Human activities directly or indirectly affect the environment adversely. A stone crusher adds a lot of suspended particulate matter and noise into the atmosphere. Automobiles emit from their pies oxides of nitrogen, sulpher dioxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide and a complex mixture of unborn hydrocarbons and black soot which pollute the atmosphere.
Pollution occurs in different forms; air, water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat/thermal and light. Every form of pollution has two sources of occurrence; the point and the non-point sources. The point sources are easy to identify, monitor and control, whereas the non-point sources are hard control. Let us discuss the different types of pollutions, their causes and effects on mankind and the environment as a whole.
The first leather was produced in pre-historic times. It was discovered quite by accident that skin which has been soaked for some time in water which had been infused with the bark of trees did not rot or dry up like other skins, but remained soft and lasted for a long time. New material had many applications: it was useful for clothing, foot protection, for tying and binding and for tool making. This discovery of the secret of making leather, like that of making fire, was one of the more important in early human history. From the initial accidental discovery until quite recent times, leather-making has remained a craft industry.
Human resource should be utilized to the maximum possible extent, in order to achieve individual & organizational goal. It is thus the employee’s performance which ultimately decides the attainment of goal. Hence, the employee’s performance is to a large extent influenced by motivation & job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction I all about how one feel about (or toward) one’ job. An employee who expresses satisfaction is said to have a positive attitude toward the job, unlike a dissatisfied employee who had a negative attitude toward the job. A person have negative attitude ho a personality disposition which I inclined to experience nervousness, tension, worry, upsets ; distress, here a those with positive attitude ill feel happy with themselves others and their work. Job satisfaction reflects the extent to which people find gratification or fulfillment in their work. Job satisfaction ho that personal factor such a an individual need and aspiration determine hi/her attitude along with group and organizational factor such a relationship with co-worker and supervisor and working condition, work policies, and compensation. A satisfied employee tend to be absent le often, to make positive contribution and to stay with the organization the effect of job satisfaction goes beyond organizational setting satisfied employee are more likely to be satisfied citizens.
Statement of the problem
The leather industry aimed at optimum utilization of available raw materials for maximizing the revenues, particularly from exports. Major part of the industry is unorganized. There is limited scope for mobilizing funds through private placements and public issues (many businesses are family-owned). There are difficulties in obtaining bank loans which results in high cost of private borrowing. Stricter international standards and high competition from East European countries and other Asian countries affects this industry. Leather being predominantly an export-oriented industry, fittest in terms of these parameters alone could only hope to survive.
The incidence of environmental exposure on the general status of health has been increasingly acknowledged for numerous diseases. The industries hazardous waste may show effect in term of death and morbidity. This may manifest respiratory diseases, kin reaction, allergies, diminution of vision, corneal opacity, abortion, malformation of pregnancy, stunted growth, neurological disorder, mental depression, psychiatric change, altered immune response chromosomal aberration and cancer. Employees are the backbone of any organization. They are the most precious and important asset among all the asset of any organization. Job satisfaction is a part of employee life satisfaction. So based on the above discussion, to identify the export of leather in India and the job satisfaction of employee in leather industries in Dindigul. This study I taken by the researcher.
Scope of the study
India is the leading producer of leather. The export performance of leather varies from one year to another year and this research gives a broad frame work of the employee’s satisfaction of leather industry in Dindigul. This can be used a guideline is the future business plan and making changes in the current activities. It helps to bring change in environmental activities from leather industry.
Identification of factor which influence the work satisfaction of employer working in the leather industry
To analyze the export performance of leather industry in India
To study the general and health problems of tannery effluent.
To offer suitable suggestions.
Hypotheses of the study
Based on the above objectives, the following hypotheses are framed and tested in the study;
There is no significant relationship between the income and satisfaction level of wage scheme.
There is no relationship between the age and workers health pattern.
Area of the study
Area of the tudy refers to Dindigul city. The sample taken for the study is 100. The study has used primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected by questionnaire method. Questionnaire was prepared in such a way that they are simple and understandable so as to enable the respondent to express their views and opinion freely and frankly. Secondary data a collected from respective book, journal, magazine, and website. Convenient sampling method has been used in the study for the purpose of making analysis. Simple percentage analysis ha been adopted in the study.
Collection of data
Primary data: They were the main source of data collection. The method of collection of primary data as obtained through a structured questionnaire.
Secondary data: It a collected from internal source. The secondary data a collected from the article, newspaper, book and the internet.
Frame work analysis
Percentages are one of the simplest and useful statistical device used for the interpretation of collected data in the research, business and economic statistics. This technique can be understood even by a layman.
Percentage represents the number of parts of 100. It can be calculated as under.
Given value to be compared with the base
% = * 100
Base values used for comparison
Percentages can be used:-
If the researcher wants to make a comparison between two or more series of data.
If the researcher wants to describe the relationships among the variables.
If the researcher wants to find out the trend.
If the researcher wants to calculate the percentage of various complex variables.
Garret’s ranking technique
Garrett’s ranking technique was used to rank the reference indicated by the respondents on different factors. As per this method, respondents have been asked to assign the rank for all factors and the outcomes of such ranking have been converted into score value with the help of the following formula
Rij- Rank given for the ith variable by jth respondents.
Nj- Number of variables ranked by jth with the help of variable ranked by jth with the help of garret’s table, the percent position estimated is converted into scores. Then for each factor, the scores of each individual are added and ten score is calculated. The factors having highest mean value is considered table the most important factor.
Weighted average method
Weighted average mean in which each item being averaged is multiplied by a number (weight) based on the item’s relative importance. The result is summed and the total is divided by the sum of the weights. Weighted averages are used extensively in descriptive statistical analysis such as index numbers.
The x2 test is one of the simplest and most widely used tests for significance of the difference between the observed frequencies and the expected frequencies obtained from some hypothetical universe. The symbol x2 is the Greek letter chi
Chi-squre test can be used to determine if categorical data show dependency or if two classifications are independent. It can also be used to make comparisions between theortical populations and actual data when cateories are used.
One-Way ANOVA is the generalization of the T-test for independent sample to situation with more than to group. It I also known a single clarification ANOVA or one factor ANOVA. It I used to test the difference in a single dependent variable among two or more group. Formed by a single independent or clarification variable.
ANALYISIS OF VARIANCE TABLE ONE WAY ANOVA
Source of variation Sum of square(SS) Degrees of freedom Mean square (M S) (this I a divided d.f) and I estimation of variation to be used in F-ratio. F- Ratio.
Between sample or categories
Within sample or categories
(Xji- X1) +…
total (Xji- X1) +…
i= 1, 2…
j=1, 2… n-1 Limitation
Time was a big constraint; so more time could not be devoted to individual respondent
Certain employee were biased in answering to the question
Some employees are illiterate and may not be able to fill up the questions
Scheme of the report
The first Chapter deals with Introduction and research design of the studies.
The second Chapter deals with Review of literature.
The Third chapter deals with Overview of leather industry in India level, tamilnadu level and Dindigul level.
The fourth Chapter deals with Analysis and interpretation.
The fifth Chapter deals with finding, suggestion, and conclusion.
Review of Literature
Ayers and Hayward (1949) have studied the adverse effects of tannery effluents and found that the salinity of the effluents adversely affected the early growth of the plant. Iyer etal (1951) have reported that the salts and organic matters in the effluents affect the quality of the grain by changing the nature of the cultivable soil. David (1956) observed that the dissolved oxygen was absent in the industrial effluents. Seatzetal (1958) have studied that the accumulation of sulphate which was less toxic in the tannery effluents which might have led to an increase in osmotic pressure of the soil. Varga and Koves (1959) have identified a hydrolyzed product of tannins in tannery effluents which act as germination inhibitor. But in the other study conducted by Biaim (1960) revealed the fact that the tannins in the tannery effluents prevent the water uptake by embryos.
Fair hall (1949) reported that the toxic substances in the tannery effluent are toxic to the body tissues that affect the skins and respiratory tract. In North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu, a study was conducted by Sastry(1985) and he reported that the workers working in tannery unitsand the people living in and around the tannery units are much suffered from respiratory and skin diseases.
Yadav and Agarwal (1961) observed that the adverse effect caused by salinity of the tannery effluents on the soil are reduced by applying green manure and farm yard manure as well. Thabarajetal (1964) in their study on tannery effluents treatment reported that the growth of tomato plants was affected by sodium and chlorides which were accumulated in the soil because of the continuous and regular irrigation with tannery effluents waste water.
Chakrabarthietal (1961) have conducted a study in Kanpur city and reported that the decomposition of organic matter present in the tannery effluents turned the soil as an acetic soil. Rajagopalan et.ai (1969) in their study, pointed out that the tannery waste water used for agricultural purposes has adversely affected the productivity of paddy and some of the land became completely unfertile. Durairajanetal (1999) have observed that the presence of sulphide and chromium in tannery effluents could change the characteristics of soil and in consequence the soil productivity and plant life are also seriously affected.
Bose (1964) in his paper on analysis of drinking water around the leather industries concentrated in Kanpur area has revealed that high concentration of sulphide and sulphate are found in the drinking water due to tannery effluents which affect human beings, animals and plants.
Mahajan (1970) has listed out the adverse effects of tannery effluents and they are: i) Solid wastes such as hair, flesh and lime and reduce the capacity of photosynthesis of the plants; and ii) Dissolved solids in the discharged water seriously affect the quality of ground water.
Bakyavathi etal (1986) have reported that the hexavalent chromium in the tannery effluents causes wheezing, pain, fever, loss of weight, irritation and corrosion of skin among the tannery workers and the nearby residents. Muthu (1989) has reported that the people in the tannery concentrated places of Dindigul are highly affected by higher incidence of skin and respiratory diseases and the women are suffering from high abortion rate and menstrual disorders and especially the tannery workers are suffering from high incidence of azoospermia.
Sastry (1987) has conducted a study in the North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu and found that the draining of tannery effluents in a major irrigation reservoir, which irrigates 200 hectares of wet land, contaminated the whole reservoir and its surrounding environs.
AppaRaoetal (1987) have conducted a study in Dindigul suburban area which has high concentration of tannery units, and reported that the ground water sources are highly contaminated by the tannery effluents, and they also found that in the contaminated ground water sources, the quantities of total hardness, chlorides and BOD are above the tolerance and permissible limit. Meenakshi (1987) has analyzed the water samples collected from surrounding villages of Dindigul in Tamil Nadu and found that the water quality parameters analyzed for the samples are found to be greater than the tolerance limits. Manikavasakam (1987) has reported that the tannery effluents largely contaminate the ground water quality seriously within a short period and this cannot be rectified and repaired and ultimately the land becomes polluted due to seepage of the effluents. Kotur and Rao (1988) have concluded that the presence of sodium in irrigation water will affect the crop growth.
Chinnasami (1987)10 has conducted a detailed study on the effects of the tannery effluents on soil in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu and has observed that fertility of the soil has been reduced remarkably. Similarly, Apparao et al. (1987) while studying the impacts of tannery effluents in Dindigul District have found that the soils around the areas one deteriorated where the effluents are let out with high saline content.
Aparna and Anandavalli Mahadevan (1989)1 have conducted a study on “Water Pollution by tanneries in Dindigul” and they reported that the ground water was found to be of low quality near the effluents lagoons and level of pollutants was found to decrease with increasing distance of the water sources from the effluents lagoon. Hoffmann (1990) has reported that there is a possibility of utilizing and interaction between waste proteins or vegetable tanning agents to the effective pretreatment of tannery waste water. The above component from water soluble polyelectrolyte’s complexes separable by sedimentation, filtration or centrifugation, and in this way 40 – 80 per cent of the original pollution can be eliminated. Koneky (1990) has reported that by removing ammonium ions from the biologically treated tannery waste water using ion exchange method on natural zeolite has been done.
Anuradha (1989) has studied the cost allocation problem and identified the solution by applying value added method and she recommended the necessary and the essential conditions for sustainability of CETP at Vaniyambadi in Tamil Nadu.
Chockaiingametal (1990) have reported the tannery effluents not only altered the quality of water, but also caused definite damage to biotic life.
Rajan (1990) in his study revealed that water contamination due to tannery effluents caused so many diseases to the people who are living close to tannery environs in Dindigul. Especially his study confirmed that the women and children were affected very badly.
Rajamani (1990) has examined pollution control in tanneries and found that some of the large scale tanneries have already taken steps to control pollution and they have their own medium sized treatment plans. They further revealed the fact that due to economic constraints, the medium and small scale tanneries opt for Common Effluent Treatment Plants.
Krishnamurthy (1991) has opined that in the tannery affected areas the water scarcity is the main problem. Government is supplying water in tankers. Otherwise, the people, particularly women and children have to go a long way (nearly 6 to 7 km) to fetch potable water.
Jainulabdin (1991) has examined the pollutants such as chemical substances, hydrocarbons and heavy metals percolated into the sub soil and contaminated the ground water through natural water by leaching of industrial solid wastes. Generally, ground water is vulnerable to pollution than the surface water. Pollutants do attain the water aquifer and in view of the normal slow movement of ground water and it may reside for considerable length of time. The percolation of the pollutants normally be fast in soft rocks and in ground water of unprotected fissures.
Sunil (1991) has conducted a study in Dindigul and found that due to tannery effluents, out of 467 wells providing water for drinking or irrigation, 350 are vulnerable, the water in 1090 wells has becoming brown in color, more than 800 hectares of agricultural land have been seriously affected, livestock using polluted water lost their weight, and the value of houses and land in the tannery environs has gone down most rapidly. Further he found that the land owners sold their land to tannery owners at very low prices and farmers are working as labourers for their livelihood.
Thyagarajan (1992) has discussed about the disposal of chrome sludge. Safe disposal of chrome sludge has not been found anywhere in the world. As a part of Indo-Dutch project under the Ganga Action Plan, at Kanpur a demonstration plant has been established for chrome recovery and reuse. The simplicity of the technique renders it possible to implement it in almost all tanneries in India.
CLRI (1993) Survey reveals that three million liters of effluents containing 0.8 ml of soap liquor wastes are let off every day in the entire belt area and three tones of sodium chloride also in the discharge. Due to this, the productivity of the soil would be affected adversely.
Denesh Mehta, (1994), has identified the tannery clusters, in Kanpur, Howrah, Vaniyambadi, Ranipet where sufficient environmental control mechanisms partly absent and causing severe air and water pollution.
AloisPuntener (1995) has discussed in detail about the various tanning procedures and reported that the beam house and tanning operations are having environmental impact which varies due to the various products used and process followed.
Chandra Sekaran (1996) has found that the leather industries discharge many toxic pollutants like sulphide, phenol compounds, chromium and other mineral salts, dyes, etc.
Shaffi (1996) has stressed the need for pollution prevention in tanning industries and the industrialists instead of waiting for advices from the external agencies on pollution prevention measures, the tanners should devise a holistic methodology for pollution and waste minimization strategies.
Anbalagan et.al (1997) by using scientific water analysis technique and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, carried out a study in Kamatchipuram, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India to assess the pollution problem and found that the tannery effluents adversely affects the water source (well water) and peoples livelihood opportunities, especially farming community in and around the tannery units.
John Kennedy Jawaharetal(1998) have found that the characteristics of tanning stages, production process and the prudent use of chemicals they suggested that water would minimize the pollution load and effluents generation in the tanning process.
Raman et al (1998) have revealed that the mycorrhizal fungi are considered as important tool in a forestation and rehabilitation of degraded land especially in mine spoils, eroded sites and polluted waste lands and assessed the mycorrhizal profile of a tannery effluent polluted waste land of North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu, India..
Abla and Jeffrey (1999) have reported that the environmental regulations through legal measures impose fewer problems for less developed countries compared to adaptation of eco-labeling schemes by the developed countries.
Anuradha (2000) has studied the cost allocation problem and identified the solution by applying value added method and she recommended the necessary and the essential conditions for sustainability of CETP at Vaniyambadi in Tamil Nadu.
Rajendran etal (2001) have made an intense study on the abatement of the pollution intensive industries and reported that the leather industry is one such intensity with cost equivalent to at least 2.0 per cent of its output value.
Barry (2001) has found that tannery sludge from the tanning process was found to be particularly high in chromium, and consequently it could not be used directly in agriculture. The fatty sludge’s has been relatively free from contamination and it should be ‘investigated for reuse’. Moreover, this waste has greater potential for bio-remediation.
Paul Baskar (2002) about the river pollution in Tamil Nadu and stated that the enormous amount of effluents emanating from the industries discharged into rivers and soil pollute the water analanaoeyona redemption.
Karan Singh (2003) has examined that the domestic and global environmental impact of leather industry, in recent years is attracting the attention of environmentalists. Further, he recommended that due to financial constraints, many small firms could not adopt new and efficient technology in order to control pollution caused by leather industries.
GirijaBai (2004) has found that in Palar river basin in Vellore district more than 400 tanneries are located and the effluents discharged into Palar river affect the river, irrigation tanks, wells and underground water and subsequently the lands in the area had become unfit for agriculture. The land owners sold their lands at a very low price to the tannery owners and they migrated to nearby urban centers, particularly Chennai.
Vijayalakshmi (2004) has made an attempt on the impact of tannery pollution in Tiruchirappalli District and reported that the tanneries are discharging the untreated tannery effluents resulting to change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water in streams, underground streams (well) and nearby water bodies.
Mondialetal (2005) have assessed the extent of ground water deterioration by analyzing ground water quality parameters and reported that the quality of ground water in the area under investigation is deteriorated mainly due to the extensive use of salt in the leather industries in and around Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India, Further, Mondalet.al (2005) have studied the modeling pattern of pollutant migration in tannery belt in Dindigul and concluded that even if the pollutant sources were reduced to 50.0 per cent of the present level, total dissolved solids(TDS) in the ground water even after 29 years could not be reduced below 50.0 per cent of present level.
Sahasranaman (2005) has opined that the tannery industry is not a major air polluter. The main air pollutants are hydrogen sulphide and ammonia emanating from liming, de-liming stages of tanning.
Ramachandramoorthyetal (2006) have conducted and analyzed the treatment of tannery effluents for which samples are analyzed for important physic-chemical and biological parameters and observed that the sludge along with cow dung in the treatment plant is becoming a good manure under anaerobic conditions, the COD and BOD values are decreasing to 88.0 per cent and 85.0 per cent respectively and the TDS values was reduced to 610 mg/l at the maximum.
The Envies Centre (2007) has reported that more than 3000individual tannery units in Tamil Nadu have been classified under the highly polluting which comes under red category. The tanneries located in Vellore, Kanchipuram, Dindigul and Erode and Paler river basin in which the effluents have caused serious problems of ground water and other water bodies. Peg and Ali (2008) have studied the sediment quality assessment of Ganga River at Kanpur. For this, sediment samples are collected from upstream and downstream areas and analyzed the toxic metals and toxicity bioassay and found that trace metal levels are higher in the downstream areas than the upstream area, especially chromium which is 30 fold higher. The presence of growth inhibitory pollutants is also observed in the sediment, which has inhibitory effects on seed germination.
Tudunwalaetal (2007)4 has studied the effect of using tanning sludge as soil amendment material on the heavy metal content in sorghum and millet crops in Cahallawa Industrial Estate and observed that the heavy metal content of the soil were below the tolerance level and hence it was harmless to human beings and livestock and also the tannery sludge fertilized soil is suitable especially for sorghum crop.
Vasantha Kumar and Vani (2008) described a model based on GIS to determine soil contamination in the South Western part of Dindigul Block covering an area of 15.42 sq. km. They have concluded that 1.118 sq.km is highly contaminated and 7.132 sq.km is moderately contaminated that resulted with poor soil fertility due to tannery effluents.
SrinivasaGowd and Govil (2008) have reported that 48 water samples were collected from the water sources throughout Ranipet area in Tamil Nadu, and trace metals in the water samples were determined by using ICP- MS and this analysis revealed the fact that the surface water in the study area is highly contaminated and very high concentrations of some toxic metals such as cadmium ranging from 0.2 -401.4 microgram/l and also other toxic metals like chromium, zinc, nickel and lead found in the samples. Further, they observed that the health hazards created by toxic metal content. Cadmium is highly toxic, to anemia, anosmia, cardiovascular diseases, renal problems and hyper tension. Chromium causes liver and kidney damage and chromate dust is carcinogenic, heavy dose of copper lead to neurological complications, hypertension, liver and kidney dysfunctions and over dose of Zinc causes hematological disorders and deteriorated human embolism.
Nilmala Lakshmanan (2010) has found that in Vaniyambadi most of the lands were polluted by tannery effluents. Nearly 40,000 hectares of fertile agricultural land had been polluted and 3911 hectares of agricultural land had been severely polluted. The sodium chloride and carbonate contents in the soil were far high above the tolerance limit and the agricultural productivity had been reduced to one fourth of the normal yield with in two decades.
Tanfa, etal (2011) have reported that the tannery sludge consists mostly of oil, grease and also magnesium, calcium and chromium hydroxide. Solids and debris from hide can be used as raw material for clay products and this is a useful technology to recycle the tannery sludge.
Karan Singh (2012) has examined that the domestic and global environmental impact of leather industry, in recent years is attracting the attention of environmentalists. Further, he recommended that due to financial constraints, many small firms could not adopt new and efficient technology in order to control pollution caused by leather industries.
Ali Awan(2012) has reported that the oxidants viz., hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite can be used independently for the treatment of organic matter of tannery waste water in order to reduce the COD.
Sahasranaman (2013) has opined that the tannery industry is not amajor air polluter. The main air pollutants are hydrogen sulphide and ammonia emanating from liming, de-liming stages of tanning.
Dhanarajan (2014) has stated that the hazardous waste discharged from the tanneries can be used as a potential organic waste for compost making. A study with the tannery bio-sludge and tank silt, different organic materials are used; compost can be prepared by using pit and heap method and the tannery bio-sludge can be recycled in an efficient way.
Vasudevanetal (2015) has studied the bacterial isolates viz., Pseudomonas fluorescence and Bacillus subtilies which showed higher proteolytic ability from the enrichment culture technique using cow dung and tannery fleshing and concluded that proteolytic bacteria can be treated tannery solid waste biologically. This microbial enzymatic hydrolysis could be a safe method of recycling these organic materials, thus enhancing the rate of biodegradability. These isolate tested were better adapted to liquefactions of tannery fleshing, which could be effectively used for higher rate of biomethanation and digested slurry obtained could act as good organic manure.
CLRI (2015) has proposed an engineering package has been designed and the purpose of the design is to introduce zero waste water discharge in tanning process and for this purpose further research works are needed.
Baskaran (2016) has examined the various types of physicochemical land biological treatments of tannery effluents, and concluded that these methods are insufficient as the quantity of effluents increases and very large open land is needed.
The importance of attitude in understanding psychological phenomenon was given formal recoginition early in the history of social psychology. From the time of the concept’s enry in to the language of psychoogy unil now, interest in attitude has been strong and growing. However, over the years atitudes have been studied with differing emphasis and methods. It is necessary to be precise in defining attitudes, because the variey of published definitions and descriptions is amost endless. Attitude may be defined in two ways, co ceptual and operational. There is quite a difference in the conceptual definition of the rerm attitude, and divergent points f view reaarding the conncept of attitude have developed. “attitude is a mental and eural state of readiness orgganized throught experience, excerting a directive or dynamic influence upon th individual’s response to all objects and situatuions with which it is related”
Features of Attitude
Attitudes affect behavior of an individual by putting him ready to respond favorably to things in his environment.
Attitudes are acquired through learning over a period of time. The process of learning attitudes starts right from the childhood and continues throughout the life of a person.
Attitudes are invisible as they constitute a psychology phenomenon which cannot be observed directly. They can be observed by observing the behavior of an individual.
Attitudes are pervasive and every individual has some kind of attitude towards the objects in his environment. In fact, attitudes are forced in the socialization process and may relate to anything in the environment.
The term job satisfaction to an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes about their job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. When people speak of employee attitudes, more often mean job satisfaction. While analyzing various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that all individuals do not receive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. The effects may be seen in the context of an individual’s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
The Indian leather industry today has established itself as a prominent industry both in international as well as in the domestic market. Apart from being the ninth largest exporter of leather and leather products it is also the second largest producer of footwear and leather garments, with annual revenue of USD 8,500 million for 2011-12 with exports of USD 4,868.71 million. The sector itself employs more than 2.5 million people and is one of the top foreign currency earners in India. Abundant raw material, skilled work force, compliance with environmental standards and growth shown by the associated industries has helped the sector to grow many folds.
Export value of leather and leather product in India from 2010-2011 to 2016-2017
Year Value(in 10 billion Indian rs)
2013-2014 338. 22
Source: leather export statistics
The units are generally spread across large, medium, small and household units with the small and household units contributing almost 80% of the production. Large and medium units are generally tanneries or either big companies which are involved in manufacturing of footwear. With the majority of the manufacturing units belonging to the unorganized sector the industry faces many challenges. Timely availability of raw materials, high labor cost, lack of product innovation and lack of presence in global fashion market are few of them.
To support the sector the Government of India has taken several initiatives from de-licensing the sector, allowing 100% FDI and duty free imports, providing funding assistance to the manufacturing units, assisting in promotion of the industry through industrial parks to implementation of various industrial development programmes. Keeping in view the historical performance, strength of the sector and support from the government, the Indian leather industry is poised to grow many folds.
Leather Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has been increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilization of available raw materials for maximizing the returns, particularly from exports. Leather industry has been one of the traditional industries operating in India and is essentially located in certain states, but dispersed as cottage industries in rural areas. Indian leather industry is both in the organized as well as unorganized sectors.
Table 3. 2 Export of leather product
Source: leather product export
The predominant decentralized nature and small size makes it difficult to change this industry. As small scale, cottage and artisan sector account for over 75% of the total production. It was technologically very under developed in design, manufacturing, packing, and logistics. This makes it necessary to be careful while designing solutions for overcoming the weak technological base. The global competition has been the major driver that forced the leather industry to upgrade its technological base. Though traditionally, the Indian leather industry has been an exporter of tanned hides and skins, it has, in the early seventies, set its sights on becoming a major player in the leather products segments. Over the period of the last twenty years and particularly so in the last ten years, it has become the fourth largest foreign exchange earner in the country. The industry has become an area of export thrust with footwear having been identified as an area of extreme focus. Exports from the leather sector accounted for 4.4 per cent of India’s total exports in 2010-11.The industry uses primarily indigenous natural resources with little dependence on imported resources. India is endowed with 10% of the world raw material and export constitutes about 2% of the world trade. It employs 2.5 million persons
In recent years the government has stepped in with a number of policy initiatives to promote technological upgradation of the industry. Moreover, the leather industry has undergone radical structural transformation from merely exporting raw materials in the 1960s to exporting value added finished products from 1990s onward. The post liberalization era has opened up a plethora of opportunities for the Indian leather industry. With global players looking for new sourcing options, India stands to gain a bigger share of the global market. Leading brands from the US and Europe are planning to source leather and leather products from India The major leather products and exports from India are hides and skins such as cow and buffcalf, sheep nappa, goat skin, kid leather, wet blue etc. Footwear and footwear components like shoes, shoe uppers, soles etc., leather garments, leather gloves, leather saddler goods, leather travel bags and totes, leather purses, wallets, briefcases etc.
The major production centres for leather and leather products are located at Chennai, Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Trichy, Dindigul in Tamil Nadu, Kolkata in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Jallandhar in Punjab, Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh and Bangalore in Karnataka and Delhi. India has the largest livestock population in the world and produces 1.8 billion sq.ft.of leather annually.The industry covers a vast spectrum of inputs, activities, skills and products i.e. livestock, hides and skins, tanning, leather products and exports. The Government of India had identified the Leather Sector as a Focus Sector in its Foreign Trade Policy 2004-09 in view of its immense potential for export growth prospects and employment generation. Accordingly, the Government is also implementing various Special
Focus Initiatives under the Foreign Trade Policy for the growth of leather sector. With the implementation of various industrial developmental programmes as well as export promotional activities; and keeping in view the past performance, and industry’s inherent strengths of skilled manpower, innovative technology, increasing industry compliance to international environmental standards, and dedicated support of the allied industries, the Indian leather industry aims to augment the production, thereby enhance export, and resultantly create additional employment opportunities for overall one million people.
Production of leather products:
In 2014, India produced approximately 51 million pieces of bovine hides, and 128 million pieces of sheep, lamb, and goat skins. About 80 percent of these local raw materials are used to produce on average approximately 2 billion square feet of leather per year. India’s livestock population supports this growing industry; however, in the last few years some animal populations have decreased. According to the Livestock Census, 2012, published by Government of India (GOI), from 2007 to 2012 the cattle population fell by 4.1 percent to 190.9 million while the water buffalo population increased by 3.2 percent to 108.7 million.
During the same period, the sheep and goat population declined by 9.1 and 3.8 percent to 65.06 and 135.17 million, respectively. Raw hides and skins are processed in tanneries to produce wet blues (semi-processed leather), and are further tanned to create finished leather. Indian tanneries either buy wet blues from processors or produce wet blues themselves. According to industry reports, there are around 2,000 tanneries in India. More than 75 percent are considered small- to medium-sized factories that process up to 500 pieces per day; large tanneries can process between 1,000 to 1,500 pieces per day. Major production centers are in Tamil Nadu (Chennai, Ambathur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Tiruchirappalli, and Dindigul) West Bengal (Kolkata), Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Agra, and Noida), and Punjab (Jalandhar) Tanneries source raw hides from slaughterhouses or middlemen who purchase pieces from local butchers or weekly markets. Major challenges faced by small- and medium-sized tanneries include unskilled manpower, obsolete technology, and environmental pollution.
Large tanneries subcontracted to international brands often have modern equipment and can comply with stricter quality standards. Poor animal husbandry practices lower the quality of domestically produced hides and skins; moreover, unskilled labor can create defects such as cuts, marks, scars, and scratches. According to industry sources, Indian cow hides are around 25 to 28 square feet while buffalo hides are around 45 square feet. Large operations that export higher quality finished products need very sizeable hides, which are imported and constitute 20 percent of total finished leather production.
Most leather manufacturers primarily use bovine hides to produce finished leather goods. Local water buffalo hides are generally 20 to 30 percent less expensive than locally sourced cow hides. According to industry sources, raw buffalo hide prices are approximately $18 to $20 (15 to 25 kg), $30 to $35 (35 to 45 kg), and $45 to $50 (more than 45 kg) per piece. Goat skins are also used for shoes, shoe linings, gloves, bags, garments, and other soft leather products primarily geared for the domestic market. Around 90 million pieces of raw goat skins (approximately four to five square feet per piece) are produced per year. Sheep and lamb skins are used to produce garments, gloves, automotive seat covers, and other products.
STRUCTURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LEATHER INDUSTRY IN INDIA
The Indian leather industry holds a significant position in the Indian economy in terms of high potential shown for employment, growth and exports. It is estimated that the industry employs around 2.5 million work force directly or indirectly and 30% of the workforce are women. The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50% of the total work force.
The sector comprises of tanneries (where hide and skins are transformed into leather) and manufacturing units (where leather footwear, garments and outerwear, and assorted leather goods are manufactured). These production facilities are spread over organized and unorganized (mostly family owned) units/ production centers with the unorganized units dominating almost 80% of the total production.
It should be noted that the unorganized units generally cater to the domestic market, while the organized units cater to both domestic and international market. Further the sector can be classified based upon its production ranges. The estimated production capacity of leather products for 2011-12 is shown in table below:
Table 3.3 production capacity of leather
Leather Footwear 909 Million Pairs
Leather Shoe Uppers 100 Million Pairs
Non – Leather Footwear 1056 Million Pairs
Leather Garments 16 Million Pieces
Leather Goods 63 Million Pieces
Industrial Gloves 52 Million Pairs
Saddlery & Harness 12.50 Million Pieces
Source: Council for Leather Exports
The major production centers for leather and leather products are located at Tamil Nadu (Chennai, Ambathur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Tiruchirappalli, Dindigul) followed by West Bengal (Kolkata), Uttar Pradesh (Kanpur, Agra, Noida). Maharashtra (Mumbai) has the lowest number of manufacturing units. The table below provides the Top 8 states in terms of manufacturing units:
Table: 3.4 state in terms of manufacturing units:
State Clusters No.of manufacturing units
Chennai, Ambathur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Tiruchirappalli, Dindigul 758
West Bengal Kolkata 666
Uttar pradeeh Kanpur, Agra, Noida 90
Chandigarh Punjab& Hariyana Chandigarh, Jallandhar, Ambala, Gurgaon, Panchkula, Karnal 171
Delhi Delhi 155
Andhra pradeh Hyderabad Karnataka Bengaluru 88
Source: Council for Leather Exports
Tanneries are spread all over the country. According to a CLRIreport, there are 2091 tanneries functioning across the country. This number does not include the unregistered cottage-scale tanneries. Of late, tanning activities in the states of Maharashtra (particularly Mumbai), Karnataka (mainly Bangalore) and Rajasthan have reduced consider ably due to economic and environmental reasons. As the manufacture of semi-processed leather or chrome tanning was reserved for the small-scale sector until recently, there is a preponderance of small-tanneries across the country. Limited resources, small scale of operations, lack of technical expertise and a hand-to mouth situation prevent a majority of small-scale tanneries from opting for modernization or improved process technologies. Raw material quality is a prime concern of tanners the world over.
Table 3.5 State-wise Distribution of Tanneries in the Country
State No Of Tanneries Percentage
Tamil Nadu 934 44.60
West Bengal 538 25.70
Punjab 79 3.80
Uttar Pradesh 378 18.00
Andhra Pradesh 24 1.15
Maharashtra 33 1.60
Karnataka 16 0.80
Bihar 17 0.80
Haryana 18 0.80
Other states 54 2.75
Total 2091 100.00
Source: Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) 2010
Out of the total number of tanneries in India, about 45% are in Tamil Nadu alone. Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh account for 88.50% of the total tanneries in the country. The states of Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra contribute to 85% of the total production each with a share of 37.44%, 21.74% and 14.96% respectively. Most tanneries in India use old and inefficient technologies and production methods. Even in large tanneries the general level of technology is low. The use of inefficient technology is largely responsible for the wasteful use of water and chemicals, high load of effluent pollutants and low productivity of the tanning industry.
Tanneries in Tamil Nadu
The list of existing tanneries of Dindigul (Tamil Nadu, India) was obtained from the Tanners’ Association, Dindigul, and the list was tallied with the list available with the Pollution Control Board of Tamil Nadu. All the tanneries in the list were visited and information on the average daily production was collected from their records, and, based on the quantity of hide (skin of cow or buffalo) and skin (skin of goat or sheep) processed, tanneries were grouped into three categories i.e. big, medium and small. Those tanneries that process raw materials more than 4000 kg/day are grouped as big size tanneries, the tanneries that process 1500 to 4000 kg/day are grouped as medium size tanneries, and, the tanneries that process less than 1500 kg/day are grouped as small size tanneries. Information regarding the places and the quantities of raw hide/skin procured for the various tanneries and also information on the number of hides/skins processed during the past ten years from selected tanneries were collected from the records.
The number of tanneries that are located in various districts of Tamil Nadu is given in the following Table Of the total number of 443 tanneries present. 234 are located in North Arcot district, 63 in chingelput district. 60 in district and 55 in Coimbatore district. The rest of the tanneries are located in Thiruchirapalli (16) Salem (5) Tirunelveli (4) Kanniyakumari (4) Ramanadhapuram (1) south Arcot (1) Districts. Figure 1 provides a general idea of the distribution of the tanneries in various districts of tamilnadu.
Table 3.6 No. of tanneries in Tamilnadu
District No. of Tanneries
North Arcot 234
South Arcot 1
Source: overview of leather industry
Tamil Nadu accounts for 30 per cent of leather exports and about 70 per cent of leather production in the country. Hundreds of leather and tannery facilities are located around Vellore and its nearby towns, such as Ranipet, Ambur and Vaniyambadi. The Vellore district is the top exporter of finished leather goods in the country. Vellore leather accounts for more than 37 percent of the country’s export of leather and leather related products (such as finished leathers, shoes, garments and gloves). The state accounts for 70 per cent of leather tanning capacity in India and 38 per cent of leather footwear and components. The exports from Tamil Nadu are valued at about US$762 million, which accounts for 42 per cent of Indian leather exports. Hundreds of leather and tannery industries are located around Vellore, Dindigul and Erode its nearby towns such as Ranipet, Ambur, Perundurai and Vaniyambadi. The tanning industry in India has a total capacity of 100 million pieces of hides and skins, of which Tamil Nadu alone contributes 70 per cent, a leading export product share at 40 per cent for India. It currently employs more than 2.5 million persons. Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), a CSIR research laboratory, is located in Chennai, the state capital. Footwear Design & Development Institute, Chennai is located at Irungattukottai near SIPCOT Footwear Park, 40 minutes drive from Chennai. Central Footwear Training Institute of Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India is situated in Guindy, Chennai-32. Tamilnadu has a dominant presence in the leather and leather based industries. Tamilnadu alone contributes an inspiring 70%. the tanning industry ( hide and skins ) in India . The state accounts for more than 50% of the country’s export of leather and leather- related products such as shoe uppers, shoes, garments, and so on. The state government is geared up to provide attractive incentives and infrastructural support in the form of setting up industrial estates and common effluent treatment plants. Thus Tamilnadu substantial share of the leather market in the years to come is ensured. Leather sector in TN accounts for 60% of India’s production
TN accounts for 36% of total exports from the Country
Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai is the world’s largest Leather Research Institute
TN accounts for 70% of the Tanning capacity of India and 6% of the Global Leather requirement
Provides direct employment to more than 2 million people Operational Tanneries (Nos.) – 750 Leather Garments (No’s)-698, Upper/full Shoes (No’s)-497
Tanneries in Dindigul
Though tanning industry is the backbone of the leather sector, it is a typical example of what may be termed as an “Ecological Parasite” and it is practically realized in Dindigul, the study area. Tannery is one of the important economic features of Dindigul District. At present, there are 41 tanneries in and around Dindigul. All the tanneries are located within 1-5 kilometers distance from the heart of the town.
The first tanning industry in Dindigul, – the study area – was established by Mr. Mohammed Ismail in 1939. In the earlier days, as a source of potential establishment of tanning industry was welcomed by the local people. But, now-a-days, due to the intensive pollution caused by the tanning sector, the tendency of people is changing.
The chemicals such as lime, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphide, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, chromium sulphate, sulphuric acid, fat liquors, tannins and dyes, used in the tanning process which pollute not only the ground water, soil, but also the air. Till 1987, the tannery effluents, containing the chemicals were drained into the nearby streams, which were finally drained into the tanks – Sensual, Chengankulam, Alankulam, Moongikulam, Udaikulam, Ramayankulam and Ayyankulam. The solid wastes like salt dust, lime, sludge, chrome tanned shaving and splits dumped in the vacant land or in the premises of tanneries which damaged the soil and water. All the tanneries together process about 16000 Kg of skins / hides daily, and the total tannery effluents water generation is 2150 m3 / day and the total annual production is 1095 tones.
All 41 tanneries in Dindigul district, are connected with the Common Effluent Treatment Plant, which is approved by the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board and the performance of CETP is evaluated by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur in 1992.Though the tanneries protect the environment by converting the hides and skins of the meat industry, the tanneries create intensive pollution since the chemicals used in the tanning process.
Apart from that, tanning is a water intensive industry. It requires enormous quantity of fresh water. Every 100 kg of skins, 3200 liters of fresh water is used for tanning. Dindigul is traditionally a drought – prone area. The multiplicity of tanning industry in Dindigul drying up all water sources which are otherwise available for agricultural purpose and domestic consumption.
The discharge from the tanneries is the basic reason for tannery pollution. Since, the process of tanning requires enormous quantity of water, the quantity of waste water discharged after tanning is quite high. In the experience of CLRI, Chennai, the quantum of required water for processing one kilo gram of hide and skin varies from 30-40 liters. Tanning a general term used for the various steps involved in converting hides and skins into leather. Two types of tanning process are commonly practiced by the tanners – vegetable and chrome tanning and sometimes mixed tanning also.
Vegetable tanning: In this method, only the organic compounds such as avaram oams, pungan, veiian and myrobaiom nuts are used. Since, no chemicals are involved in this process; this method is an eco-friendly process. The de-limed pelts are infused in the natural substances for 10 to 15 days and coated with vegetable oil. In the early stage of nineteenth century, the barks which were low in tannins were used and it took normally more than six months. But this duration was reduced to 6-10days only after the usage of extracts containing mixed tanning materials, which dissolve easily in cold water and penetrated into the leather. Now-a day’s drum tannings are very popular and it took only 30-36 hours. Before finishing, the tannins are fixed by filling the drum tanned leathers for 2-3days
Chrome Tanning: This method is commonly undertaken by most of the tanneries. The chrome exhaustion varies between 45.0 per cent and 55.0per cent. This is low compared to the rate of exhaustion (about) 70.0 percent which can be achieved by an improvement of the arrangement, without any change in chemical impact. Due to improper feeding arrangement, poor process control, leakage, there is wastage of chrome. In the chrome tanning process, two methods are practiced – Two bath and single bath method. Among these two, the single bath process is commonly practiced in the tanneries. In the two bath method, the hexavalent chromium, which is more toxic in nature, is used, whereas in the single bath method, chromium sulphate is used. In the single bath process, the pickled pelts are infused in the solution of chrome powder and then in sodium format and sodium bi-carbonate up to 4 to 24 hours in drum, until the tanning is completed. The hides / skins are then mixed with colloidal solution of the basic sulphate of chromium. The leather produced by using this method is used for shoe upper, gloves, garments and luggage. Leather produced by this method has high strength, good seeding properties, good chemical stability, light weight with attractive appearance, versatile physical property (softness) and good permeability to water vapor and air, but it has some environmental impacts. Aluminum, titanium and zirconium salts, cold oil and glut aldehyde are some of the alternative material available for tanning process but it lacks familiarity.
Mixed tanning: The combination of vegetable tanning and chrome tanning method is better than vegetable tanning alone. In the semi chrome leather tanning process, vegetable tanning are used in the initial stage and after the chromium sulphate is used. In some tanneries, the leather is processed up to the stage of finishing either by vegetable tanning or chrome tanning using hides or skins as raw material. Others, process leather only up to an intermediate stage called E.l. Kips (Vegetable tanning or wet Blue stage-chrome tanning) and this type of product is called semi-finished leather.
LOCATION OF TANNERIES IN DINDIGUL –
1 . Zakkiriya Prime Tannery, Ponmandurai road.
2 . Sarathy Tanners, Ponmandurai road.
3 . M.Mohaideen Thumby & Co, Ponmandurai road.
4 . Asrafunnisha Tannery, Batalgundu road.
5 . Jamal Mohamed Tannery, Batalgundu road.
6 . Makhdoom Easa & Co, Batalgundu road.
7 . S.S.International Tannery, Batalgundu road.
8 . Sri Annai Abirami Tanners, Palani bye-pass road.
9 . Bava Moideen Tannery, Madurai road.
10 . Khadersha & Bros, Madurai road.
11 . Krishna Skin Traders, Madurai road.
12 . Meenachi & Co, Madurai road.
13. G.A.Rathinam & Bros., Madurai road.
14. R.S. & Sons, Madurai road.
15. Siddique Leathers, Madurai road.
The promotional structure for the development of the leather industry is quite vast, with institutions set up for basic research on materials and processes (the Central Leather Research Institute in Madras), for building a pool of technical manpower (colleges of leather technology in different parts of the country), for training workers through training institutes (Footwear Design and Development Institute), national level programmes such as the UNDP assisted National Leather Development Programme and the Leather Technology Mission, various state level leather boards and other such initiatives. There are also a large number of business associations, formed by entrepreneurs in different segments of the industry, and an extremely active Council for Leather Exports under the aegis of the Ministry of Commerce.
Government policy towards the leather industry has been guided by the imperatives of two primary aspects: the first aspect is based on the premise that this is a traditional industry providing employment to a large number of people who constitute the bottom of the economic and social hierarchy, that production based on small scale can be conducive to maximisation of employment and harnessing of skills in the sector and that production of many articles made of leather should therefore continue to be produced in artisanal or small scale units; the second aspect is based on the fact that the sector has always been a large foreign exchange earner and that exports should concentrate on adding value to raw material such that outflow of raw material from the country in semi-processed or finished form should be regulated and exports of more and more value added items should be encouraged. Both policies for small-scale sector development as well as policies for export promotion have thus influenced the leather industry.
The industrial revolutions of the past and present centuries have proved to be “mixed blessings” for the civilization of mankind. These revolutions have brought economic prosperity to the people on the one hand and damaged the natural environment and threatened the ecological security of the earth on the other. Further, the society and community at present are facing host of diseases and more disasters than ever before, caused by the industrial pollutions, emitted by coal, thermal power plants, coal mining, quarrying, motor transport, engineering, metal plant, wood, paper and pulp, herbicides and pesticides, painting, textiles, leather industries etc. From the development point of view, these industries are generating more employment, output and contributing a significant quantum to GNP; whereas from the environmental side, they are creating a huge quantum of pollution of different kinds that not only affect the present generation, but also affect the future generation. One such industry is leather / tannery industry, functioning in Dindigul and its environs. With this background, the researcher has collected and gathered data and information from 60 respondents (inter changeably used as respondents) and sought opinion about the impact of tanneries on the socio economic and environmental life of respondents in dindigul town. The discussion, analysis, and interpretation of data emerged from this study are presented in the following;
The table 4.1 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for age of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTSBASED ON AGE
S .No. Age No. of respondents Percentage
1 Below 30 12 12%
2 31 – 40 28 28%
3 41 – 50 40 40%
4 Above 50 20 20%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Age is one of the factors which influences both the physical and socio-economic status of every human being. Majority of the head of the respondents (68 per cent) are in the age group of 30-50 years; 20 per cent are in the age group of above 50 years and only 12 per cent are in the age group of less than 30 years.
FIGURE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON AGE
Genrally gender of the person is considered to be an important factor, which influence the work scheme. Hence gender has been identified factor.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF GENDER
Gender No. of respondents Percentage
1 Male 80 88.88%
2 Female 20 20 %
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.2 reveals that out of 100 respondents, 80 per cent are male and the rest of them (20 per cent) are female. The number of women respondents is small owing to the fact that women hesitated to face interview.
FIGURE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF GENDER
The table 4.3shows that the researcher has applied percentage values for religion wise respondents.
DISTRIBUTION SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF RELIGION
Sl. No Religion No. of Respondents Percentage
1 Hindu 46 46%
2 Christian 32 32 %
3 Muslim 22 22 %
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary data
Table 4.3 reveals that religion wise distribution of sample respondents reflects that 46 per cent belong to Hindu religion followed by Christian (32 per cent) and Muslim (22 per cent). It is right place to mention that most of the tannery units were owned and managed by Muslim community and only a few tannery units were partly owned and partly leased by the entrepreneurs belonging to Hindu and Christianity.
FIGURE 3: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF RELIGION
The table 4.4 shows that the researcher has applied percentage values for marital status of the respondents.
DISTRIBUTION SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF MARITAL STATUS
S.No Marital status No of respondents Percentage
1. Married 80 80%
2. Unmarried 5 5%
3. Widow 15 15%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.4 exhibits that majority of the respondents are married(80 per cent) and 5 Per cent respondents belong unmarried and 15 percent respondents are widow.
FIGURE 4: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF MARITAL STATUS
TYPES OF FAMILY
The table 4.5 shows that the researcher has applied percentage values for religion wise respondents.
DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF TYPES OF FAMILY
Sl.No. Type of family No. of respondents Percentage
1 Nuclear 72 72 %
2 Joint 28 28%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.5 exhibits that majority of the respondents are living under nuclear families (72 per cent) and 28 Per cent belong to joint family system. Despite the above fact, many respondents have accepted that the joint family system has been disappearing slowly from the village scene and thus resulting in the emergence of nuclear family.
FIGURE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF TYPES OF FAMILY
SIZE OF THE FAMILY
The table 4.6 shows that the researcher has applied percentage values for religion wise respondents.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF SIZE OF FAMILY
Sl. No Size of family No. of respondents Percentage
1 Small (less then 4 members) 48 48 %
2 Middle(4 to 6 members) 15 15 %
3 Large( more then 6 members) 37 37 %
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Table 4.6 shows the concept of small family has found recognition among the respondents. It is evident from the data that 48 per cent of the respondents have small size family with less than 4 members, followed by large family with more than 6 members (37 per cent) and 15 per cent by medium size family with 4 to 6 members.
FIGURE 6: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF SIZE OF FAMILY
Education is one of the significant factors having direct relationship to the respondents The table 4.7 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for educaional status of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF EDUCATIONAL STATUS
Sl. No Educational Qualifications No. of Respondents Percentage
1 Illiterate 74 74%
2 Primary 16 16%
3 Higher secondary school 10 10 %
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.7 explains the educational status, 74 per cent are Illiterates and 16 per cent of the respondents are Primary. Only 10 percent of the people are studying high school Though educational facilities are available in Dindigul and its surroundings, people in these villages, particularly, socially and economically marginalized groups are not interested to undergo higher studies. This may be due to poor economic status and lack of awareness on the importance of education among such groups.
FIGURE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF EDUCATIONAL STATUS
Nature of payment
The table 4.8 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for naure of payment of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF NATURE OF PAYMENT
Sl. No Nature of payment No. of respondents Percentage
1 Daily wage Earners nil Nil
3 Weekly wage earners 90 90
4 Monthly salary 10 10
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary data
Table4.8 Employment status of the respondents reflects that tannery workers 90percent employees are earn weekly wage and 10 percent employees are get monthly salaries.
FIGURE 8 DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYMENT STATUS
Income is the important factor of the respondents. The table 4.9 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for income of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF
(In Rs.) No. of respondents Percentage
1 5000-10000 83 82. %
2 10001-15000 16 16%
3 15001- 20000 2 2%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.9 reveals out of 100 respondents, 82 per cent of them earn Rs.5000 – Rs.10,000, followed by 16 per cent earn more than Rs.10,001-15,000 , 2per cent who earn Rs.15,001 – Rs.20,000
FIGURE 9: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF ANNUAL INCOME
Sources of drinking water
Water is essential for all the people. The table 4.10 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for drinking water of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF
SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER
Sl. No Sources of drinking water No. of respondents Percentage
1 Mineral Water 53 53%
3 Corporation Water 16 16%
4 Bore well 31 31%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
From Table 4.10 reveals that the drinking water is available mineral water of 53 per cent of the respondents, required quantity.
FIGURE 10: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF SOURCES DRINKING WATER
Quailty of drinking water
The table 4.11 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for quality of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON RESPONDENTS OPINION TOWARDS QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER
Sl. No Particulars No. of respondents Percentage
1 Good 55 55%
2 Bad 25 25%
3 Worst 20 20%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary data
Table 4.11 points out that highest number of respondents 33 (55 percent) get good water, 25 per cent of them get bad water and 20 per cent get only worst water.
FIGURE 11: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON RESPONDENTS OPINION TOWARDS QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER
The table 4.12 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for drainage facility of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON AVAILABILITY OF DRAINAGE FACILITY
Sl. No Drainage No. of respondents Percentage
1 Yes 62 62%
2 No 38 38%
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.12 reveals about 38.33 per cent of the respondents reported that they do not have any drainage facility as against 61.67 per cent. But, the drainage systems are not properly maintained either by the household or by the local authorities.
FIGURE: 12 DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON AVAILABILITY OF DRAINAGE FACILITY
Nature of the product purchased
The table 4.13 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for naure of product purchased
DISTRIBUTION SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF NATURE OF PRODUCT PURCHASED
S. No Nature of product No of respondents Percentage
1. Raw leathers 100 100
2. Semi finished leathers – –
3. Finished leathers – –
4. Both semi finished and finished leathers – –
Sources: Primary data:
Table 4.13 points out 100% respondents are said raw leathers are used.
FIGURE 13 DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON NATURE OF PRODUCT PURCHASED
The table 4.14 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for surroundings environment
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON RESPONDENTS OPINION TOWARDS SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT
Sl. No Particulars No. of respondents Percentage
1 Good 18 18%
2 Bad 37 37%
3 Worst 45 45%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
Table 4.14 points out that 45 per cent of the respondents live in worst surroundings, followed by 37 in bad surroundings and only 18 per cent in good surroundings.
FIGURE 14: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF RESPONDENTS OPINION TOWARDS SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT
The table 4.15 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for reatment facility
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON AVAILING TREATMENT FACILITY
Sl. No Places of treatment No. of respondents Percentage
1 Primary Health Centre 18 18%
2 General Hospital 40 40%
3 Private Clinic 15 15%
4 ESI Hospital 27 27%
Total 100 100
Sources: Primary Data
From table 4.15 reveals, that the respondents taking treatment in Government Hospital (GH)are 40 per cent, in ESI hospital 27 per cent and in Primary Health Centre (PHC) are18 per cent.
FIGURE 15 DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BASED ON PLACEMENT OF TREATMENT PLAN
The table 4.16 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for disease affectd by respondents.
Table 4. 16
DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF DISEASES
S. No Diseases No of respondents Percentage
1. Skin problems 35 35%
2. Asthma 15 15%
3. Head ace & leg pain 12 12%
4. Diarrhea 18 18%
5. TB 20 20%
Total 100 100
Sources: primary data
From table 4.16 reveal, that the respondents affected the disease asthma 15%, diarrhea is 18%, and head ace and leg pain is 12% and the skin problems is 35% and TB is 20%
FIGURE 4.16 DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF DISEASES AFFECTED HOUSE HOLD
The table 4.17 shows that the researcher has applied peracentage values for wage scheme of the respondents
DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF OPINION ABOUT WAGE SCHEME
S.No Opinion No. Of Respondent Percentage
1 satisfied 28 28
2 dissatisfied 72 72
Total 100 100
Sources: primary data
From table 4.17 reveals, that the respondents 28 percent respondents are satisfied their age scheme and 72percent respondent are dissatisfied their age scheme.
FIGURE: 4.17 DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF OPINION ABOUT WAGE SCHEME
CGR= Alog (B-1)100
Compund growth rate for 2018 =467.
FIGURE 4.18 EXPORT VALUE IN RUPEES
Ho=There is no relationship between age and workers health pattern.
Age and Disease pattern
below 30 31-40 41-50 above 50 Total
Skin problems 4 15 10 6 35
asthma – 3 10 2 15
Head ace 5 4 3 – 12
diarrhea 3 3 8 4 18
TB – 3 9 8 20
12 28 40 20 100
5% level of significance =5.226
Since the calculated value more than the table value so reject the hypothesis.
Result of weighted average score
Difficulty in work place
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weighted score average rank
Wage scheme 20 15 20 10 15 10 10 475 47.5 II
No break hour 12 18 30 10 20 7 3 459 45.9 III
Over work load 10 10 15 10 20 15 20 355 35.5 VII
Dual responsibility 15 25 30 10 45 5 20 565 56.5 I
No job security 10 20 15 15 5 18 10 386 38.6 V
Receiving other allowance 12 18 13 17 12 4 10 379 37.9 VI
Fight among workers 14 16 17 13 20 10 10 421 42.1 IV
The table 4.19 reveals the respondents feels dual responsibitiy was given by the industry, and the secondly wage scheme is not well, and finally there is no more conflict from workers.
Result of garret ranking score
1 2 3 4 5
Garret’s score Average rank
Canteen facility 20 30 10 15 25 12700 56.44 I
First aid facility 13 17 23 27 20 15045 66.8 V
Hygienic toilet 35 10 25 15 15 10945 48.6 III
Fresh water 22 38 12 18 10 13815 61.4 II
Transportation 20 28 22 17 13 14669 65.19 IV
The table 4.20 reveals the industry provided canteen facility and they have good fresh water.first aid facility is not good in the industry
Out of the100 respondents majority 68 per cent are in the age group of 30-50 years; 15 per cent are in the age group of above 50 years and only 12 per cent are in the age group of less than 30 years. Thus, it is concluded that the sources of information about the tannery pollution and its impact on household environment supplied by the respondents are living in the villages under scan for more than 30 years.
Out of 100 respondents, 78 per cent are male and the rest of them 22 per cent are female, and more so, the tannery industries is male dominated one and infact a few female members are also working in tannery industries.
Religion wise distribution of sample respondents reflects that 48 per cent are to Hindus followed by Christians 32 per cent and Muslim 22 per cent. Though, Muslims respondents are less in number, most of the tanneries are owned and managed by Muslim entrepreneurs.
Majority of the respondents are living under nuclear families 72 per cent and 28per cent belong to joint family system.
It is evident from the data that 48 per cent of the respondents have small size family with less than 4 members, followed by large family with more than 6 members 37 per cent and 15 per cent of them belong to medium size family with 4 to 6 members.
In terms of educational status, 74 per cent of the respondents are illiterates In spite of the availability of the educational infrastructure in Dindigul, members of the respondents in study area; especially those respondents belong to socially and economically marginalized are not interested for higher education.
Nature of payment is the respondents reflects that tannery workers 35 per cent, regular salaried, working in private sector 30 per cent and in public sector 13per cent and daily wage earners 22 per cent.
Out of 100 respondents, 40 per cent of them earn Rs.5000 – Rs.10000, followed by 37 per cent, who earn Rs.10,000 – Rs.15000; 23 per cent earn more than Rs.15,000-20000.
About 38.33 per cent of the respondents reported that they do not have any drainage facility as against 61.67 per cent. Who have drainage facility or by the panchayat. But, the drainage systems are not properly maintained either by the respondents. This shows that people in general and local government in particular are not taking many efforts in protecting the surrounding environment of homes
Drinking water is available outside the premises of the houses 83.33 per cent as swell as within the premises of the houses 16.67 per cent with poor water quality.
Regarding drinking water out of the 60 respondents 33 (55 percent) fall under the category of good. 15 (25 percent) respondents come under the category of bad. 12 (20 percent) respondents belong to worst category.
With regard to the surrounding environment condition, about highest number of respondents 27 (45 percent) fall under the category of worst. 22 (36.67 percent) respondents come under the category of Bad. 11 (18.33 percent) respondents belong to good category.
The respondents are taking treatment in Government General Hospital (GGH) are 0 (40 per cent), ESI hospital (26.67 per cent) and Primary Health Centre (PHC) (18.33 per cent), whereas only 15 per cent of them approach private clinics / nursing homes for treatments. Most of the respondents believed that the cost of treatment in GGH and ESI are very cheap and sometimes free of cost.
There is no relationship between age and worker’s healt pattern because the calculated value more than the table value so reject the hypothesis.
In the leaher industry sufficient dual responsibility was given to the respondents testing by weighted average method.
The figure 4.18 reveals that the export leather goods value for 2010-2017. The compound growth rate for 2018 is467.
As drinking water sources are highly polluted in these study area, the people are faced various problems and difficulties. If the people want good and healthy water, they will travel a few kilometers to get good quality water. The drinking water is brought from the Vaigai river source near Anaipatti, above 45 km from Dindigul and also from the Kamaraja Sagar Dam at Attur, above 20 km from Dindigul through pipeline.
As the agricultural lands are in a highly degraded state, proper steps should be taken up towards their reclamation. It has been suggested that planting of Atriplexnumalaria also known as ‘Salt bush’ can be planted in the saline lands which has the capacity to desolute the soil in about 7 – 8 years (Apparao and Karthikeyan, 1990). Hence for reclaiming their lands, such species can be supplied at subsidized rates.
.Steps should be taken to dispose the existing tannery waste dumps to safer areas. This would greatly reduce the problem of pollution of lands by means of deposition of these wastes in the lower areas by rain water, a problem which is common in the study area especially in the villages around the tanneries.
Environmental initiations will be effective only when they are regularly monitored, checked and reviewed. Hence, respective authorities should conduct frequent inspection in the tanneries and also monitor the state of ambient environment in the areas in and around the tanneries.
Improving the Quality of Groundwater besides treatment of effluents before they are let out, which would greatly reduce any further pollution of groundwater, steps should be taken to identify newer groundwater recharge areas and reclaim the existing ones in order to enhance recharge of groundwater in the area. This would greatly help to bring down pollution level.
Improvement in drainage system to avoid the formation of hydrogen sulfide gas inside the tanneries is suggested.
Proper arrangements should be made to stop the use of tanned solid waste in the preparation of poultry feed.
The tannery needs in-house measures to reduce the water consumption. This can be achieved by installing flow meter in the wet finishing area for the supply of measured quantity of fresh water;
Replace conventional salt curing process with chilling ice and used predominantly fresh hides;
Pickle liquor should be recycled through precipitation of solids and floatation of grease and fat;
The appropriate environment friendly technologies should be adopted according to the particular needs and conditions of particular tanneries;
It is recommended that in-house improvements be undertaken immediately.
Tanneries form an intermediate segment of the leather industry and they are classified under the category “Red-most polluting industries”. They get hides and skins from the animal husbandry sector and sell tanned leather to downstream units for manufacture of footwear and leather products. The Government of India reserved many tanning operation and production of certain leather products to small scale sectors in order to achieve the goals of employment generation and decentralized pattern of development. Environmental problems arise at the pre tanning stage in slaughtering the animals, collecting the carcasses, curing and transferring the hides and skins and also in leaving on load. But as these damages are dispersed and are within the assimilative capacities of the regions, they do not yet receive public attention. Until the early eighties, the pollution problem from tanneries did not receive much public attention, perhaps, because the pollution loads were well below the assimilative capacities of the regions.
With the rapid growth of tanneries, the pollution loads increased at rapid rates. At the same time the assimilative capacities of the rivers, ponds, lakes, streams etc. were weakened, because of the reduced water flows / water availability in some months and no water flows / water availability in many months of year because of increasing demands for water for irrigation household and industrial uses. Tannery pollution has adverse environmental impact in tannery towns and nearby villages. The cumulative impacts of tannery effluents affect water quality, human health and soil. Compliance with the environmental standards may solve the local environmental problems and enables the tannery industry retain its access foreign market. But there is genuine fear but the compliance costs may be high, because most tanners are small in size, their technologies are obsolete and they lack technical and managerial skills for pollution prevention and control.
Four options are available to tanners for pollution control in tanneries and they are: i) closure; ii) relocation; iii) Effluent Treatment Plant; and iv) membership in Common Effluent Treatment Plant. Of these options, closure option, except perhaps in case of few isolated tanneries, is not socially desirable options. It will have adverse backward and forward linkage effects. Relocation may involve heavy social and economic costs to the people affected and to society at large. Further, most person adversely affected by closure or relocation belong to weaker sections or minorities. Effluent Treatment Plant is feasible for larger units and it may also be a low cost option for some isolated units compared with closure or relocation.
Common Effluent Treatment Plants appear to be a cost effective option for most tanneries in industrial clusters. Common Effluent Treatment Plant as a social organization must setup: Environmental Management Information System, creative incentives for its member to adopt the in-plant pollution control measures; seek technical assistance from Research & Development institutions and international agencies on pollution abatement, recovery and reuse of water and chemical and safe disposal of waste. In addition, governments, (Central, State and Local) industry associations and technical institutions should provide necessary technical information and managerial expertise to tanners and Common Effluent Treatment Plants. The tanners, Common Effluent Treatment Plant management and industry association should realize that the polluters pay principle and the precautionary principle have been recognized as principle of environmental management. To conclude, Government Organizations, Non-Government Organizations, Trade Unions, Social activists, Industrialists etc. should work together for removing the untold sufferings of the environmental victims and improving the environmental status of Dindigul and its environments.