Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES

This chapter provides an overview of previous researches and studies relating to good governance and stewardship which could have substantial impact of the present study. The review of related literature is composed of discussions of the facts and principles taken from the internet to which the present study is related and also present proposed study has some bearing or similarity.

Related Literature
In a case study “A Woman In Politics: The Journey of Ms. X”, Laterna et al (2018) revealed that, traits of a good person to serve having dedication, passion and genuine desire. Nurturing the capacity of a person but the experiences he/she struggles in life. Everyone has a talent and it is up to the servant leader how to discover, especially dealing services to people who are in need. Dilemmas are inevitable, have the courage and desire to pursue your good intentions for it is the key to meet what we aim for the betterment of everybody. If somebody love to be politician then it should be a public servant at the same time.
Yet another studyby Foxton (2018) found that,people in leadership are vowed with a lot of accountabilities and responsibilities to measure if they are really effective for public service. However outputs, inputs and productivity will be discovered until after a long period of time in rendering services. Aiming for a better fruit is the ideal of a steward leader. Our capacities and abilities will be measured a couple of time if we really effective and efficient leader. Most of the time flexible steward are needed by sectors to solve the hanging problems and answer it accordingly.
In addition McCourt (2018) strongly argue that, public services need to be reformed. Where policymakers and rich donors can have this partnership for improvement. There have been significant instances of large scale reform success, such as Nepal’s public service commission and Malaysia’s Delivery Unit, Pemandu, and also “Pockets of Effectiveness” in individual agencies in many countries. Reforms are in need if policies are not effective anymore to the constituents. Steward need to play as a repertoire.
According to Nolan (2010), leader is not to be served but to serve. Entrusted with a lot of responsibilities and fundamental person to manage and exploit resources for available goods. A leader is one who can call upon the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. People who are in the position specially in government agency should find remedies when problem, calamities or whatever errand occur .They should be ready to help as what they ought to be with utmost trust.
In another article “Steward the Gifts God Has Arrived to You”, Bloom (2015), we are stewards of the gifts God has entrusted to us. And he has entrusted them to us primarily for the benefit of others (1 Peter 4:10; Romans 12: 4-6). We have different assignments in life and we need to serve people for we are a bondservant of Christ. We did not live for ourselves alone but with people around us. To be a human has a lot of dreams in life but our designer knows what is really best for us. And it is the key answer to spread gratitude by helping and serving the ones who are in need. The truth is that each one of us has a purpose why we are here, is to make fruit for the goodness of us others and as of yourself.
Cuganesan (2017) expounded, the other face of stewardship is in information balancer for public sector collaboration. It is one of the obligations of government employee to cater services for public good. Collaborations are deeply needed to address early and solve the hanging problem of the society. In depth understanding of stewardship is to manage well the resources and be the voice of the said participation for improvement.
Moreover Segal (2011) also explained, good stewardship can be the remedy to answer the problems of government. Such as corruption, bureaucracy and stewardship itself. Problem occur in the offices and as a manager you need to be a good reconciling personnel as best as you can to harmonize things. Stewardship is a conduct of a good server. Deepens the understanding of a good stewardship in serving the public sector for good.
Kapoor (2014) emphasized, responsible manager, political will, normative dimension, balanced interventionist and proponents of good governance are the core meaning of stewardship. Stewardship is the disinterested performance of a duty by government and or its agents on behalf of a superior. As the agent of society by being a politician of a respective area, you should perform with utmost regard for the need to have optimum results to achieve the overall public need. Responsibilities will be shouldered by a person who is taking the office and serve everybody with equality. Notions and considerations of things are required in services.
Another study “Government Stewardship and Primary Health Care” Cross (2018) stated that, one of the primarily problem of the government is the assurance of health services. A good steward must have the ability to respond and inquire alternatives to cure the said health problem. Public-private partnership can be the source and can mend this problem coping to a better solution of health problems. With this also we can have better facilities, laboratories and a lot of things for development. Globalization is one way to heal such problem, by opening and accepting new ways and technologies, ailments can be easily treated. A good steward knows how to answer the problem on his/her area as an effective leader.
Wilson (2010) detailed, leadership exist from ancient time until present. Profit or non-profit leaders are influential and work hard for the good and productive outputs for other people. Traits of steward includes descriptions of principles, behaviors, values and or skills. There are biases sometimes of the traits of steward leader but members and constituents need to in line with inclusiveness. But at the end, sectors will find talented leaders and knows how to play the role and produce good outputs.
Wall (2012) found that, responsibility of non-profit social services organization running in the town of Toronto. Unexpected this confirms a responsibility bias primarily based on an imposed system of accountability dominated by way of upward financial accounting. In order to enhance stewardship over scarce non-profit they approach the calls to non-profit companies to reorient their responsibility to provide costumers greater voice toward people through moving or going higher Kluvers and Tippet (2011) found that open decision making has gotten to be more concerned with handle and compliance especially estimation, and less concerned with compelling benefit and interaction with the key partner. And they discover that over the few decades, toward administrative responsibility. Councilors and managers notice the uncovered highlights of key components of the new public management execution.
Adejuwon (2014) stated that, responsibility is critical for successful execution within the division since both elected and non-elected officials ought to appear that they are performing their duties within conceivable way. In Nigeria, they embrace strategy in gathering different sources to delineate absence of responsibility. Shah (2011) found that it is usually accepted that a law based frame of government rests on the establishment of responsibility as government is held responsible to the individuals.
Barendse et al (2016) claimed that, stewardship is seen as a successor to prior common asset administration frameworks. In any case, in South Africa, stewardship is barely connected to biodiversity. Employing a broader definition of stewardship, individuals recognize all potentially related plans that will contribute to maintain and preserved the results.
Marvel (2008) stated that, as Ohio City conducted a survey on distinctive nature of service delivery provided through contracts with other governments the results are made an agreement in contrast to a possible future effect from stewardship. It is illustrated that contracts with open divisions benefit accomplices produce less monitoring governments with private entities.
Pressgrove (2013) claimed that, the core factor which stewardship impels nonprofit stakeholder attitudes, behaviors and loyalty. It begin with approval scale to measure recognitions development techniques of stewardship and a new concept of stewardship offered five factors relationship nurturing, responsibility, reporting, reciprocity, and reciprocity recognition. And this hypothetical show was progressed to increase the organization, commitment and satisfaction to measure loyalty and behavioral intentions.
Schillemans (2013) stated that, stewardship hypothesis has been created as an elective to office theory and centers on shared objectives and standards. It manifest on how current controls are unequivocally imbedded in office. As they conducted a survey they found out that a stewardship demonstrates for the connections between agencies and central governments are develops slowly into better.
Reardon (2011) found that, ministry, a word need to manage the resources available in the area which are given by God. Includes gifts and talents to be shared so that things will grow as what creator wants to complete the purpose here in living. Time, we need to move for it only cycle ones and for all we are accountable for everything. In relation to the government stewardship implies the care of people, resources, gifts and talents. Time management is a vital into government especially rendering services to the people.
Stafford and Stapleton (2017) found that, Public-Private partnership (PPP) contacts in Britain, and assesses the degree which they provide taxpayers with control and accountability. Shaoul et al (2012) said that it appears the way these instruments are set-up implies there’s a need of control by the public sector, hence rendering public accountability ineffective. PPP corporate administration courses of action are drawn from the private sector and this manner make light of conventional concepts of fidelity and stewardship.
According to Van, d. W., ;Lahat, L. (2017) that, the difference between trust among public and non-public officials are the highest compared to the other regimes in social-democratic regimes. The degree of public official of trust reflects the general trends of their societies. Given the fundamental position of trust in the functioning of the welfare state, the effects that in further cognizance and mechanisms for growing the degree of trust of citizens among public officials are warranted.
Hwang, K. (2013) expressed that, in public organizations and public services, performance management is conventional but the push performance may damage genuine accountability. One critical reason for this is that little knowledge has developed about the scope and effect of actual accountability requirements in the public management field.
The management control device can be designed at the operational degree to be enabling shows in particular. It observed the value of international transparency for aiding corporate governance practices around public interest. (Ferry, L., ;Ahrens, T. (2017)
Dealing public service is facing huge accountability shouldered by a governmental politician. Indeed accountability is the rigid responsibility addressed to a leader. Aiming to create positive results are the focus of a good leader that he can share to others. (Schillemans, T. (2015)
In public service, good stewardship can make a public sector productivity. Success implementation of government law which people respect anf follow can produce a good result. In which the new generation will bear all the betterness of the past by surrendering good services. Products cannot be made by a single person but by condition. (Makhlouf, G. (2017).
It is not about how much you take but the opposite of it, how much you give. Nothing can measure the feeling of satisfaction and success if we serve other people with all our heart. Rewards are not necessarily however it can be the motivation to uplift what we work for. Rationalizes every step you make and devote ourselves to others. (Keefer, B. (2016).
Wealthy nation, good economic and poltical performance is a sign of a good governance. Good governance generally promotes innovation, economic freedom and competitiveness. (Rindermann, H., Kodila-Tedika, O., Christainsen g. (2015).