Chapter 2
Literature review
2.1 Chapter introduction
The aim of this chapter is to present literature relevant to this research and to provide a theoretical framework. The chapter begins firstly brief summery about tourism industry and the relationship between the innovation and the tourism industry. Secondly about independent variable of innovation, type of innovation, and Innovative technological amenities in hotels and performance. Thirdly about dependent variable of hotels’ organization performance. Fourthly conceptual frame work and operationalization has been presented in this chapter. Operationalization chart provide brief idea about what are the independent variable, dependent variable, and how measurement that variables. Finally this chapter provide summery about second chapter.
2.2. Tourism ; hospitality industry
Since the past years, services industry has achieved a rapid growth in the global context. It Service industry has been contributed the international and the global economy in term of economy of scale. It play critical role in economically and industrially. In Sri Lanka service sector contributed more than 61% to GDP (central bank report, 2017). According to the UNWTO word Tourism Barometer sown 7% remarkable grew rate in tourism arrivals and 4%- 5% rate expect in 2018. To achieve that target hotel industry contribution is most important. In Sri Lanka also face more challengers: world economic dip activities, terrorism attack as well as natural disaster in the last decades. Those led to decline tourism and hospitality industry and the industry profitability. In Sri Lankan context tourism industrials offer unique characterized services through innovation for their customers. For that industrial’s use innovative technology, information technology (IT), the multyskill employees and optimum resource utilization.
2.2.1. Hospitality industry and Innovation
In modern world tourisms industry achieved their goals through innovation, information technology applications, multyskill employees and optimum resource utilization. Information technology industry is dynamically change combined with the innovation. K. Tajeddini’s study of “effect of customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on innovativeness: evidence from the hotel industry in Switzerland” emphasize innovation have a positive impact on hotel service performance, and also innovativeness will have positive effect on profit goal achievement, sales goal achievement, and return on investment (ROI) achievement. This research reveals the owners and manager of hotel who are investing innovative technologies, service or product are able to achieve their profit sales and ROT goals. And this study suggests to improve performance , customer orientation, entrepreneurial and innovations should be encouraged by top managers and owners in hotel sector and if their perceive innovative technologies as an integral part of corporate strategy (Liu, 2002) According to Anil Bilgihan, Fevzi Okumus and David Joon (2011) information technology application may lead to competitive advantage in hotel companies. This study mention investing in IT applications in hotelier can lead to superior competencies and IT capabilities. And also it can subsequently result in lower cost, agility, innovation, added value for service. This research study mention four key areas in implementing IT applications: technology sophistication, management skill, integration of resources, integration of IT systems.
In tourism and hospitality industry frequently use information technology for their operational activities. It is newly available factors of production were the new information and communication technologies, specifically designed for the tourism industry such as computer reservation systems and destination information systems, tourism web-sites on the internet or computer assisted backup systems for complex vacation or business travel packages (Birgit Pikkemaat and Mike peters, 2014). Not only it aid to reduce stationary and maintain cost, enhance operational efficiency, and most importantly to improve service quality (provide quick service) and customer experience (Rob Law, Rosanna Leung, and Dimitrios Buhalis, 2009). Hotels have in general more professional training structures and also invest more money in training. Hotels have realized that employee training is important when developing innovations in order to enhance front-line expertise. Enz and Siguaw (2000) argue that employee training has become an increasingly critical aspect in the hotel sector, in order to increase service quality, reduce labor costs and increase productivity (Ottenbacher, Shaw, and Lockwood2014).
Chain and independent hotels are continuously forced to improving quality and reputation, cutting costs, and increasing sales ; profits in their organization. One of the way hospitality organizations to achieve their objectives through innovation. (Brentani and Cooper; 1992, Michael Ottenbacher and Vivienne Shaw; 2014). Hence innovation has become the strategy for success of the hotel industry. According to the Ottenbacher, Shaw and Lackwood (2014) innovation impact on the service firm’s performance. It supports effective marketing communication in the industry and significantly improve their level of maturity. And this study suggested innovation activities have been affected for the success of the independent hotels and chain hotels. Especially small and medium businesses (SME) in rural regions, the tourism industry displays special disadvantages in terms of product development (Peters and Weiermair; 2002). Basically, small businesses lack economies of scale and are not able to raise profit margins which allow small units to reinvest in research & development, market research, product development, skill or creativity enhancement (Bieger, 2001; Weiermair, 2004). This situation totally change in the present world through the government and non-government organizations’ support (financially and ideally) and innovation technologies. It value added to the value chain of services. Gomez and Probst’s (1995) model categorizes innovation levels in tourism using core competencies as the unit of analysis. This differentiation seems to be appropriate, as innovation in tourism is often based on core competencies. It may comprise internal or external factors. Internal resources of the company are most important determinants regarding positioning and competitive advantages of a company which are difficult to imitate.

2.3. Innovation
Schumpeter (1947) was one of the first to develop a theory about innovation. He defines innovations as “new ways of doing things”. Innovation word cover new and creativity ideas as well as implication of discoveries. Service innovation is “introducing something new into the way of life, organization, timing and placement of what can generally be described as the individual and collective process that relate to consumers” (Tan and Decelle; 2004). “innovations are the outcome of the innovation process, which can be defined as the combined activities leading to new, marketable products and services or new production and delivery systems” (Burgelman and Maidique; 1996). According to Weiermair (2003) innovation recognized most firms to product development and competition in markets, and he mention large tourism firms use information technology and e-tourism are seen as a major change although nobody sees it as an innovation because it comes from outside the industry. Sorescu (2011) expressing different definition for innovation, cannot define extract definition for innovation. But it is derived from originally the Latin verb “innovare” and the Latin noun “innovatus”, standing for transforming an idea or a process into a marketable product or service thus adding value to it. (Peters & Pikkemaat: 2006; Banger: 2007; Vatan: 2010). Not only Peters and Pikkemaat (2011) define it may be concluded that, innovation in tourism industry may be attained by new services, new target groups and consumers, new channels of distribution, new promotion tools and strategies, new marketing applications or new infrastructures. According to these literatures innovation can define create new products and innovations to meet someone needs & wants and find new solution for the problems in present and near future. In this study measure existing innovation technologies in Sri Lankan context.

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2.3.1. Type of innovative
According to the Weiermair (2003) two basic innovation in the tourism and hospitality industry. Product innovations are new products in catering, trendy comfortable hardware in the hotel room, new wellness hardware and applications, new architecture & design, customer loyalty programmers and price innovations. Process innovations are Internet, B2B information, reservation systems, controlling systems, restructuring of the company, new distribution channels and marketing systems, collaboration in various departments and fields, further training of the staff members, and service optimization. According to this study half of the process innovation are affect to the hotel operational performance. As an example wireless internet access, IT base reservation system, robots for cleaning services, guest communication system (Nordin S, 2003; Blichfeldti, 2011). Brentani (2001) the critical dimensions influence service innovation performance that have been separated into four, there are service or product- related, market-related, process- related, and organizational- related. Product- related determinants the relative advantage of a product or service has been recognized as important source of success in new product and service development literatures (Cooper, 1994; Cooper and Kleinschmidt, 1987). And also have been found to improve the performance of service innovations. The market determinants of service innovation success, market synergy (Cooper and De Brentani, 1991; De Brentani and Ragot, 1996) and market attractiveness are particularly important influences. In process-related determinants, the implementation of a proficient and market-oriented new product development process including pre-launch activities (Atuahene-Gima, 1996), employee involvement in the process (De Brentani, 1991), supporting the new project with excellent communication (Edgett, 1994) and effective process management during the process (De Brentani and Ragot, 1996) have been shown to be important. Finally, organizational-related determinants include synergies between the new service and the marketing, managerial and financial resources (De Brentani, 1991). This type of innovation emphasize more researchers (OECD & Eurostat 2005).
Hjalager (2002) distinguishes four types of innovation dealing with competencies: regular innovations, niche innovations, architectural innovations, and revolutionary innovations. While niche innovations emphasize the new cooperation and untouched existing competencies, architectural innovations introduce new structures and redefine relationships to stakeholders. And also this study mention another five innovation types, product innovation, process innovation, market innovation, logistics innovation and institutional innovation. Production innovation mean launch new product or services or increase the production mix, process innovation is new way of producing products or providing the services including new roles for delivery process, market innovation is new modes of communicating with among with the others in external and internal environment, logistics innovation mean new constellation of services and organization of flows, finally institutional innovation is emergence of new organization and new way of providing organization performance. Cihan, Kateina, Michael and Mehmet (2011) measure impact of innovative technology amenities on guest satisfaction. It measure guest satisfaction by used four type of innovation: in room technology innovation, comfort technology innovation, business essential innovation and internal assess innovation. This type of innovative technologies are impact guest satisfaction not also those are affect to the hotel operation. Because operational or organization performance can measure through customer satisfaction. There is literature about the relationships among innovation with service quality, customer satisfaction and the consumer loyalty, the gap in studies relationship among the performance and the innovations.

Birgit Pikkemaat and Mike Peters discuss innovation as competitive advantage in the tourism and in particular, in the small and medium sized hotel industry (Michael Attenbacher, Vivienne Shaw, and Andrew Lockwood; 2014). However Less research has been carried out on innovation in the tourism industry (Hjalager, 2002; Weiermair and Peters, 2002; Keller, 2004; Pikkemaat, 2005; Pikkemaat and Weiermair, 2004, Inanovic 2010; OECD & Eurostat 2005). From the authors’ point of the view recently two studies combined both empirical measurement of innovation with guest satisfaction and the performance (Cihan Cobanoglu, Kateina Berezina, Michael L. Kasavana and Mehmet Erdem, 2011; Weiermair, 2003). This research dimension categories according to Birgit Pikkemaat and Mike Peters study: reservation technology innovation, in room technology innovation, comfort technology innovation, business essential innovation and internal assess innovation.
2.3.2. Innovative technological amenities in hotels and performance
Cihan Cohaniglu, Kateina, Michael L. Kasava and Mehmet Erdem (2011) emphasis on there is positive relation between innovation and guest satisfaction. This research found comfort technologies impact guest’s overall satisfaction. In additionally this research emphasis comfortable technologies and business essential technologies impact to business travelers. And this research find the highest rated guest satisfaction amenities, there are in room voice mail/ messaging, in room fitness system, in room guest control panel, In room universal battery charger, Also least satisfaction amenities are check in and check out system in room PC, in room telephone, in room alarm clock and the easily accessible electronic outlets. Srikanth Beldona and Cihan Cihanoglu (2007) emphasis innovation have only a marginal impact on hotel performance. It also analysis best five innovative technological amenities, there are in room temperature control system, online reservation capabilities, easily accessible electronic outlets, wireless internet access in hotel and the business center amenities.
Ani Bilgihan, Fevzi Okumus, Khaldoon Nusair and David joon- Wuk Kwun (2011) emphasis on IT capabilities and IT competencies can help hotel companies achieve competitive advantage. This research categories IT base innovation amenities into four section, there are front office application, back office applications, restaurant and banquet, and guest-related interface application. Under this research reservation system, check in/ check out system, in house guest information function, guest accounting modules, purchase and inventory modules, beverage control system, menu management system, electronic locking system, and Guest operated devices amenities classify according to above four categories. Korczynski (2002) Modern Information application of systematic are involves human resource management careful selection of employees, employee training, empowerment, low formalization, behavior-based evaluation and a strategic approach to human resource management. In this research measure the innovative technological amenities and its impact on performance.
2.4. Organizational performance
High number of innovative technologies has in the hotel industry, those innovation directly impact to the hotel performance. According to the Louise James organization performance relates to successfully an organized group of people with a particular purpose perform a function. Organization performance measure different ways: financial, employee, marketing, and operational performance. The evaluation of new services and products is most frequently based on financial measures of performance (Montoya- Weiss and Calantone, 1994). Nevertheless, using only financial measures is too limited, because it neglects several aspects of benefit to the company. The findings of success studies in innovation have shown that success on one specific dimension of performance does not necessarily mean success on the other performance dimension (De Brentani; 1991).

According to the Ottenbacher, Shaw, and Lockwood (2014) mention four innovation factors that influence the performance of new service development on organizational relationship of chain hotels: market attractiveness, new service development process management, market responsiveness and empowerment. And that study has five key success factors for independent hotels innovations: training employee, evaluation behavior, effective marketing communication, marketing synergy and employee commitment. Innovation includes planned employee training programs to improve the performance of individuals and groups of employees. Innovation can changes in employees’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and social behavior (Cascio, 1989). Training of employees is critical in order to enhance front-line expertise (De Brentani and Cooper, 1992). Innovation are used for marketing aspect of the launch were better ; right targeted customer and better ; right communication. It should result in more effective advertising or promotion than competitors, and create a better brand image (Ottenbacher, Shaw, and Lockwood; 2014). New service development (NSD) performance measure along 12 dimensions: total sales, market share, profitability, improved loyalty, improved image, enhanced profitability and sales of hotel services, new markets opened up, new customers attracted, cost efficiencies, customer satisfaction, positive employee feedback and competencies of employees.

2.4.1. Operational performance
Brentani (1991) findings success studies in innovation have shown success on one specific dimension of performance does not necessarily mean success on the other performance dimension. This study measures operational performance along six dimensions: market share, new services innovation, cost efficiencies, customer satisfaction, positive employee feedback and service quality. And also According to Ige Pirnar and Cagri Bulut (2010) Operational performance measure by market share, new service introducing, service quality, marketing effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. And Michael Ottenbacher, Vivienne Shaw, Andrew Lockwood (2014) are investigation of the factors affecting innovation performance in chain and independent hotels. That research performance measure dimension are total sales, market share, profitability, improved loyalty, improved image, enhanced profitability and sales of other hotel services, new markets opened up, new customers attracted, cost efficiencies, customer satisfaction, positive employee feedback and competencies of employees. In this research measure hotels’ operational performance in Galle district. This research measuring dimension obtain according to evaluating past researches (Ige Pirnar and Cagri Bulut, 2010; Michael Ottenbacher, Vivienne Shaw, Andrew Lockwood; 2014). New service introduction
This is illustrated by Hult (2004), who note that “Innovative technologies is likely to be useful for allowing the firm to pre-empt competitors with improved new products, diversify products lines, and expand the firm’s scope of activities. All of these outcomes can help contribute to achieving sustainable competitive advantage.” Evidence from this study also points to the importance of managerial emphasis on the creation of an internal business environment conducive to innovative activities, focusing on the needs of the customer. Specifically, customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation with innovativeness was found to have a positive effect on business performance in the long-term (K. Tajeddini, 2010). The purpose of this study was twofold: to measure hotel operational performance through the number of new products or services introduction with existing technology- based amenities. Cost efficiencies
Cost efficiency is comparison of the work input and the work output. The amount of work could refer to time, effort, capacity, or tangible item. High level of efficiency implies a minimal amount of wasted time, effort, capacity, and material. In three ways measure the cost efficiency: first way is labor efficiency: difference between actual labors worked hours and standard hours multiplied by standard labor cost.: Second way is material yield variance: different between actual and standard hours works multiplied standard cost per unite. Third way is variable overhead efficiency variable: different between actual and standard overhead rate multiplies standard overhead cost. The purpose of this study was twofold: to measure hotel operational performance through the level of cost efficiencies with existing technology- based amenities. Time saving
According to the Brencic, Vera and Youg (2009) time is the major input into production of good and services. The study of “time saving innovations, time allocation, and energy us: evidence from Canadian households” highlight time saving is innovations allows household to change their activities patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. This study mansion adoption of time- saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that time saving technologies. Service quality
Service quality defined as the customer gets out and is willing to pay for services or products rather than what the supplier puts in (Ducker, 1991). Service Quality has been identified as to which extent where the service fulfils the needs or the expectations of consumers. Service can also be defined as an intangible offer by one party to another. Service Quality should start from the needs of the customer and ends with customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction and positive or negative perception of service quality. Both consumer and service provider have a significant value on service creation or the delivery process. Somehow the complete definition for Service Quality was defined as “a long term process of cognitive evaluation of service delivery in the firms, according to the above mentioning it implies that the customer has a particular service standard in mind prior to the service consumption, observe the service performance and then compare it with their expectation and the prior experience after that they are forming the satisfaction based on the comparison (Lovelock, 2002). The purpose of this study was twofold: to measure hotel operational performance through the level of service quality with existing technology- based amenities.

2.5. Hypothesis
According to the Kayhan Tajeddini’s study customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, and innovation technology have a positive impact on hotel service performance. This research highlight customer orientation and innovation technologies has positional advantage. Birgit Pikkemaat & Mike Peters (2014) study innovative technological amenities in the small and medium sized hotel industry. Under their research they testing six hypothesis. According to their one of hypothesis larger and stranded hotels are use the more innovative technological amenities. And also innovation are positively impact to hotel performance by increasing the quality of the hotel. It’s identify three indicator to measure the degree of innovation. Cihan, Kateina, Michael and Mehmet (2011) study relationship between overall accommodation-based customer satisfaction and the innovative technological amenities. According to past researchers’ empirical gap in this research measure the impact of the innovative technological amenities on hotels operational performance by using service quality, customer satisfaction, and time save and cost effective. According to Cihan, Kateina, Michael and Mehmet study this research also take their dimensions to develop the hypothesis.

H1: There is an impact of reservation innovative technological amenities on the hotel operational performance
H2: There is an impact of in-room innovative technological amenities on the hotel operational performance
H3: There is an impact of Comfort innovative technological amenities on the hotel operational performance
H4: There is an impact of business essential innovative technological amenities on the hotel operational performance.

H5: There is an impact of internal assess innovative technological amenities on the hotel operational performance.

2.6. Conceptual frame work
2851154445Innovative Technological Amenities
Reservation Innovative Technological Amenities
In-room Innovative Technological Amenities
Business Essential Innovative Technological Amenities
Internal Assess Innovative Technological
Comfort Innovative Technological Amenities
Hotel Operational Performance
Hotel Performance
0Innovative Technological Amenities
Reservation Innovative Technological Amenities
In-room Innovative Technological Amenities
Business Essential Innovative Technological Amenities
Internal Assess Innovative Technological
Comfort Innovative Technological Amenities
Hotel Operational Performance
Hotel Performance


2.7. Operationalization
Variable Dimension Indicator Measure
Independent Variable
Innovative Technological Amenities Reservation Wireless Internet Access 05 Point Likert Scale
IT Base Reservation System 05 Point Likert Scale
Computerized Management And Surveillance System 05 Point Likert Scale
Express Check In Check Out 05 Point Likert Scale
Guest Payment System 05 Point Likert Scale
IN Room Technology In Room Automated Temperate Controller 05 Point Likert Scale
Electronic Wireless Key Card System 05 Point Likert Scale
In Room Voice Mail/ Message 05 Point Likert Scale
In Room Electronic Safety Boxes 05 Point Likert Scale
Comfort Technology In Room Guest Control Panel (Sola Power Temperature, Sensors Lights System) 05 Point Likert Scale
Easily Accessible Electronic Outlets 05 Point Likert Scale
Robots For Cleaning Services 05 Point Likert Scale
Solid Water Separation And Sorting 05 Point Likert Scale
High Volume Washing And Dry Cleaner Machinery 05 Point Likert Scale
Business Essential Business Center 05 Point Likert Scale
Video Conferencing Capability 05 Point Likert Scale
High Speed Internet Access/ Wireless Internet Access 05 Point Likert Scale
CCTV Control System 05 Point Likert Scale
Internal Assess High Speed Internet Access And Social Media Group 05 Point Likert Scale
KOT/ BOT Transfer System 05 Point Likert Scale
In House Information System 05 Point Likert Scale
Inventory Control Module 05 Point Likert Scale
Dependent Variable
Organization Performance Operational Performance Service Quality 05 Point Likert Scale
New service introduction 05 Point Likert Scale
Time Saving 05 Point Likert Scale
Cost Efficient 05 Point Likert Scale
2.8. Chapter summery
The aim of this chapter is to present literature relevant to this research and to provide a theoretical framework. The chapter begins with review of definition and some significant areas such as tourism industry and innovation, innovation, type of innovation, Innovative technological amenities in hotels and performance, organization performance and operational performance. In addition the conceptual frame work and operationalization has been presented in this chapter.


2.0 Introduction

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As according the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) is an office under the Ministry of Human Resources. This division is in charge of guaranteeing the security, wellbeing and welfare of individuals at act and also shielding other individuals from the wellbeing and wellbeing risks emerging from the exercises segments which incorporate , assembling, mining and quarrying, development, lodgings and eatery, farming, ranger service and angling, transport, stockpiling and correspondence, open Services and statutory Authorities, utilities, for example, power, water and sterile administrations, back, protection, land and business administrations and finally discount and retail exchanges. As an administration office, the office is in charge of the organization and requirement of enactments identified with word related wellbeing and soundness of the nation, with a dream of turning into an association which drives the country in making a protected and solid work culture that contributes towards improving the nature of working life. As per the Act Under Section 15 of OSHA express that businesses are in charge of guaranteeing the security, wellbeing and welfare of all representatives and after that in Section 24 (1) OSHA likewise clarifies that representatives are in charge of guaranteeing sensible tend to the wellbeing and soundness of himself and other people who might be influenced by his activities in the working environment. So the Occupational Health Division was in charge of completing the observing of consistence with Code of Practice of boss and worker.

2.1 Definition

i) Safety and health

It identified with individual that inadvertent incident which occasioned that could have brought about the damage or presentation to a substance or infectious malady, of at least one individual requirement by Department’s Occupational Health and Safety (OHS). A plan of work or a work methodology that is intended to kill or diminish the hazard yet does exclude a physical control or dynamic assurance such establishment, signage and notice names. The question, substance, or condition straight forwardly engaged with the reason for the damage or malady, for example, avalanche building, harming a wrist, slipping on a wet floor and mischief by creature. Under Regulation 4 of the Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Officer) Regulations 1997, no individual might go about as a security and wellbeing officer unless he is enrolled with the Director General. The Director General in this setting is referring to the Director General of the Department of Occupational Safety and Health.

ii) Implementation

When you implement something like a regulation , rule, table , tentative or something that you will do due to have plan on that mean you must make sure that what you are planned will make it happen.

iii) Hazard
A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone. Hazard identification and elimination and risk assessment and control” uses the following terms for example harm is physical injury or damage to health but hazard – a potential source of harm to a worker. Basically, a hazard is the potential for harm or an adverse effect for example to people as health effects or to organizations as property or equipment losses, or to the environment. Sometimes the resulting harm is referred to as the hazard instead of the actual source of the hazard.
iv) Risk

According to Canadian Centre of safety and health risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property and equipment loss or harmful effects on the environment. It also used to refer to the chance of something happening, whether defined, measured, or determined objectively or subjectively, qualitatively or quantitatively, and described using general terms or mathematically. Factors that influence risk are the nature of the exposure that how much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition whether several times a day or once a year. Secondly how the person is exposed to breathing in a vapor, skin contact and the severity of the effect likely one substance may cause skin cancer, while another may cause skin irritation.

2.2 Regulation of OSHA

Some of structures have been found to disturb construction standard prerequisites concerning the wellbeing and security of tenants of the building. Those code infringement rise as a result of inhabitance changes, remodels and retrofitting to keep advance with mechanical improvements, for example, office and with modifications to the code prerequisites toward the advancement. Any structures that built before the 1960s did not have particular prerequisites for air quality, vitality effectiveness, fire security and wellbeing necessity. Those structures open to genuine risk to inhabitants if point by point investigations and redesigns are not done intermittently inside the arrangement. In Malaysia, the development of any new building or the remodel of a current building must meet the present construction regulation necessities that have been fit. Despite the fact that numerous developments were don’t do a gritty code consistence check unless there are administrative prerequisites or tenant objections to the issue. So it might troublesome for building chiefs and upkeep group to distinguish code infringement in existing structures as a result of an absence of ability in code consistence checking and data necessities toward the administration (Furuta et al. 1985; Allen 1987).

This procedure can be automated with the utilization of information based master frameworks (KBES). These systems are generally utilized as a part of building to process representative data in a computational domain. Various model frameworks for basic outline, characterization and disappointment determination have been accounted for in the writing (Furuta et al. 1985; Allen 1987). The application computerize the code consistence checking process and furthermore been found by numerous scientists (Rosenman and Gero 1985; Dym et al. 1988; Fazio et al. 1988). Electronic forms of construction laws have been produced utilizing hypertext (Vanier 1990), Expertext (Casson and Stone 1991) and Object Oriented Programming strategies (Garrett 1989). Their target of automating the construction regulation is to abbreviate the pursuit procedure and give dynamic connect to cross-references together (Blackmore et al. 1991; Vanier 1991).

These technologies have great advantages in terms of electronically surfing through the code, these methods still have not become popular amongst building inspectors and do not yet form part of the building inspection process. The possible solutions is to use the electronic building codes as knowledge sources with which design and compliance checking are done pro-actively step for example through inspection in a building may rapid compliance checking for a specific component, whereas renovation work would require design information from the building code. That adaptability can be realized by integrating knowledge-based and hypertext techniques. Express changes in computer technology, resistance to change in the building industry and the lack of versatile tools have contributed to the present situation happen. In force, the development of a KBES for compliance checking will greatly simplify the cross-referencing and particular interpretation of code clauses that present research is aimed at developing a framework with which building inspectors can carry out compliance checking by refer to building code text and recover information regarding commonly encountered code violations toward building.

An evaluation recorded ranking has been established by researcher M. Gretener who are Swiss Fire Prevention Service (Gretener, 1973). In specific, numerous unauthorized structures have been built because of the rapid rise in population. In context of the uncertainties with respect to the building construction details and complication, it is difficult to adopt fire engineering studies to evaluate the safety level of a building. Although the common of fire risk ranking systems mentioned above are used to evaluate the safety level of new building design, they can be used to progress a system appropriate to Hong Kong’s situation to regulate the safety index of an individual existing building and from the index to rank the importance of upgrading actions.

2.3 The management of OSHA

As indicated by the past writing on security and wellbeing administration gives that hypothetical and test bolster for the rising significance assets toward the advantages Shannon et al. (2001), for case trust that the customary avoidance are notwithstanding the commitment to the change of the physical condition is endless in affect. Along these lines, Hale and Hovden (1998) propose to address the security framework and culture impalpable advantages for current wellbeing rationality and practice on property. Also, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) incorporates authoritative viability in the proposed preventive approach attempting to interface the security and wellbeing practice to the all business procedure. The conclusive significance of the authoritative and elusive impedances in security is additionally discernible in the rules on administration authorized by the International Labor Organization of the United Nations in 2001 . As frameworks of the security capital hierarchical learning embedded and made in the wellbeing and wellbeing framework is a long haul resource into which assets can be contributed with the desire of an indeterminate development of advantages as laborer’s wellbeing and wellbeing of building.

Along these lines, as indicated by Schumpeter (1934) and Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) were depict the procedure of production of wellbeing capital utilizing the general speculative structure of authoritative learning changed to the particular idea of the word related security. We likewise acknowledge the approach proposed by Nonaka (1994) to clarify the procedure of production of wellbeing since the information about the security and wellbeing on the possessed of the building. It won’t simply forms by the group administration yet additionally framed and oversaw (Spender, 2008).

1. Planning

The plan will continuous with the distribution of a few assets of the building wellbeing. These preventive assets can take by a few frameworks. They might be physical assets, for example, assurance hardware or innovation, HR, for example, the time sharp by specialists to pondering their own security or money related assets or, for example, the advantages distributed to the outsourcing of certain wellbeing and wellbeing administrations office. Unless the workplace has the information and ability to systemize them, these assets will stay inside the association with no recognizable shape or structure gave. They would constitute a supply of assets in which the main basic highlights were the capacity for which are utilized to stay away from word related mishaps and diseases.

These resources can be transformed into safety and health interventions by combining or switching knowledge and skills. At this point, the building produces the safety and health system combination of safety and health interventions in order to ensure compliance with national laws and regulations and provision a continuous improvement organizational process. The planning and systematic of safety and health is also recognized as source of sustainable competitive advantage (Rechenthin, 2004). In this manner, existing safety system can transformation of resources into safety and health interventions and new knowledge is generated and then applied in subsequent designs. In the planning stage, the designed intervention is adapted to the organization of the working process of each building.

In the beginning, the research was attentive on the analysis of the relationship between humans and building, while ignoring external factor that happened that impact how humans and safety building are related (Wilson-Donnelly et al., 2005). According to model developed by Edwards (1972), are demonstration of the interaction of humans and safety system composed by the initial material use of building and then their maintenance of the building. Gradually, new technologies such as system software and computers and changes in the organization of work such as lean production that analysis integrating multiple factor in relation of maintenance management. At this point, some researcher claimed that organizations require combined approach to technology in terms of safety (Wilson-Donnelly et al., 2005).
(2) Implementation

Given on the building administration and the HR administration framework, the usage of a similar wellbeing and wellbeing intercession could be achievement. Thusly, the usage of a similar wellbeing and wellbeing mediation might be more successful in the firm where the work pace is lower than in the firm where working wild is the significance. In the investigation of the supportiveness of the usage of security and wellbeing mediations, some exploration has contemplated the hierarchical elements that may affect the security introduction. Albeit some authoritative constraints talked about by Shannon et al. (2001), look into has assessed the wellbeing and wellbeing ramifications of a few sorts of beneficial frameworks, for example, lean generation (Landsbergis et al., 1999. Womack and Jones, 1996), outsourcing (Johnstone et al., 2005), or little building (Okun et al., 2001). Moreover, the distributed a comprehensive and point by point synopsis (NIOSH, 2002) of the examination on the effect of the changing practices of the wellbeing and wellbeing association group of work on the schedule.

(3) Control

The safety regulation commonly establish that internal control mechanisms, by technique of documentation, have to continually monitor the building , by put into replacement or repairing or suitable measures by a consistent schedule (Saksvik and Nytro, 1996). Studies of the effectiveness of the internal control mechanisms are, principally based on the analysis of the Norwegian and Canadian regulation (Robson et al., 2007) is first introduce some requirements in this arena as a way to substitute external inspection with internal control of the building. According to Saksvik and Nytro (1996), located in Norway, and Torp et al. (2000) in Canada found that firms implementing acceptable mechanism to control the safety and health interventions show, summarizing, a higher awareness of safety and health, reduced injury rates and tougher safety culture and climate.

(4) Feedback

Ascendant input frameworks are observed to be a successful apparatus to enhance the security and soundness of working toward the administration (Bauer and Mulder, 2006). Research has likewise distinguished some group qualities that encourage the powerful correspondence of wellbeing issues in the building are required. As per Brown and Holmes (1986), for instance, propose that the administration concern and activity is the overwhelming power in the formation of a satisfactory security atmosphere and correspondence systems. DePasquale and Geller (1999) or Rundmo (1994) find that administrators’ worry with security should be supplemented with workers’ trust and responsibility. Different investigations, for example, Hofmann and Stetzer (1998) examine, particularly, the qualities of the correspondence systems. They find that associations in which security data is transparently imparted will probably make interior causal attributions. At the end of the day, they relate the compelling correspondence with higher motivating forces to create corporate data in security.

(5) Effectiveness

In the existence of regulation, company could build infinite types of safety and health management models to inspect or planned maintenance. In such circumstances, the administration would be unable to guarantee workers straightforward right to safety in the workplace. To dodge this, it widely accepted to legally require firms to set up a documented system for the planning and organization of these actions. In addition, safety and health legal norms and standards often specify with the objectives, requirements and procedural details for each intervention. Since the Law to some extent limits the freedom of firms, designing and planning of safety and health interventions will apparently show a high grade of standardization according to the code rules requirement.

On the other hand, it is easy to prove that legal standards to defining the effectiveness of safety and health interventions. The differences lie in the corporate knowledge and skills to manage the building that cannot be specified by a legal standard, accumulated by company in the lively process of creation of safety capital. Second, the role of knowledge and skills in the creation of competitive advantage will be wide when the difficulty of the structure of the maintenance organization team is higher. As explained before, the introduction of new technologies and organizational alternatives has increased the complexity of the safety and health system and a result the role of safety capital since more classy knowledge is required to the property manager.


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