (1) “I have to do things that should be done differently”, (2) “I receive an assignment without the manpower to complete it”, (3) “I have to buck a rule or policy in order to carry out an assignment”, (4) “I have to work with two or more group who operate quite differently”, (5) “I receive incompatible requests from two or more people”, (6)”I do things that are apt to be accepted by one person and not accepted by others”. In the present study, participants were asked to respond to questions in the job performance scale using a 5-point Likert scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Job Control To assess job control construct, 5 items were adapted from Park (2007). Items in this scale are: (1) “Your job requires that you learn new things”, (2) “Your job requires a high level of skill”, (3) “Your job allows you freedom to decide how you do your job”, (4) “Your job requires that you do things over and over”, (5) “You have a lot to say about what happens in your job”.
In the present study, participants were asked to respond to questions in the job performance scale using a 5-point Likert scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Social Support There are four items were adapted to measure social support from Chen and Cheng (2013). Sample items for this scale are: (1) “I have the opportunity to develop close friendships in my job”, (3) “I have the chance in my job to get to know other people”, (4) “I have the opportunity to meet with others in my work”, (5) “My supervisor is concerned about the welfare of the people that work for him or her”. Participants were asked to respond to questions in the job performance scale using a 5-point Likert scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUEThe data which collected from the respondent through the questionnaire will be sorted and will be test using software of Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 19 for data analysis. With the purpose to examine the relationship among the job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support and job performance, the existing study apply few methods and the data will be analyze in chapter four. First of all, the reliability test will be conducted in present study to make sure how accurate the participants answer questionnaire and the items included in questionnaire how much items interrelated in order to determine the reliability of the measurement (Hayes, 1998). The Cronbach’s alpha calculates the variable in average intercorreltions among the items used in present study. Furthermore, Nunnally (1978) stated that Cronbach’s alpha cut-off point the 0.7 as suitable probability.
Besides, descriptive analysis was conducted to supply information regarding the means, standard deviation and frequencies of the key variables. Furthermore, the correlation analyses supply information about the relationship between dependent and independent variables. Since the correlation analysis able to illustrate insufficient information about the relationship so that the multiple regression will be conducted as final analyses to find out the effect of the job stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, job control, social support on job performance.
A hypothesis testing was analyzed by using the regression and the p-value< 0.05 accepted as significant (Cavana, Delahaye and Sekaran, 2000).Multiple regression is appropriate statistical tests that can be used when there is an attempt to identify the relationship between independent and dependent variables. According to Wahid (2011) how dependent variable able to predict by two or more independent variables to get the interaction of relationship. The results from multi regression illustrated the direction of the relationship and also significant level of the relationship between variables.
Besides, regression also demonstrated the effects of independent and moderator variables towards dependent variable.CONCLUSION Chapter three focused on discussing about the methodology of this research conducted. Besides, this chapter also discuss about the resign design, sample and population, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.
The data analysis will be discussed further in next chapter.