Chapter 1
Introduction

1.1 Introduction
Mehsana city is one of the important city in the north Gujarat. Number of people come to Mehsana for the job aspect and education aspect from the neighbor’s city like patan and palanpur. So that parking is very important factor in Mehsana city. So that One of the problem created by road traffic is parking. Not only do vehicle required street space to move about, but also do they require space to park where to park where the occupants can be loaded and unloaded. Parking system is very important for the transportation system in India. So it can be design by two major method which are on-street parking and off-street parking. In now a day in India vehicle culture are fast growing so that it create a lack of parking spaces in cities. So it can make a one of the biggest problem in the city. The most of parking and traffic problem in city which making a main CBD area like a shopping mall, bazar. Now a day major cities accepted the smart future parking system like a multy story parking, underground parking, roof parking so it could be helpful to control the parking problem.Parking control has become the chief means available to cities all over the world do limit congestion. It is the enforcement of laws and regulations. The size of average parking space is 14m2. This result in a great demand for parking space.in the CBD and other area where the other acitivites are concentrated. Parking should be control by below method which are:-
There are two type of parking system
1 On-street Parking
2 Off street parking
On street parking
On street parking means the vehicles are parked on the sides of the street itself. This will be usually controlled by government agencies itself. Common types of on-street parking are as listed below. This classification is based on the angle in which the vehicles are parked with respect to the road alignment. As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is taken as 5× 2.5 meters and that for a truck is 3.75× 7.5 meters.
1. Parallel parking: The vehicles are parked along the length of the road. Here there is no backward movement involved while parking or unparking the vehicle. Hence, it is the most safest parking from the accident perspective. However, it consumes the maximum curb length and therefore only a minimum number of vehicles can be parked for a given kerb length. This method of parking produces least obstruction to the on-going traffic on the road since least road width is used. The length available to park N number of vehicles, L = N 5.9
2. 30? parking: In thirty degree parking, the vehicles are parked at 30? with respect to the road alignment. In this case, more vehicles can be parked compared to parallel parking.
3. 45? parking: As the angle of parking increases, more number of vehicles can be parked. Hence compared to parallel parking and thirty degree parking, more number of vehicles can be accommodated in, length of parking space available for parking N number of vehicles in a given kerb is L = 3.54 N+1.77
4. 60? parking: The vehicles are parked at 60? to the direction of road. More number of vehicles can be accommodated, length available for parking N vehicles =2.89N+2.16.
5. Right angle parking: In right angle parking or 90? parking, the vehicles are parked perpendicular to the direction of the road. Although it consumes maximum width kerb length required is very little. In this type of parking, the vehicles need complex maneuvering and this may cause severe accidents. This arrangement causes obstruction to the road traffic particularly if the road width is less. However, it can accommodate maximum number of vehicles for a given kerb length. Length available for parking N number of vehicles is L = 2.5N.
Off street parking
In many urban centers, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the main stream of traffic. Such a parking is referred to as off-street. Off-street parking means parking your vehicle anywhere but on the streets. These are usually parking facilities like garages and lots. Off-street parking can be both indoors and outdoors. Off-street parking also includes private lots, garages and driveways. The users of on-street parking are casual users who use the space for a short period of time. Off street parking users differ from short to long-term, i.e. monthly tenants and regular users. In many urban centers, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the mainstream of traffic. Such a parking is referred to as off-street parking. They may be operated by either public agencies or private firms.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project summary
Now days one of the strongest application of WNs is to find position of various objects. Finding position of any object is also is known as localization technique. Localization may have many applications like
The shared nature of the wireless medium, allows wireless networks to be easily monitored and broadcast on. Malicious user may easily observe communication between wireless devices and can launch simple denial of service attacks against wireless network by injecting false messages.
Jamming in Wireless communication is a type of Denial of Service attack targeting the availability of Communication. Such an attack tries to interfere with the physical transmission and reception of wireless communication purposefully. In the simplest case, A jamming attack can easily be performed by continuously blasting radio signals in the channel where legitimate traffic is transmitted. By doing this, legitimate signals collide with this noise signals and result in corrupted data at the receiver side .
Detecting jamming attacks is important because it is first step towards building a secure and dependable wireless network. It is challenging because jammers can employ different models, and it is often difficult to differentiate a jamming scenarios.
1.2 Purpose
Now a day’s one of the strongest application of WNs is to find position coordinates of various objects for tracking. For example,
• Location-based routing
• Security
WNs operate itself therefore sensor node require to be more robust , consuming less power and work in all environment properly.
1.3 Scope
The proposed project provides design ideas to locate unauthorized malicious transmitter in particular geographical area. As the wireless communication technology advances , it may increase the chances of unsafe communication , For example unauthorized hot spot creator in particular area may jammed the other Wi-Fi
users , so there will be a requirement to detect and locate such unauthorized transmitters. Proposed project address the same.
Expenditure:
Software Define Radio (With Lab VIEW): 1,70,000/-
Consumables: 500/-
Stationary: 1000/-
________
1, 71,500/-
(All these resources available in the Department)

1.4 Report out line
The report is organized in the following manner.
Chapter 2: In this section, the survey of jammer detection and localization is discussed with the work done in the field of jammer detection and localization algorithms. Several mechanism applied are discussed with necessary details.
Chapter 3: The software defined radio architecture is explained in this section. The NI-USRP is Introduced in this chapter.
Chapter 4: In this chapter, the jammer detection and localization algorithm modeling is proposed and discussed with details.
Chapter 5: In this chapter, simulation results are given and based on simulations some discussion is given.
Chapter 6: In this cheapter simulation of jammer attributes ,primary mathematics proposed algorithm.
Chapter 7: Conclusion and future plan.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
The objective of a Localization protocol is to get information about current position of a node in the Wireless Network (WN).
As per the literature survey,
Non-GPS localization schemes are more practical for WNs
The EDM is observed the oblique distance, vertical angle, instrument height and prism height between two points using total station, and then use the principle of trigonometry to calculate the elevation difference. In this study, three observation methods were used to investigate the accuracy of measurement.
RIPS method is localizing method which is low cost method but it is limited to some range of distance and multipath effect.
In, It is demonstrated that ? estimate with an average accuracy of 3.2o using t-range technique.
For a smaller range of angles between 0 and in a rural area where no multipath e?ects are present other than ground re?ections obtained data are similar to the predicted values.

CHAPTER 3
CANVAS DESIGN
3.1 Empathy Canvas

As mentioned above, internet Communication has become universal. So I have analysed the actual problems various human kind is going through it obviously related to wireless communication link.
In the Empathy Canvas I have mention 4 stories which are genuine issue, where two stories are before the research and other two are after the research. How humankind is still not satisfied with the present technology and our goal is by sharing our best knowledge we can contribute for this humankind.
3.2 Ideation Canvas

In Ideation canvas I have listed out the all users and what are the activities performed by the respective users , and the various locations they use to visit (here I have mentioned all the possible location/situation/ context related to every random users) and in the last column it is like what are the possible discomfort or the problems that is faced by them and obviously we as an engineer how we can rectify the problems by providing the possible solutions, and enhancing the technology with our engineering skills to make them relieve from discomfort zone.
3.3 AEIOU Canvas

I have recently visited Research as an educational visit, from visit I have got as an transparent idea for my project, as in research domain, basically from where our country govt. is working on i.e communication link hence here I have listed all the mentioned canvas for the venue of my AEIOU.
Activities that were this research centre, what kind of environment was there, the type interaction I experienced there, the available objects and at last users that were present in this research centre.

3.4 Product Development Canvas

Here in this canvas different blocks are there where I have mentioned as per the given title. What was the purpose of my project, how people are related to it. The limit here was that response from a layman wasn’t possible so I had to evaluate my product based on the results from other research papers. Other topics we were able to attain at based on the results from our simulations.
And what will be the functions and features of the products, components that will be required to make this project happen, what can be the other parameters that user may reject how can we rectify the rejected parameter and how we can retain its uniqueness.

CHAPTER 4
SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO
4.1 Introduction
Software Defined Radio is an emerging technology that has been an active research topic for over a decade. The terms software defined radio and software radio are used to describe radios whose implementation is largely software-based. These radios are reconfigurable through software updates. There are also wider definitions of the concept.
SDR defines a collection of hardware and software technologies where some or all of the radio’s operating functions (also referred to as physical layer processing) are implemented through modifiable software or firmware operating on programmable processing technologies. These devices include field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), digital signal processors (DSP), general purpose processors (GPP), programmable System on Chip (SoC) or other application specific programmable processors. The use of these technologies allows new wireless features and capabilities to be added to existing radio systems without requiring new hardware.
We refer to a transceiver as a software radio (SR) if its communication functions are realized as programs running on a suitable processor. Based on the same hardware, different transmitter/receiver algorithms, which usually describe transmission standards, are implemented in software. An SR transceiver comprises all the layers of a communication system.
The Universal Software Radio Peripherals interesting option for the SDR platform. The universal software radio peripheral (USRP) family of products has become a popular platform for hardware-based research. Software-Defined Radio (SDR) is a technique using software to make the radio functions hardware independent.

4.2 Block Diagram of SDR architecture
Shows an SDR transceiver that differs from a conventional transceiver only by the fact that it can be reconfigured via a control bus supplying the processing units with the parameters which describe the desired standard. Such a configuration, called a parameter-controlled (PaC) SDR, guarantees that the transmission can be changed instantaneously if necessary (e.g., for inter standard handover)

Fig 4.1 SDR transceiver
4.2.1 RF Front end
It is Composed of smart antenna which can work upon almost entire bandwidth , BPF ( Band Pass Filter ) ,LNA ( Low Noise amplifier ) and ADC( Analog to Digital converter).
4.2.2 Base Band Processing
This Block provides interfacing between the RF terminal and Digital Processor in term of timing synchronization and in addition it will act as multiplexer when to transmit or filter when to receive.
4.2.3 Data Processing
This block composed of processor and some additional hardware connections ,which enables computations for software based RF communication

The baseband signal processing of a digital radio (DR) is invariably implemented on a digital processor. An ideal SR directly samples the antenna output. A software-defined radio (SDR) is a practical version of an SR: the received signals are sampled after a suitable band selection filter. One remark concerning the relation between SRs and SDRs is necessary at this point: it is often argued that an SDR is a presently realizable version of an SR since state-of-the-art analog-to-digital (A/D) converters that can be employed in SRs are not available today. This argument, although it is correct, may lead to the completely wrong conclusion that an SR which directly digitizes the antenna output should be a major goal of future developments. Fact is that the digitization of an unnecessary huge bandwidth filled with many different signals of which only a small part is determined for reception is neither technologically nor commercially desirable. However, there is no reason for a receiver to extremely oversample the desired signals while respecting extraordinary dynamic range requirements for the undesired in-band signals at the same time. Furthermore, the largest portion of the generated digital information, which stems from all undesired in-band signals, is filtered out in the first digital signal processing step.
4.3 NI-USRP RF Hardware®
The RF Hardware used in the lab is the National Instruments USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). The USRP module (Figure 3.1) is connected to PC through the gigabit Ethernet cable. The PC controls the operation of the module. In this section you will learn more about these modules.

4.3.1 Interfaces
Figure 3.3 introduces the USRP unit connections used.

Fig 4.2 USRP interfaces
The following steps are an overview of the NI USRP-29xx getting started process. Follow these steps to use the NI USRP-29xx after you install LabVIEW on your computer:
1. Install the NI USRP Software Suite DVD. The software suite adds the following items to your LabVIEW installation: the NI-USRP driver, LabVIEW Modulation Toolkit, LabVIEW MathScript, RT Module and LabVIEW Digital Filter Design Tool.
2. Connect the Device. Attach the antenna or cable to the front of the NI USRP-29xx device. Connect the device directly to your computer with the enclosed Ethernet cable and connect the power.
3. Change the IP address of your 1 Gigabit Ethernet Port to a static IP. NI recommends a static IP address of 192.168.10.1 because NI USRP-29xx devices have a default address of 192.168.10.2.
4.3.2 Features
Frequency Range: 50 MHz to 2.2 GHz
Bandwidth: 20 MHz bandwidth
Host I/F: Gigabit Ethernet (~100 MB/s)

Fig 4.3 NI USRP-2920 Module System Setup
4.3.3 Configuration Transmission Session of USRP Model
Description:
1. NI-USRP Open Tx Session VI: Opens a Tx session to the device(s) specify in the device names parameter and returns session handle out.
2. NI-USRP Configure Signal VI: Configures properties of the Tx or Rx signal.
3. NI-USRP Write Tx Data VI: Writes a cluster of complex, double-precision floating-point data to the specified channel.
4. NI-USRP Close Session VI: Closes the session handle to the device.

Fig 4.4 NI USRP-2920 Module Transmission Session
4.3.4 Configuration Reception Session of USRP Model
Description:
1. NI-USRP Open Rx Session VI: Opens an Rx session to the device(s) specify in the device names parameter and returns session handle out.
2. NI-USRP Configure Number of Samples VI: Specifies whether the device operation is finite or continuous and the number of samples to acquire.
3. NI-USRP Configure Signal VI: Configures properties of the Tx or Rx signal.

4. NI-USRP Initiate VI: The NI-USRP Initiate VI starts the waveform acquisition in an Rx session.
5. NI-USRP Fetch Rx Data VI: Fetches data from the specified channel list.
6. NI-USRP Abort VI: Stops an acquisition previously started.
7. NI-USRP Close Session VI: Closes the session handle to the device

Fig 4.5 NI USRP-2920 Module Reception Session
4.4 Summary
In this chapter we have seen the basic of Software defined radio. SDR can act as a key enabling technology for a variety of other reconfigurable radio equipments commonly discussed in the advanced wireless market. While SDR is not required to implement any of these radio types, SDR technologies can provide these types of radio with the flexibility necessary for them to achieve their full potential, the benefits of which can help to reduce cost and increase system efficiencies. The NI USRP connects to a host PC to act as a software-defined radio. So this enables us to perform all the possibilities which is possible in Software defined radio.

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
A company can use different sources of funds to manage required capital. Debt capital and ownership capital are main sources of financing. The holder of debt capital is called debt holder or lender of the company whereas holder of ownership capital is called shareholder. Debt holders receive interest and shareholders receive dividend. When a company earns profit, it can retain with in company or can pay to shareholder as a dividend. Dividend is the part of total earning which is distributed to the shareholders by a company. It can be distributing in cash and securities or combination of these.
Dividend Policy refers to a company’s policy which determines the amount of dividend payments and the amounts of retained earnings for reinvesting in new projects. This policy is related to dividing the firm’s earning between payment to shareholders and reinvestment in new opportunities. Ross et al (2005) define corporate dividend policy, simply, as determining the amount to be paid to the shareholders and that to be retained in the company to reinvest in profitable projects or for retention in case of future needs. Booth and Cleary (2010) defined dividend policy as an exclusive decision by the management to decide what parentage of profit is distributed among the shareholders or what percentage of it retains to fulfill its internal needs.
Dividend policy is a firm’s strategy with regards to paying out earnings as dividends versus retaining them for reinvestment in the firm. It is thus an important part of the firm’s long-run financing strategy. Every firm operating in a given industry follows some sort of dividend payment pattern or dividend policy and obviously it is a financial indicator of the firm. Thus, demand of the firm’s share should to some extent, dependent on the firm’s dividend policy (Abdullah Al Mausum, 2014). Dividend policy related with the determining the amount to be paid to the shareholder and retained in the company for future reinvestment in profitable projects or for other justifiable needs is one of the cardinal issues involved in financial management and as such it has consistently received serious attention of researcher, Ramadan (2013). Dividend payment is a major component of stock return to shareholders. Dividend payment could provide a signal to the investors that the company is complying with good corporate governance practices (Jo and Pan, 2009).
Dividend policy is one of the most important issues in corporate finance. Dividend policy is important for investors, managers, lenders and for other stakeholders. It is important for investors because investors consider dividends not only the source of income but also a way to assess the firms from investment points of view. It is the way of assessing whether the company could generate cash or not. Many investors like to watch the dividend yield, which is calculated as the annual dividend income per share divided by the current share price. It is important for manager because it helps to increase value of firm. Similarly, it helps to lender and other stakeholder to know about financial strength and weakness. The twenty-first century has seen dividend policy remain one of the most important financial policies used in financial management to achieve the objective of wealth maximization (Baker & Kent, 2009). Frankfurter and Wood (2002), posits that a number of conflicting theoretical models all lacking strong empirical support, define current attempts to explain corporate dividend behavior. Moreover, both academics and corporate managers continue to disagree about whether the value of the firm is independent of its dividend policy.
Many researchers have attempted to relate the dividend policy to share price of firm but they had conflicting results and still, there is no consensus among researchers about the impact of dividends policy on share price. The Miller and Modigliani’s(MM) theory states that shareholder wealth will remain unaffected by dividend policy, in that without tax as a consideration, investors place equal weight in receiving returns as dividends or capital gains as long as the firm’s investment strategy is not affected by dividend policy. Another finance scholar, Al-Malkawi (2007), suggested through his Bird-in-the-Hand Theory, that dividends are worth more than retained earnings to investors, citing the uncertainty of future cash flows. This theory argues that dividend is main factor to increase value of firm.
The issue of whether or not dividend policy has a relationship with market share price has been a topic of intense debate for many years. Some research shows there is direct positive relation between dividend scheme and market price, some study shows dividend is insignificant for market price of stock price.
In Nepal, there are few studies have been conducted about dividend policy. Commercial banking sector is a most attractive sector for investor. However, the share price of commercial banks is fluctuating. There are different factors that affect market price of stock So this research is going to study about whether dividend scheme of commercial banks is major factor for fluctuation of market price of stock or not. This research focus on dividend policy of the commercial banks and shows the relation with market price of the stock. There are number of factor that affect market price of stock. Dividend maybe one of major factor which affect price of stock. There are some of study that has been conducted to check the relationship between dividend policy and market price of stock in Nepal. Those studies show a direct relationship between stock price and dividend policy. But there is a lack of specific study about dividend policy of commercial banks and its effect on stock price. So this research focus on the commercial banks listed in NEPSE. This study examined the impact of dividend policy of commercial banks in their market price. The debate about dividend policy and stock price is tested in the Nepalese banking sector. This study showed that whether dividend policy of commercial banks is directly related with stock price or not.

1.2 Problem statement

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The issue of whether or not dividend policy has a relationship with share price volatility has been a topic of intense debate for many years. The decision of whether or not to distribute earnings to shareholders has left the opportunity for many finance scholars and professionals to examine its various effects. Many academic works have provided evidence that both support and reject the idea that dividends reduce stock price volatility. Some argue that dividends signal to investors that the company is operating effectively, while others argue that when all other variables are fixed, the payout of dividends does not effectively reduce the stocks volatility.
Recently, studies on relationship between dividend policy and stock price have been growing in the world. But there are very limited studies about divided policy and stock price in Nepal. In 2012 Rabindra, Joshi conduct study to explain relationship between dividend and stock price in banking and nonbanking sector. He has focused on overall business scenario of Nepal. Studies about divided policy of commercial banks and stock price are rarely found in Nepal. So there is gap in the financial literature concerning the effect of dividend on stock prices particularly in hydro sector of Nepal. Such gap creates confusion to the investor, manager, researcher, government and other stakeholders. So the major problem of this study is: what is the impact of dividend on stock price of commercial banks listed in NEPSE?

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of dividends on share price of commercial banks listed in NEPSE. To achieve this objective following specific objectives will cover by this research.
• To find the relation between the Market Price per Share and the Dividend per Share.
• To evaluate the dependency of share price on retained earning
• To assess impact of earning per share on share price.
• To analyze whether size, leverage and net worth per share has any impact on market price per share.
• To find out whether previous year dividend, previous year price earnings ratio and previous year market price per share has impact on current market price per share.

1.4 Research Hypothesis
Hypothesis is tentative statement about relationship between two or more variables. It is supposition that is previously accepted in order to interpret certain issue. This study has some hypothesis to achieve objectives. They are as follows.
Hypothesis 1:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and dividend per share.
H1: there is significant relationship between market price per share and dividend per share.

Hypothesis 2:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and retain earning per share.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and retain earning per share.

Hypothesis 3:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and EPS.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and EPS.

Hypothesis 4:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and lagged price earnings ratio.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and lagged price earnings ratio.

Hypothesis 5:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and lagged market price per share.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and lagged market price per share.

Hypothesis 6:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and lagged dividend per share.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and lagged divided per share.

1.5 Rationale of Study
A number of studies on impact of dividends on stock price have been carried out in different parts of the world. Most of the earlier studies show the significant role of dividend policy on stock price. The corporate firms should follow the appropriate dividend policy to maximize the shareholders’ value. Dividend policy is considered as one of the important and critical variables affecting the share price. In the context of Nepal, very few studies {such as Pradhan (2003), Manandhar (1998), Rabindra Joshi, (2012)} have carried out by research scholars. There is a gap in the financial literature concerning the effect of dividends on stock prices particularly in commercial banking sector. This study will provide a deeper understanding on the true correlation between commercial bank’s dividend policy and stock price. The study will further investigate whether a company’s dividend policy is the best indicator of a less volatile stock, which can reassure them of a safe and stable investment.

So this study will fulfill the gap about the effect of dividend on stock price in Nepalese banking sector. The result of this study will be significantly useful to various groups that have directly or indirectly linked to capital market. Those groups are policy maker, financial analyst, researcher, investor and others.

1.6 Scope and limitations of the study
The limitations of the study are as follows:
1. This study is done based on quantitative data. But qualitative information like political situation, government rule, regulation and policies, NRB regulation etc. also have direct impact on market price per share.
2. The data are taken from secondary source.
3. Scope is limited
4. The dependent variable, market price per share used in this study is computed only on the basis of the year end closing price of the commercial banks. Inclusion of whole year average would have made the data for market price per share more reliable.
5. Some of the commercial banks are excluded because these companies have not listed on NEPSE and paid dividend
6. The finding of primary study is only based on limited person’s perception.
7. The study has not included some other important variables like, book to market price, profit after tax, liquidity and ROE that could affect share price.

1.7 Definition of terms
Dependent variable:
1. Market price per Share (MPS):
Market price per share is taken as dependent variable and it is defined as the closing price of the stock (at the end of the year). It is derived directly from the annual report of NEPSE. The share price in this study represent annually. In the previous studied researchers like Nazir, Nawaz, Anwar, & Ahmed (2010), Asghar, Shah, Hamid, & Suleman (2011), Hussainey, K., Mgbame, C.O., & chijoke-Mgbame, A.M. (2011) Rabindra Joshi(2015) Dr.NiharikaMaharshi and Sarika Malik(2015 use market price as a dependent variable to see the effect of dividend policy on stock market prices. Khan (2010) found that cash dividend retention ratio and return equity has significant positive relation with stock market prices.
2. Independent variable
a) Dividend Per Share (DPS)
In this study total dividend per share is taken as dependent variable. Total dividend per share refers to cash dividends and stock dividends paid to common stockholders are divided by the number of share outstanding. It is important variable that is used by Litner (1956), Gorden, Khan, Modigliani and Miller (1961)
b) Retained Earnings Per Share (REPS)
Retained earnings remaining income after distributing the dividend. Retained earnings per share is used as independent variable on this study. Retained earnings per share is calculated by deducting dividend per share with earning per share.
In context of Nepal, Bhattarai (1995) found that there was a negative relationship between MPS and stockholders’ required rate of return.
Control Variables
a) Size (SZ)
Size is one of the control variables of this study. It is the total assets of the commercial banks. A transformation using the base 10 logarithm is then applied to obtain a variable that reflects orders of magnitude (Hussainey et al., 2010). The figures were obtained directly from annual report. This variable has been used by (Smith and Watts, 1992; Kouki and Guizani, 2009; Chae et al., 2009).
b) Leverage
The total debt to total assets ratio is taken as leverage on this study. Total debt is sum total of current liabilities and long term debt. And total assets is sum total of current assets and fixed assets of company. Each year’s debt ratio is calculated by averaging the debt ratio of companies. This variable has been used by various researcher like Lev and Kunitzky (1974), Gaver, and Gaver, (1993), Gul, (1999), Kallapur and Trombley, (1999) and Habib et al. (2012).

1.8 Structure of the study
This study is divided in to five chapters.
First chapter
This contains the introduction which includes background of the study, statement of problem, rational of the study, hypothesis scope and limitation of the study and definition of terms.
Chapter II
It deals with the conceptual framework and review of literature that includes the conceptual framework, review of literature or empirical works, review of Nepalese studies and concluding remarks.
Chapter III
This chapter describes the research methodology employed in the study. It deals with research design, nature and sources of data, selection of enterprises, method of analysis
Chapter IV
It deals with the presentation and analysis of secondary data and primary data to indicate facts on dividend practices and impact on market value of companies. It is about the results drawn from the analysis of the collected and processed data.
Chapter V
This chapter includes summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. It presents the major findings and compares them with theory and other empirical and provides recommendation if it is necessary.

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. INTRODUCTION
In the IaaS paradigm of cloud computing, computational resources are shared to reduce the cost of renting them, i.e., there exists multi-tenancy. As the communication channels and other resources are shared, this creates security and privacy issues. Examples of such problems are side-channel attacks, probe attacks, etc. 1, 2, 3. These security issues prevent some users from adopting cloud computing. To increase user’s trust on Cloud Providers (CP), the reputation of the CPs can be used 4, 5 as it helps users to choose an appropriate CP. A reputation management mechanism(RMM) aims to take account of the malicious and selfish behaviours of CPs and reflect this on their reputation 6. In this paper, we propose a robust RMM in the federated cloud with focus on multi-tenancy. In a multi-tenant cloud, a user depends on the CP for trustworthy co-tenants. In this paper we propose a novel reputation management mechanism that encourages the CPs to assign good co-tenants to a good user Reputation in the Federated Cloud: A federated cloud is constructed by contributions from several cloud providers and a virtual network request may be fulfilled by more than one cloud provider. In a federated cloud, a CP risks its own reputation as it shares its resources with other CPs (a virtual network request may span over the resources owned by several CPs). The problem in a virtual network may originate from the physical resources owned by other CPs. To evaluate the reputation of CPs, we can use the following form of feedback:
1) Feedback from CPs about other CPs: This form offeedback is hard to implement as CPs needs to share information about their own resources.

2) Feedback from the customers about CPs: It can be more easily obtained. But such information may be malicious and faulty. Also, as a virtual network may span over the resources owned by several CPs, it will be difficult for a customer to accurately identify the CP that is responsible for a fault.

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3) Feedback from the CPs about the users: This form of feedback is easy to obtain. A CP can monitor the activities of its customers and decide on whether or not a customer has bad intentions.

In this paper we use the third kind of feedback to evaluate the reputation of the CPs. It is possible to misreport such feedback. In this paper we propose a mechanism that encourages CPs to report correct feedback about the customers. CP’s reputation and multi-tenancy: Existing RMMs for cloud computing gather feedback from users and aggregate them to obtain reputations for the CPs. Also,
1) It attempts to differentiate between fair feedbacks from unfair feedback provided by the users 7 about the performance of the CPs.

2) It also differentiates between faults in the physical networks and the intentional activities of CPs that lead to disruption in the physical network. Therefore, faults (which are assumed to be beyond the control of the CP) do not impact reputations of CPs8.

In a contrast with existing RMMs, in this paper we propose a RMM with a focus on multi-tenancy. Sharing computational resources with others is the main concern of users as other co-tenants may be malicious. Note that,
1) The co-tenants of a user are anonymous. Hence, a user can not choose with whom it will share computational resources.

2) The user depends on the CP to assign good cotenants. Thus, from a user’s perspective, with the focus on cotenancy, it will have more trust in a CP if it differentiates between good and malicious users and if it does not allow them to share resources. Thus the capability and willingness of such differentiation between good and malicious users is the main parameter that decides the reputation of a CP. If a CP does not make such differentiation, then it should receive a low reputation when compared with another CP who makes such a differentiation. In this paper, we propose a RMM that considers the CP’s capability and willingness to make such differentiation among its users.It is in the CP’s interest that it gets maximum utilization of its resources. Hence, it allows maximum co-tenancy irrespective of the behaviours of the users. In this paper, we work on the federated cloud, where the physical network is contributed by multiple stakeholders and it is a connected graph. In the federated cloud, virtual network requests are mapped to the parts of the physical network owned by multiple CPs. Thus the CPs may collaborate to satisfy a virtual network requirement. Note that,
1) as the CPs collaborate to satisfy virtual network requests, it may happen that a CP, say CP1, does not differentiate between good and malicious users but another CP, say CP2, does the opposite. If CP1 and CP2 collaborate then, although CP2 does not intend, it may have to allow a good user to become a co-tenant with a malicious user as part of this collaboration with CP1.

2) Thus, the behaviour of a CP affects its collaborators. Hence, we make the following assumptions:
1) CPs share the information about multi-tenancy. Also this information can not be manipulated.

2) However, they may misreport the actual behavior of users.

Briefly, our RMM works as follows:
1) First, each CP distinguishes malicious users from good users and it should assign resources to them such that the following holds:
a) It must not allow any malicious user to become a co-tenant of a good user.

b) It may allow malicious users to share resources among themselves.

2) Next, the CPs share information about multi-tenancies.

3) Each CP reports the behaviour of users to the RMM.

4) A CP’s reputation is increased if the reputations of the users in each group of multi-tenant users are consistent, i.e., either their reputations increase or decrease. This means that if changes in the reputation of the users are similar, then the CPs must have correctly partitioned the good users from the malicious users and did not allow them to share resources. In the above model of our RMM, the motivation for misreporting the behaviour of users is as follows:
A CP gets better reputation if changes in the reputations of the users in each group of multi-tenant users are consistent.

Hence, it is in its interest to misreport the reputations of users in such a way that the changes in the reputations of the users in each group of multi-tenant users become consistent.

We use the following behavioural models of the CPs:
1) Rational CP: A rational CP always reports the true behaviour of the users.

2) Irrational CP: An irrational CP reports that a group of multi-tenant users are all good users or all malicious users irrespective of the actual behaviour of its users.

3) Opportunistic CP: An Opportunistic CP reports that a group of multi-tenant users are good users if the majority of them are actually good, otherwise it reports the opposite. In the presence of these three types of CPs, we show that,
1) Robustness: We analyse the robustness of the RMM. We use the notion of robustness in a normative system, as developed in 9. In this notion of robustness, it is assumed that a subset of agents in a normative multi-agent system always violate the norms. Given the fraction of such non-compliant agents, the multi-agent system is robust if it works properly as other agents remain compliant. In this paper, we use a similar notion of robustness. We show the demography of rational and irrational agents (with a majority of irrational agents) for which the proposed RMM remains functional.

2) Reputation of the CPs: We show that the reputations of the CPs who differentiate between good and malicious users, and do not allow them to share resources, increase compared with the CPs who do not make such differentiation.

3) Reputation of the users: We show that, a good user gets better reputation than a malicious user.

A federated cloud (also called cloud federation) is the deployment and management of multiple external and internal cloud computing services to match business needs.  A federation is the union of several smaller parts that perform a common action. Cloud Federation refers to the unionization of software, infrastructure and platform services from disparate networks that can be accessed by a client via the internet. The federation of cloud resources is facilitated through network gateways that connect public or external clouds, private or internal clouds (owned by a single entity) and/or community clouds (owned by several cooperating entities); creating a hybrid cloud computing environment. It is important to note that federated cloud computing services still rely on the existence of physical data centers.In this study, we propose an enhancement on trust management framework in federated cloud environment where it is solely upon to the trust results value. In this case, we focus on the resolution where there is the case that the attackers forging multiple identities and refute the final value of trust by falsifying its feedback reputation. It is formally known as Sybil attack 2. Thus, the final trust value based on the accumulative results cannot be considered as only a determination factor in order to decide either the cloud service provider is trusted or not. This study focuses on how to nullifying those false reputations into the CSP. Hence, the Sybil attack will not significantly affect the final trust value.

Figure 1: Federated Cloud
1.2. Objective Of The Project
A Strong reputation management mechanism that encourages the cps in a federated cloud to differentiate between good and malicious users and assign resources in such a way that they do not share resources.

1.3. Scope Of The Project
We show the correctness and the efficiency of the proposed reputation management system using analytical and experimental analysis. The scope of the project is very vast as anyone with having to the internet can access the file and can perform the operations.it gains maximum users over the world.

1.4. Contributions
The main contributions of these thesis is are summarized below.

Contribution 1: In first contribution, will begin with a general proposed trust model,then we don’t use the trust directly to identify malicious users,but to feed the reputation system model.

Contribution 2: In 2nd contribution, to prove the efficiency of our proposed reputation system model.In the 1st part of contribution we will add refinement to the last efficiency model of the 1st contribution. Globally, the refinement consists in the idea of pre-trusted users and the privilege users. To make our idea more clear, we apply it to the file allocation in cloud computing and file sharing in user to another user. We will simulate our new proposed models and we will show the efficiency of new ideas in terms of reducing the file loss, security (safety) of the file execution and the file sharing..Contribution 3: In the third contribution, we will focus on the optimization of the reputation and trust system: the optimization of controlling uesrs behaviors. Reputation attestation: RRMT records and determines user reputations as user activities accumulate with access to successive cloud computing sessions and provides proof of the reputation. The proof assures the credibility of the reputation, ensuring that the reputation indeed belongs to its owner. The proof also guarantees nonrepudiation; that is, a user cannot deny the reputation assigned to them. As such, the proof ensures unforgeability. Users cannot promote their reputation without the authorization of the idp. The introduction of a reputation does not affect the anonymity of users.

Contribution 4: Unlike the first contribution which will be based on the trust entity, this fourth contribution will be focusing on secure reputation management. We will study and validate the convergence of our proposal in two types of users. To study more and more this distributed reputation management, we will test different strategies that can be used by forceful peers in our system. We show the performance of strategies under different types of graphs, scale free, random etc .We will affirm that forceful peers can manipulate the opinions and affect the final result.
1.5.Organization Of The Thesis
This thesis is organized into the following eight chapters
Chapter 1 will provides introduction to the research namely a strong reputation management mechanism in the federated cloud . The research objective adopted to achieve the goals of research are also described.

Chapter 2 will covers background work related to thesis.

Chapter 3 will discuss the requirements of the system work efficiently to accomplish their purpose and what the system should do. And implementation of entire project description and it represents the workflow of transitions.
Chapter 4 will discuss the simulation results of different scenarios are presented. The data were collected and then analysed to accomplish the objective of the thesis.

Chapter 5 will discuss how the system should be built and used.

Chapter 6 will propose testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product.

Chapter 7 will propose a complete analysis of the proposed strategies used by two forceful users. We will show the performance and the impact in graph.

Chapter 8 will conclude the manuscript about the contributions of the thesis and will propose some future directions.

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE SURVEY
E. Ayday And F. Fekri, Has Targeted To Facilitate The Research Of “Robust Reputation Management Using Probabilistic Message Passing”
In a typical reputation management system, after each transaction, the buyer (who receives a service or purchases a product) provides its report/rating about the quality of the seller for that transaction. In such a system, the problem of reputation management is to compute two sets of variables: 1. the (global) reputation parameters of entities who act as sellers, and 2. the trustworthiness parameters of the entities who act as the raters (i.e., buyers). In this paper, for the first time, we introduce an iterative probabilistic method for reputation management. The proposed scheme, referred to as RPM, relies on a probabilistic message passing algorithm in the graph-based representation of the reputation management problem on an appropriately chosen factor graph. In the graph representation of the problem, the sellers and buyers are arranged as two sets of variable and factor nodes, respectively, that are connected via some edges. Then, the reputation and trustworthiness parameters are computed by a fully iterative and probabilistic message passing algorithm between these nodes in the graph. We provide a detailed evaluation of RPM via computer simulations. We observe that RPM iteratively reduces the error in the reputation estimates of the sellers due to the malicious raters. Finally, comparison of RPM with some well- known and commonly used reputation management techniques (e.g., Averaging Scheme, Bayesian Approach and Cluster Filtering) indicates the superiority of the proposed scheme both in terms of robustness against attacks (e.g., ballot-stuffing, bad-mouthing) and computational efficiency.

M. Feldman, K. Lai, I. Stoica, And J. Chuang, At All Studied “Robust Incentive Techniques For Peer-To-Peer Networks”
Lack of cooperation (free riding) is one of the key problems that confronts today’s P2P systems. What makes this problem particularly difficult is the unique set of challenges that P2P systems pose: large populations, high turnover, asymmetry of interest, collusion, zero-cost identities, and traitors. To tackle these challenges we model the P2P system using the Generalized Prisoner’s Dilemma (GPD), and propose the Reciprocative decision function as the basis of a family of incentives techniques. These techniques are fully distributed and include: discriminating server selection, maxflowbased subjective reputation, and adaptive stranger policies. Through simulation, we show that these techniques can drive a system of strategic users to nearly optimal levels of cooperation.

R. Ko, P. Jagadpramana, M. Mowbray, S. Pearson, M. Kirchberg, Q. Liang, And B. S. Lee,At All Studied “Trustcloud: A Framework For Accountability And Trust In Cloud Computing
The key barrier to widespread uptake of cloud computing is the lack of trust in clouds by potential user
While preventive controls for security and privacy are actively researched, there is still little focus on detective controls related to cloud accountability and audit ability. The complexity resulting from large-scale virtualization and data distribution carried out in current clouds has revealed an urgent research agenda for cloud accountability, as has the shift in focus of customer concerns from servers to data. This paper discusses key issues and challenges in achieving a trusted cloud through the use of detective controls, and presents the Trust Cloud framework, which addresses accountability in cloud computing via technical and policy-based approaches.

Talal H. Noor And Quan Z. Sheng, Has Studied “Credibility-Based Trust Management For Services In Cloud Environments”
Trust management is one of the most challenging issues in the emerging cloud computing. Although many approaches have been proposed recently for trust management in cloud environments, not much attention has been given to determining the credibility of trust feedbacks. Moreover, the dynamic nature of cloud environments makes guaranteeing the availability of trust management services a difficult problem due to the unpredictable number of cloud consumers. In this paper, we propose a framework to improve ways on trust management in cloud environments. In particular, we introduce a credibility model that not only distinguishes between credible trust feedbacks, but also has the ability to detect the malicious trust feedbacks from attackers. We also present a replication determination model that dynamically decides the optimal replica number of the trust management service so that the trust management service can be always maintained at a desired availability level. The approaches have been validated by the prototype system and experimental results.

X. Sun, G. Chang, And F. Li, Has Targeted To Facilitate The Research Of “A Trust Management Model To Enhance Security Of Cloud Computing Environments”
With the proliferation of cloud computing, the way of reasonable establishment of trust relationship among entities, as a vital part for forming security mechanism in cloud computing environments, is attracting increasing attention. This article introduces a trust management model based on fuzzy set theory and named TMFC including direct trust measurement and computing, connecting, and trust chain incorporating where the issue of recommended trust similarity has been addressed to prevent the behavior of associated cheat of middle nodes. And this model is geared toward the cloud users who are making their decision on whether to use services of some cloud computing providers by giving them trust evaluation sets about providers and then building reasonable trust relationship between them. Our motivation is trying to propose a new idea and method on trust management in cloud computing and further studies are still required to justify the rationality and practicability of this model.

CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM ANALYSIS
3.1. Existing System
Cloud computing is internet based computing which enables sharing of services. Many users place their data in the cloud. However, the fact that users no longer have physical possession of the possibly large size of outsourced data makes the data integrity protection in cloud computing a very challenging and potentially formidable task, especially for users with constrained computing resources and capabilities. So correctness of data and security is a prime concern. This article studies the problem of ensuring the integrity and security of data storage in Cloud Computing. Security in cloud is achieved by signing the data block before sending to the cloud. Using Cloud Storage, users can remotely store their data and enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services from a shared pool of configurable computing resources, without the burden of local data storage and maintenance. However, the fact that users no longer have physical possession of the outsourced data makes the data integrity protection in Cloud Computing a formidable task, especially for users with constrained computing resources.
Moreover, users should be able to just use the cloud storage as if it is local, without worrying about the need to verify its integrity. Thus, enabling public auditability for cloud storage is of critical importance so that users can resort to a third party auditor (TPA) to check the integrity of outsourced data and be worry-free. To securely introduce an effective TPA, the auditing process should bring in no new vulnerabilities towards user data privacy, and introduce no additional online burden to user. In this paper, we propose a secure cloud storage system supporting privacy-preserving public auditing. We further extend our result to enable the TPA to perform audits for multiple users simultaneously and efficiently. Extensive security and performance analysis show the proposed schemes are provably secure and highly efficient.

3.2. Problem Statement
In federated cloud computing, users and computational agents and services often interact with each other without having sufficient assurances about the behavior of the resource they entrust their data and applications with. There are ample benefits for federated computing clouds in a uniform way while respecting their autonomy. For example, the federated clouds will enable users to solve large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science, engineering, and commerce. These benefits have inspired research in creating mechanisms and protocols for interlinking exiting Grids across multi-site in a coordinated manner.A federated system composed of autonomous distributed systems can pose several risks to the user communities. In federated cloud environment, information such as resource provider’s competence, honesty, availability, quality of service and reputation will influence the selection of the cloud provider to transact with. However, there is often insufficient information for deciding which resources to use. As the scope of federated cloud computing enlarges to ubiquitous and pervasive computing, there will be a need to assess and maintain the reputation of the entities. It is necessary to create a reputation manager that could capture and efficiently store the behaviour of entities, while being able to update it with new information if possible.

A reputation system should have efficient representation of reputation as well as efficient mechanism for updating reputation and integrating efficiently the ratings of others. The quality of a reputation system depends on the integrity of the feedback ratings it receives as input. Due to the possible existence of subverted services, a trust entity for clouds faces the problem of integrating dishonest ratings. Thus, the challenge is how to systematically incorporate feedbacks collected from other clouds into computing trustworthiness of a given service.

A fundamental problem is that a subverted cloud provider can rate an entity more positively or more negatively than the real experience with the agent would dictate. Thus, a false recommendation can result in committing a transaction with untrustworthy peers or avoiding a transaction with trustworthy peers. Therefore, effective protection against unfair ratings is a basic requirement and is an integral part of a robust reputation system.

3.3. Proposed System
Informally the RMM is as follows:
1) There is a finite number of CPs and a finite number of users. It is assumed that each CP hosts virtual network request from all users. There are three types of CPs,
(a) Rational CP,
(b) Irrational CP and
(c)Opportunistic CP. There are two types of users,
(a) good user: one who does not cause any security or privacy issues and
(b) malicious user: one who causes security and privacy issues. A malicous cotenant may create various security problems such as side channel attack (attack based on the physical implementation of the network), DOS attack , Network probe attack (attack to find the topology of the network). We assume that if a CP hosts a user then it can monitor the user’s activities and recognize whether it is malicious or not.

2) a) each CP labels each user as either a good user or a malicious user.

b) It assigns virtual resources to the users.

c) The users are partitioned in groups such that in each group all users share resources with each other, i.e., they are multi-tenant.

d) Each CP announces partitions over the users, i.e., they announce the multi-tenancy information to the RMM.

3) Next,CPs monitor activities of the users and report it to the RMM. A CP can either provide a positive or a negative vote for a user. It will be assumed that the federated cloud infrastructure will provide the RMM with the means of communication with the individual CPs and using such communication channels CPs regularly provide feedback (i.e., positive or negative vote about the users) to the RMM.

3.4. System Configuration
Hardware Requirements
RAM : 4GB
Hard Disk : 1TB
Software Requirements
Operating System : Windows
Technology : Java and J2EE
Web Technologies : Html, JavaScript, CSS
IDE : My Eclipse
Web Server : Tomcat
Database: My SQL
Java Version : J2SDK 1.8
3.4. Modules
After careful analysis the system has been identified to have the following
1. End User
2. Owner
3. Cloud Provider
4. Feedback Formulation
5. Chart Representation
6. File upload and Download
End User
The data consumer (User) is assigned a global user identity Uid .The user possesses a set of attributes and is equipped ,end user give request for file accessing request,after geting a permisson from user,they can download the any file.end user give review and recommendation based on cloud providing features.

Owner
Owner module, owner can bought a cloud space from particular cloud provider,they can upload any files and images to cloud, owner can view the good and bad user based on user reviews and rating, user can view the other owner reviews and recommendation,owner can give the cloud performance reviews and ratings always.

Cloud Provider
Cloud provider is a super user the can view the all the user and owner details including user and admin review and rating, cloud server show the user details, cloud provider increase the performance based on user rating and recommendation, cloud provider give a authentication for user .
Feedback Formulation
Generally collection and feedback formulation is the first in reputation system.a reputation feedback will be used to determine the trust level of cloud service provider.this is done by cloud consumer that will give a reputation based on their expirence of cloud service.if the services requested are successful it will give the csp a trust value of +1,otherwise the reputation of csp will be deducted by 1.

Chart Representation
Chart module based on user and owner rating and reviews ,if any cloud providers got a ratings means it will show through chart,using for different chats based on rating, for example bar chart.

File upload and Download
User can upload any file, after uploading file user can provide correct authentication details they can view or download protect user data with different security levels, and provide multilevel access control and valid identity authentication.

CHAPTER -4
SYSTEM DESIGN
4.1. System Architecture
(1) Each cp groups the users into sets of multi-tenants.

(2) Performance and activities of all users are monitored.

(3) Based on these observations the cps vote (positive or negative) on each user.

(4) Finally, based on the change in the reputation of each user in a group the reputation of the CP’s are changed.

Figure 2: Reputation Management System
4.2.DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS
A Data Flow Diagram is a graphical representation of the “flow” of data through an information system, modeling its process aspects. Often they are a preliminary step used to create an overview of the system which can later be elaborated. DFD’s can also be used for the visualization of data processing.

4.2.1.Data Flow Diagram At Level O
The step by step taken in the phase of input to output processing of data is shown in this diagram. initially the data owner has to get register to the cloud server (CS1,CS2,CS3,CS4).

Fig 3: Level 0 Data Flow Diagram
4.2.2.Data Flow Diagram At Level 1
The step by step taken the phase of Data owner will login to the corresponding cloud server he got registered. Trust manager provides login authorization for both data owner and the end user. Trust manager can view all the cloud status.

Fig 4: Level 1 Data Flow Diagram
4.2.3.Data Flow Diagram At Leve 2
The step by step taken in this phase is to Download the file the cloud consumer has to request the file to particular cloud server .Cloud server can perform the verification of the file name and secret key which is provided by data owner.After that Cloud server can provide the authorization to the cloud consumer.

Fig 5: Level 2 Data Flow Diagram
4.3.UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE
The Unified Modeling Language allows the software engineer to express an analysis model using the modeling notation that is governed by a set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rules. A UML system is represented using five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective.

4.3.1.Usecase Diagram

Fig 6: Usecase Diagram
A use case diagram is a dynamic or behavior diagram in UML. Use case diagrams model the functionality of a system using actors and use cases.for example data owner is the actor.actor interacts with another based on functionalities like register,login etc.

4.3.2. Class Diagram

Fig 7: Class Diagram
A Class is a blueprint that is used to create Object. The Class defines what object can do. Class Diagram gives the static view of an application.Essential elemements of class diagram are class,attributes,operations. Classes are interrelated to each other in specific ways by using Dependencies,Generalizations,Association. A class diagram can show the relationships between each object in reputation management system including classes cloud server,data owner,trust manager,user which describe the aspect of the system.for example here cloud server is the class.view cloud files , view registred users are the attributes of the class which describes the qualities of the class.based on these attributes the class can perform operations like file name,public key,secret key etc4.3.3. Object Diagram

Fig 8:Object Diagram
Object diagram represent an instance of a class diagram.the purpose of object diagram is static view of a system but this static view is a snapshot of the system at a particular moment.for example data owner is the one of the class and register,login,browse etc are constraints of the class.

4.3.4. Sequence Diagram

Fig 9:Sequence Diagram
A sequence diagram simply depicts interaction between objects in a sequential order i.e. the order in which these interactions take place. The vertical axis represents time proceedings (or progressing) down the page. Time in a sequence diagram is all a about ordering, not duration. For example Data owner is the one of the object.before going to upload file he should register first.data owner request to cloud server.Then cloud server confirm the registred request and send response message to data owner.data owner can check the allncloud details itself.

4.3.5. Collaboration Diagram

Fig 10:Collabartion Diagram
Collaboration diagrams convey the same information as sequence diagrams, but focus on object roles instead of the times that messages are sent. In the collaboration diagram, the method call sequence is indicated by some numbering technique. The number indicates how the methods are called one after another.here data owner is the object.the object message passing to cloud server.view cloud file constraint that the relationship between among them.

4.3.6. State chart Diagram

Fig 11:State Chart Diagram
A Statechart diagram describes a state machine. State machine can be defined as a machine which defines different states of an object and these states are controlled by external or internal events. Statechart diagram describes the flow of control from one state to another state. The most important purpose of Statechart diagram is to model lifetime of an object from creation to termination.data owner is the state.register is the event based on this the data owner can perform some reactive events like login,browse,upload etc.

4.3.7. Activity Diagram

Fig 12:Activity Diagram
Activity diagram is basically a flowchart to represent the flow from one activity to another activity. The activity can be described as an operation of the system. This flow can be sequential, branched, or concurrent.the activity process start with browse operation and end with trust manager.

4.3.8. Component Diagram

Fig 13:.Component Diagram
Component diagrams are used to visualize the organization and relationships among components in a system. These diagrams are also used to make executable systems.for example cloud server is the component is implemented depends on view cloud file,view registred users etc4.3.9. Deployment DiagramDeployment diagrams are used to visualize the topology of the physical components of a system, where the software components are deployed.for example trust manager is node.provide login authorization,view cloud trust,view all feedbacks are connects to the application using trust manager.

Fig 14:Deployment Diagram
CHAPTER -5
IMPLEMENTATION
5.1. METHOD OF IMPLEMENTATION(SE)
MySql:
MySQL is a fast, easy to use relational database. It is currently the most popular open-source database. It is very commonly used in conjunction with PHP scripts to create powerful and dynamic server-side applications.MySQL is used for many small and big businesses. It is developed, marketed and supported by MySQL AB, a Swedish company. It is written in C and C++.

MySQL Features:
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS): MySQL is a relational database management system.

Easy to use: MySQL is easy to use. You have to get only the basic knowledge of SQL. You can build and interact with MySQL with only a few simple SQL statements.

It is secure: MySQL consist of a solid data security layer that protects sensitive data from intruders. Passwords are encrypted in MySQL.

Client/ Server Architecture: MySQL follows a client /server architecture. There is a database server (MySQL) and arbitrarily many clients (application programs), which communicate with the server; that is, they query data, save changes, etc.

Free to download: MySQL is free to use and you can download it from MySQL official website.

It is scalable: MySQL can handle almost any amount of data, up to as much as 50 million rows or more. The default file size limit is about 4 GB. However, you can increase this number to a theoretical limit of 8 TB of data.

Compatibale on many operating systems: MySQL is compatible to run on many operating systems, like Novell NetWare, Windows* Linux*, many varieties of UNIX* (such as Sun* Solaris*, AIX, and DEC* UNIX), OS/2, FreeBSD*, and others. MySQL also provides a facility that the clients can run on the same computer as the server or on another computer (communication via a local network or the Internet).

Allows roll-back: MySQL allows transactions to be rolled back, commit and crash recovery.

High Performance: MySQL is faster, more reliable and cheaper because of its unique storage engine architecture.
High Productivity: MySQL uses Triggers, Stored procedures and views which allows the developer to give a higher productivity.

Need for MYSQL:
Open Source values and methodology with a successful business model.The MYSQL software delivers a very fast, multi threaded, multi user and robust SQL(Structured Query Language) data base server.Users can choose to use the MYSQL software as an open source product. MYSQL the most popular open source data base management system, is developed, distributed and supported by MYSQL AB.MYSQL AB is a commercial company ,founded by the MYSQL developers.It is a second generation pen source company that unites.

Example To Create Data Base:
<html>
<head>
<title>Creating MySQL Database</title>
</head>
<body>
<?php
$dbhost = ‘localhost:3036’;
$dbuser = ‘root’;
$dbpass = ‘rootpassword’;
$conn = mysql_connect($dbhost, $dbuser, $dbpass);
if(! $conn ) {
die(‘Could not connect: ‘ . mysql_error());
}
echo ‘Connected successfully<br />’;
$sql = ‘CREATE DATABASE TUTORIALS’;
$retval = mysql_query( $sql, $conn );
if(! $retval ) {
die(‘Could not create database: ‘ . mysql_error());
}
echo “Database TUTORIALS created successfully
“;
mysql_close($conn);
?>
</body>
</html>

Fig 15: MySql Command Prompt
Tomcat 7.07.0 web server
Tomcat is an open source web server developed by Apache Group. Apache Tomcat is the servlet container that is used in the official Reference Implementation for the Java Servlet and Java Server Pages technologies. The Java Servlet and Java Server Pages specifications are developed by Sun under the Java Community Process. Web Servers like Apache Tomcat support only web components while an application server supports web components as well as business components (BEAs Weblogic, is one of the popular application server).To develop a web application with jsp/servlet install any web server like JRun, Tomcat etc to run your application.

Fig 16: Tomcat Webserver
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the languages of the World Wide Web (WWW), allows users to produces Web pages that include text, graphics and pointer to other Web pages (Hyperlinks).HTML is not a programming language but it is an application of ISO Standard 8879, SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), but specialized to hypertext and adapted to the Web. The idea behind Hypertext is that instead of reading text in rigid linear structure, we can easily jump from one point to another point. We can navigate through the information based on our interest and preference. A markup language is simply a series of elements, each delimited with special characters that define how text or other items enclosed within the elements should be displayed. Hyperlinks are underlined or emphasized works that load to other documents or some portions of the same document.

HTML can be used to display any type of document on the host computer, which can be geographically at a different location. It is a versatile language and can be used on any platform or desktop.HTML provides tags (special codes) to make the document look attractive. HTML tags are not case-sensitive. Using graphics, fonts, different sizes, color, etc., can enhance the presentation of the document. Anything that is not a tag is part of the document itself.

Basic HTML Tags
<!– –>Specifies comments
<A>……….</A>Creates hypertext links
<B>……….</B>Formats text as bold
<BIG>……….</BIG> Formats text in large font.

<BODY>…</BODY> Contains all tags and text in the HTML document
<CENTER>…</CENTER> Creates text
<DD>…</DD>Definition of a term
<DL>…</DL>Creates definition list
<FONT>…</FONT> Formats text with a particular font
<FORM>…</FORM>Encloses a fill-out form
<FRAME>…</FRAME> Defines a particular frame in a set of frames
<H#>…</H#>Creates headings of different levels
<HEAD>…</HEAD> Contains tags that specify information about a document
<HR>…</HR>Creates a horizontal rule
<HTML>…</HTML> Contains all other HTML tags
<META>…</META>Provides meta-information about a document
<SCRIPT>…</SCRIPT> Contains client-side or server-side script
<TABLE>…</TABLE> Creates a table
<TD>…</TD>Indicates table data in a table
<TR>…</TR>Designates a table row
<TH>…</TH>Creates a heading in a table
ECLIPSE
In the context of computing, Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) for developing applications using the Java programming language and other programming languages such as C/C++, Python, PERL, Ruby etc.The Eclipse platform which provides the foundation for the Eclipse IDE is composed of plug-ins and is designed to be extensible using additional plug-ins. Developed using Java, the Eclipse platform can be used to develop rich client applications, integrated development environments and other tools. Eclipse can be used as an IDE for any programming language for which a plug-in is available.

The Java Development Tools (JDT) project provides a plug-in that allows Eclipse to be used as a Java IDE, PyDev is a plugin that allows Eclipse to be used as a Python IDE, C/C++ Development Tools (CDT) is a plug-in that allows Eclipse to be used for developing application using C/C++, the Eclipse Scala plug-in allows Eclipse to be used an IDE to develop Scala applications and PHPeclipse is a plug-in to eclipse that provides complete development tool for PHP.

About Eclipse Workspace
The eclipse workspace contains resources such as
Projects
Files
Folders
The workspace has a hierarchical structure. Projects are at the top level of the hierarchy and inside them you can have files and folders. Plug-ins use an API provided by the resources plug-in to manage the resources in the workspace.

Parts of Eclipse Window
An eclipse perspective is the name given to an initial collection and arrangement of views and an editor area. The default perspective is called java. An eclipse window can have multiple perspectives open in it but only one perspective can be active at any point of time. A user can switch between open perspectives or open a new perspective. A perspective controls what appears in some menus and tool bars. A perspective has only one editor area in which multiple editors can be open. The editor area is usually surrounded by multiple views. In general, editors are used to edit the project data and views are used to view the project metadata. For example, the package explorer shows the java files in the project and the java editor is used to edit a java file. The eclipse window can contain multiple editors and views but only one of them is active at any given point of time. The title bar of the active editor or view looks different from all the others. The UI elements on the menu bar and tool bar represent commands that can be triggered by an end user.

Fig 17: Parts of an Eclipse Window
XamppXAMPP is a free and open source cross-platform web server solution stack package developed by Apache Friends, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server, Maria DB database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perl programming languages. XAMPP stands for Cross-Platform (X), Apache (A), MariaDB (M), PHP (P) and Perl (P). It is a simple, lightweight Apache distribution that makes it extremely easy for developers to create a local web server for testing and deployment purposes. Everything needed to set up a web server – server application (Apache), database (MariaDB), and scripting language (PHP) – is included in an extractable file. XAMPP is also cross-platform, which means it works equally well on Linux, Mac and Windows. Since most actual web server deployments use the same components as XAMPP, it makes transitioning from a local test server to a live server extremely easy as well.

What’s Included in Xampp?
XAMPP has four primary components. These are:
1. Apache: Apache is the actual web server application that processes and delivers web content to a computer. Apache is the most popular web server online, powering nearly 54% of all websites.

2. MySQL: Every web application, howsoever simple or complicated, requires a database for storing collected data. MySQL, which is open source, is the world’s most popular database management system. It powers everything from hobbyist websites to professional platforms like WordPress. You can learn how to master PHP with this free MySQL database for beginners course.

3. PHP: PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. It is a server-side scripting language that powers some of the most popular websites in the world, including WordPress and Facebook. It is open source, relatively easy to learn, and works perfectly with MySQL, making it a popular choice for web developers.

4. Perl: Perl is a high-level, dynamic programming language used extensively in network programming, system admin, etc. Although less popular for web development purposes, Perl has a lot of niche applications.

Importance of XamppA special tool is provided to password-protect themost important parts of the package. XAMPP also provides support for creating and manipulating databases in MariaDB and SQLite among others. Once XAMPP is installed, it is possible to treat a localhost like a remote host by connecting using an FTP client.

What is the Benefit of Xampp Server with Localhost.?Both servers have their equal importance, as a live server is used to keep our website data and make it live or visible to all the users across the world.But we can’t perform more testing work on the live server as it can create a massive traffic and load to the live server thus may result in a hang or stuck our website. So for testing work or update work for our website we need a server similar to our live server(live server also have Xampp or Wamp installed). So Xampp is the best option for achieving this.So for testing work or update work for our website we need a server similar to our live server(live server also have Xampp or Wamp installed). So Xampp is the best option for achieving this.It is an open source software and you can easily download and install it on your local machine.Once you install this on your local machine then you can perform any number of test or updations to your website.

5.2.CODINGView User Services
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>
<head>
<title></title>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”css/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”css/coin-slider.css” />
<script type=”text/javascript” src=”js/cufon-yui.js”></script>
<script type=”text/javascript” src=”js/cufon-quicksand.js”></script>
<script type=”text/javascript” src=”js/jquery-1.4.2.min.js”></script>
<script type=”text/javascript” src=”js/script.js”></script>
<script type=”text/javascript” src=”js/coin-slider.min.js”></script>
<style type=”text/css”>
<!–
style1 {color: #0000FF}
–>
</style>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”main”>
<div class=”header”>
<div class=”header_resize”>
<div class=”logo”>
</div>
<div class=”searchform”>
<form id=”formsearch” name=”formsearch” method=”post” action=”#”>
<span>
<input name=”editbox_search” class=”editbox_search” id=”editbox_search” maxlength=”80″ value=”Search our ste:” type=”text” />
<div class=”article”>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<br />
<form name=”form1″ method=”post” action=”viewuserservice1.jsp”>
<table width=”371″ border=”0″ align=”center”>
<tr>
<td><strong>Select the Service</strong></td>
<td><label>
<select name=”t1″>
<option >–Select–</option>
<option>SaaS</option>
<option>Paas</option>
<option>Iaas</option>
</select>
</label></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>&nbsp;</td>
<td><label>
<input type=”submit” name=”Submit” value=”Submit”>
</label></td>
</tr>
</table>
<h2 class=”style1″>View Users on Services</h2>
</form>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=”article”>
<h2>&nbsp;</h2>
<div class=”clr”></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=”sidebar”>
<div class=”gadget”>
<h2 class=”star”>Menu Operations </h2>
<div class=”clr”></div>
<ul class=”sb_menu”>
<li><a href=”viewpos.jsp”>List +ve Feedbacks</a></li>
<li><a href=”viewneg.jsp”>List -ve Feedbacks</a></li>
<li><a href=”listallusers1.jsp”>List All Users</a></li>
<li><a href=”listallcontent.jsp”>List All Content Attackers</a></li>
<li><a href=”listalluserdownloads.jsp”>List All User Downloads</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class=”clr”></div>
</div>
<div class=”fbg”>
<div class=”fbg_resize”>
<div class=”col c1″>
<h2>&nbsp;</h2>
</div>
<div class=”col c2″>
<h2>&nbsp;</h2>
</div>
<div class=”col c3″>
<h2>&nbsp;</h2>
</div>
<div class=”clr”></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=”footer”>
<div class=”footer_resize”>
<p class=”lf”>.</p>
<div style=”clear:both;”></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div align=center></div>
</body>
</html>
</div>
CHAPTER -6
TESTING & VALIDATION
6.1.TESTINGThe purpose of testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub assemblies, assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. There are various types of test. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement.

6.2.TESTING METHODOLOGIES
The following are the Testing Methodologies
Unit Testing.

Integration Testing.

User Acceptance Testing.

Output Testing.

Validation Testing.

Unit Testing
Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of Software design that is the module. Unit testing exercises specific paths in a module’s control structure to ensure complete coverage and maximum error detection. This test focuses on each module individually, ensuring that it functions properly as a unit. Hence, the naming is Unit Testing.During this testing, each module is tested individually and the module interfaces are verified for the consistency with design specification. All important processing path are tested for the expected results. All error handling paths are also tested.

Integration Testing
Integration tests are designed to test integrated software components to determine if they actually run as one program. Testing is event driven and is more concerned with the basic outcome of screens or fields. Integration tests demonstrate that although the components were individually satisfaction, as shown by successfully unit testing, the combination of components is correct and consistent. Integration testing is specifically aimed at exposing the problems that arise from the combination of components.

User Acceptance Testing
User Acceptance of a system is the key factor for the success of any system. The system under the consideration is tested for user acceptance by constantly keeping in touch with the prospective system users at the time of developing and making changes wherever required. The system developed provides a friendly
User Output Testing
After performing the validation testing, the next step is output testing of the proposed system, since no system could be useful if it does not produce the required output in the specified format. Asking the users about the format required by them tests the outputs generated or displayed by the system under consideration. Hence the output format is considered in 2 ways – one is on screen and another in printed format.

Validation Checking
Validation checks are performed on the following fields.

Text Field
The text field can contain only the number of characters lesser than or equal to its size. The text fields are alphanumeric in some tables and alphabetic in other tables. Incorrect entry always flashes and error message.

Numeric Field
The numeric field can contain only numbers from 0 to 9. An entry of any character flashes an error messages. The individual modules are checked for accuracy and what it has to perform. Each module is subjected to test run along with sample data. The individually tested modules are integrated into a single system. Testing involves executing the real data information is used in the program the existence of any program defect is inferred from the output. The testing should be planned so that all the requirements are individually tested.A successful test is one that gives out the defects for the inappropriate data and produces and output revealing the errors in the system.
Preparation of Test Data
Taking various kinds of test data does the above testing. Preparation of test data plays a vital role in the system testing. After preparing the test data the system under study is tested using that test data. While testing the system by using test data errors are again uncovered and corrected by using above testing steps and corrections are also noted for future use.

Using Live Test Data
Live test data are those that are actually extracted from organization files. After a system is partially constructed, programmers or analysts often ask users to key in a set of data from their normal activities. Then, the systems person uses this data as a way to partially test the system. In other instances, programmers or analysts extract a set of live data from the files and have them entered themselves. It is difficult to obtain live data in sufficient amounts to conduct extensive testing. And, although it is realistic data that will show how the system will perform for the typical processing requirement, assuming that the live data entered are in fact typical, such data generally will not test all combinations or formats that can enter the system. This bias toward typical values then does not provide a true systems test and in fact ignores the cases most likely to cause system failure
Using Artificial Test Data
Artificial test data are created solely for test purposes, since they can be generated to test all combinations of formats and values. In other words, the artificial data, which can quickly be prepared by a data generating utility program in the information systems department, make possible the testing of all login and control paths through the program.The most effective test programs use artificial test data generated by persons other than those who wrote the programs. Often, an independent team of testers formulates a testing plan, using the systems specification are shown in figure table 6.

Tab: TESTCASE & VALIDATION
Module Functionality Test case Expected result Actual result Result Priority
User Login use case 1.Navigate to www.sample.com2.Click on submit button without entering user name & password. A validation should be as below please enter valid username & password. A validation has been populated as expected. Pass High
1.navigate to www.sample.com2.click on submit button without filling password and valid user name. A validation should be as below please enter valid password or password filed cannot be empty. A validation is shown as expected. Pass High
1.navigate to www.sample.com2.click on submit after filling user name field with invalid username A validation should be as below the user name enter is wrong. A validation is not shown as expected Fail High
1.navigate to www.sample.com2.click on submit with valid username and invalid password. A validation should be as below password is incorrect. A validation is shown as expected Pass High
1.navigate to www.sample.com2.enter both username and password wrong.hit enter. A validation is shown as below the username entered is invalid. A validation is shown as expected Pass High
1.navigate to www.sample.com2.enter validate username and password and click on submit button. Validate username and password in database and once if they correct then show the home page Main /home page has been displayed Pass High
CHAPTER -7
RESULTS
7.1. OUTPUT SCREENS

Fig 18:Welcome Screen
Navigation: Welcome Screen.

Fig 19:Registration Screen
Navigation: In this module if a user wants to access the data which is stored in the cloud,he/she should register their details first these details are maintained in database.The details like name, email id,password,contact no,select cloud service which particular service he has to use,which are some of the essential which must be provided.

Fig 20: Login Screen
Navigation: Data owner can register with valid details and he can login after registration.

Fig 21: Data Owner Screen
Navigation:It is one of option shows in home page.

Fig 22:Purchase VmNavigation: Before uploading the file to cloud server the data owner must purchase the memory allocation which particular cloud he has to use.

Fig23: Uploading Screen
Navigation: Data owner has to upload the file to particular cloud server, after uploading the file it will be stored as encrypted format.

Fi 24:Verify File Screen
Navigation:Data owner verifies the file he uploaded either it is safe or not in particular cloud server by giving file name.

Fig 25:User Login Screen
Navigation: User has to register to cloud server which particular cloud he has to use.He has to login to the cloud he got registered with valid detiails.

Fig 26: Request Key Screen
Navigation: User want to access the file request send to cloud server.Then only he can able to do it.

Fig 27:Request File Screen
Navigation: To download the file request send to cloud server and cloud server approve the request then only download the file by entering seret key which is assigned by data owner to data user.

Fig 28: Feedback About Cloud
Navigation: User can gives the positive or negative feedback about the cloud server.

Fig 29: Find Cloud Reputation Screen
Navigation: Data owner can check the cloud reputationThe reputation is depends upon the no of reputated user for particular cloud server.

Fig 30: View Cloud Trustworthy Screen
Navigation: Data owner can check the trustworthiness of cloud.It is calculated by depends upon attacked server.

Fig 31: Find Cloud Cost Screen
Navigation: Data owner can check the all cloud cost based on memory allocation and cloud server.

Fig 32: Send Feedback To Cloud Screen
Navigation: Data owner can gives feedback about the cloud server.

Fig 33: Delete Screen
Navigation:Data owner can delete the file by giving particular file name in selected cloud sever.

Fig 34: View Cloud Files
Navigation:Data owner can see the files according to cloud server.

Fig 35: Attack Feedback Screen
Navigation: User has to mislead the feedback about the cloud server by giving user id and particular cloud.

Fig 36: Cloud Server Screen
Navigation: Cloud server manages cloud to provide data storage services to users.Before that first he must register with valid details.Then only he can be able to do it.He can login after registration.

Fig 37:List Out Cloud Files Screen
Navigation: Cloud server can check all the files which are stored by data owner.

Fig 38:Cloud Vm Screen
Navigation: Cloud server can check all the data owner memory allocation to particular cloud server.

Fig 39:Trust Manager Screen
Navigation: Trust manager can register with valid details and he can login after registration

Fig40:View Collision Attack Screen
Navigation:User can mislead the feedback about the cloud..The trust manager can check the attacks depends on cloud server.

Fig 41:Sybil Attack Screen
Navigation: Trust manager can check the details of user transactions.When user can use more transaction per day(exceeds the limit which is assigned by the trust manager) upload(5),download(3),feedback(3).

Fig 42:View Users On Service Screen
Navigation: Trust manager always find the user behavior depends upon particular cloud server.

Fig 43:View All Positive Feedback Screen
Navigation: Trust manager can check the feedbacks given by user and list all the positive feedbacks

Fig 44:List Out All Negative Feedback Screen
Navigation: Trust manager can check the feedback given by user and list all the negative feedbacks.Here for feedback splitting we are using content based filtering.

Fig 45:Attack Cloud File Screen
Navigation: User can attack the file which is stored in particular cloud server by giving file name and data owner name.

Fig 46:List Out All Content Attack
Navigation: Trust manager can check the content attack files which are attacked by user.

Fig 47: Performance Of Cloud Server Screen
Navigation: Trust manager can check the performance of user based on trustworthiness of feedbacks given by user and cloud server.

7.2. RESULT ANALYSIS
RMM simulate the federated cloud as follows:
There are 30 CPs. A CP can be (a) a rational CP, (b) an irrational CP or (c) an opportunistic CP
There are 200 users. A user can be either a good user or a malicious user.
We assume that each CP hosts all users.

Each CP partitions the users into 10 groups (each group represents a set of co-tenants). The rational CPs do not place a good user in the same group with a malicious user. But irrational and opportunistic CPs groups the users randomly.

Fig 48: CP Reputation
There are 10 rational, 10 irrational and 10 opportunistic CPs. There are equal number of good and bad users. Plot X- shows the reputation of the CPs. Y-axis shows the user reputation particular period of time.

Fig 49: CP Reputation
There are 12 rational, 8 irrational and 10 opportunistic CPs. There are equal number of good and bad users. . Plot X- shows the reputation of the CPs. Y-axis shows the user reputation particular period of time.

Fig 50: CP Reputation
There are 10 rational, 10 irrational and 10 opportunistic CPs. There are equal number of good and bad users. Plot X- shows the reputation of the CPs. Y-axis shows the user reputation particular period of time.

Fug 51: CP Reputation
There are 12 rational, 8 irrational and 10 opportunistic CPs. There are equal number of good and bad users. . Plot X- shows the reputation of the CPs. Y-axis shows the user reputation particular period of time.

Fig 52: CP Reputation
There are 15 rational, 5 irrational and 10 opportunistic CPs. There are equal number of good and bad users. . Plot X- shows the reputation of the CPs. Y-axis shows the user reputation particular period of time.

Fig 53: CP Reputation
There are 15 rational, 5 irrational and 10 opportunistic CPs. There are equal number of good and bad users. . Plot X- shows the reputation of the CPs. Y-axis shows the user reputation particular period of time.

CHAPTER-8
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
Here we have develop a strong reputation management mechanism in the federated cloud aims to take account of the malicious and selfish behaviors’ of CPs and reflect this on their reputation that encourages CPs to make correct segmentation among authorized users and malicious users, i.e., a good user gets only other good users as cotenants. The existing RMMs for cloud computing do not consider this criteria to evaluate reputation of the CPs. A federated cloud is constructed by contributions from several cloud providers and a virtual network request may be fulfilled by more than one cloud provider. In a federated cloud, a CP risks its own reputation as it shares its resources with other CPs (a virtual network request may span over the resources owned by several CPs). The problem in a virtual network may originate from the physical resources owned by other CPs.
FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
Regarding strong reputation management mechanism in the federated cloud there are many issues remaining to be solved.We distinguish three major areas for improvement reputation feedback mechanism established in most of the study cannot be used as an absolute solution in reflecting trustworthiness of cloud service provider.It prompts to security attacks such as sybil attacks.Instead of final trust value we proposed rate of change value that considered robust and can give a significant and meaningful evalution.To assess the credibility of cloud service provider and improve the reputation evalution mechanism so as to provide better protection of user privacy.However it must come together a cross reference to another cloud service provider.as a result one of the main challenge in reputation system is to identify the false feedbacks.The quality of reputation system depends upon integrity of feedback rating as it receives as input.Therefore effective protection against unfair rating is a basic requirement and an integral part of an strong reputation system is also valuable research topic that can be explored in future.

CHAPTER -9
REFERENCES
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Y. Azar, S. Kamara, I. Menache, M. Raykova, and B. Shepard, “Colocation-resistant clouds,” in Proceedings of the 6th Edition of the ACM Workshop on Cloud Computing Security, ser. CCSW ’14. New York, USA: ACMpp. 9–20,2014.

F. Koeune and F.-X. Standaert, “Foundations of security analysis and design iii,” A. Aldini, R. Gorrieri, and F. Martinelli, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag,, ch. A Tutorial on Physical Security and Side-channel Attacks, pp. 78–108,2005.

J. Huang and D. Nicol, “Trust mechanisms for cloud computing,” Journal of Cloud Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, 2013.

R. Ko, P. Jagadpramana, M. Mowbray, S. Pearson, M. Kirchberg, Q. Liang, and B. S. Lee, “Trustcloud: A framework for accountability and trust in cloud computing,” in Services (SERVICES), 2011 IEEE World Congress on, pp. 584–588,July 2011.

T. Noor and Q. Sheng, “Credibility-based trust management for services in cloud environments,” in Service-Oriented Computing, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, G. Kappel, Z. Maamar, and H. Motahari-Nezhad, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg,, vol. 7084, pp. 328–343,2011.

M. Macas and J. Guitart, “Trust-aware operation of providers in cloud markets,” in Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, K. Magoutis and P. Pietzuch, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 8460, pp. 31–37,2014.

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A. Whitby, A. Jsang, and J. Indulska, “Filtering out unfair ratings in bayesian reputation systems,” in AAMAS04, 2004
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E. Ayday and F. Fekri, “Robust reputation management using probabilistic message passing,” in Proceedings of the Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2011, 5-9 December , Houston, Texas, USA,pp. 1–5,2011.

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LIST OF PUBLICATION
1. N.ASHWINI KUMARI currently pursuing M.Tech in Computer Science & Engineering at Jyothishmathi Institute of Technology & Science, Telangana, India. Research interesting includes Mobile Computing, Networks, and Data Mining etc.

2.M.SUJATHA working as a Associate Professor at Jyothishmathi Institute of Technology & Science, Telangana,India and has 10years of experience in Academic.Her research area includes Mobile Computing, Cloud Computing, Data Mining, Machine Learning.

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
A company can use different sources of funds to manage required capital. Debt capital and ownership capital are main sources of financing. The holder of debt capital is called debt holder or lender of the company whereas holder of ownership capital is called shareholder. Debt holders receive interest and shareholders receive dividend. When a company earns profit, it can retain with in company or can pay to shareholder as a dividend. Dividend is the part of total earning which is distributed to the shareholders by a company. It can be distributing in cash and securities or combination of these.
Dividend Policy refers to a company’s policy which determines the amount of dividend payments and the amounts of retained earnings for reinvesting in new projects. This policy is related to dividing the firm’s earning between payment to shareholders and reinvestment in new opportunities. Ross et al (2005) define corporate dividend policy, simply, as determining the amount to be paid to the shareholders and that to be retained in the company to reinvest in profitable projects or for retention in case of future needs. Booth and Cleary (2010) defined dividend policy as an exclusive decision by the management to decide what parentage of profit is distributed among the shareholders or what percentage of it retains to fulfill its internal needs.
Dividend policy is a firm’s strategy with regards to paying out earnings as dividends versus retaining them for reinvestment in the firm. It is thus an important part of the firm’s long-run financing strategy. Every firm operating in a given industry follows some sort of dividend payment pattern or dividend policy and obviously it is a financial indicator of the firm. Thus, demand of the firm’s share should to some extent, dependent on the firm’s dividend policy (Abdullah Al Mausum, 2014). Dividend policy related with the determining the amount to be paid to the shareholder and retained in the company for future reinvestment in profitable projects or for other justifiable needs is one of the cardinal issues involved in financial management and as such it has consistently received serious attention of researcher, Ramadan (2013). Dividend payment is a major component of stock return to shareholders. Dividend payment could provide a signal to the investors that the company is complying with good corporate governance practices (Jo and Pan, 2009).
Dividend policy is one of the most important issues in corporate finance. Dividend policy is important for investors, managers, lenders and for other stakeholders. It is important for investors because investors consider dividends not only the source of income but also a way to assess the firms from investment points of view. It is the way of assessing whether the company could generate cash or not. Many investors like to watch the dividend yield, which is calculated as the annual dividend income per share divided by the current share price. It is important for manager because it helps to increase value of firm. Similarly, it helps to lender and other stakeholder to know about financial strength and weakness. The twenty-first century has seen dividend policy remain one of the most important financial policies used in financial management to achieve the objective of wealth maximization (Baker & Kent, 2009). Frankfurter and Wood (2002), posits that a number of conflicting theoretical models all lacking strong empirical support, define current attempts to explain corporate dividend behavior. Moreover, both academics and corporate managers continue to disagree about whether the value of the firm is independent of its dividend policy.
Many researchers have attempted to relate the dividend policy to share price of firm but they had conflicting results and still, there is no consensus among researchers about the impact of dividends policy on share price. The Miller and Modigliani’s(MM) theory states that shareholder wealth will remain unaffected by dividend policy, in that without tax as a consideration, investors place equal weight in receiving returns as dividends or capital gains as long as the firm’s investment strategy is not affected by dividend policy. Another finance scholar, Al-Malkawi (2007), suggested through his Bird-in-the-Hand Theory, that dividends are worth more than retained earnings to investors, citing the uncertainty of future cash flows. This theory argues that dividend is main factor to increase value of firm.
The issue of whether or not dividend policy has a relationship with market share price has been a topic of intense debate for many years. Some research shows there is direct positive relation between dividend scheme and market price, some study shows dividend is insignificant for market price of stock price.
In Nepal, there are few studies have been conducted about dividend policy. Commercial banking sector is a most attractive sector for investor. However, the share price of commercial banks is fluctuating. There are different factors that affect market price of stock So this research is going to study about whether dividend scheme of commercial banks is major factor for fluctuation of market price of stock or not. This research focus on dividend policy of the commercial banks and shows the relation with market price of the stock. There are number of factor that affect market price of stock. Dividend maybe one of major factor which affect price of stock. There are some of study that has been conducted to check the relationship between dividend policy and market price of stock in Nepal. Those studies show a direct relationship between stock price and dividend policy. But there is a lack of specific study about dividend policy of commercial banks and its effect on stock price. So this research focus on the commercial banks listed in NEPSE. This study examined the impact of dividend policy of commercial banks in their market price. The debate about dividend policy and stock price is tested in the Nepalese banking sector. This study showed that whether dividend policy of commercial banks is directly related with stock price or not.

1.2 Problem statement

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The issue of whether or not dividend policy has a relationship with share price volatility has been a topic of intense debate for many years. The decision of whether or not to distribute earnings to shareholders has left the opportunity for many finance scholars and professionals to examine its various effects. Many academic works have provided evidence that both support and reject the idea that dividends reduce stock price volatility. Some argue that dividends signal to investors that the company is operating effectively, while others argue that when all other variables are fixed, the payout of dividends does not effectively reduce the stocks volatility.
Recently, studies on relationship between dividend policy and stock price have been growing in the world. But there are very limited studies about divided policy and stock price in Nepal. In 2012 Rabindra, Joshi conduct study to explain relationship between dividend and stock price in banking and nonbanking sector. He has focused on overall business scenario of Nepal. Studies about divided policy of commercial banks and stock price are rarely found in Nepal. So there is gap in the financial literature concerning the effect of dividend on stock prices particularly in hydro sector of Nepal. Such gap creates confusion to the investor, manager, researcher, government and other stakeholders. So the major problem of this study is: what is the impact of dividend on stock price of commercial banks listed in NEPSE?

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of dividends on share price of commercial banks listed in NEPSE. To achieve this objective following specific objectives will cover by this research.
• To find the relation between the Market Price per Share and the Dividend per Share.
• To evaluate the dependency of share price on retained earning
• To assess impact of earning per share on share price.
• To analyze whether size, leverage and net worth per share has any impact on market price per share.
• To find out whether previous year dividend, previous year price earnings ratio and previous year market price per share has impact on current market price per share.

1.4 Research Hypothesis
Hypothesis is tentative statement about relationship between two or more variables. It is supposition that is previously accepted in order to interpret certain issue. This study has some hypothesis to achieve objectives. They are as follows.
Hypothesis 1:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and dividend per share.
H1: there is significant relationship between market price per share and dividend per share.

Hypothesis 2:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and retain earning per share.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and retain earning per share.

Hypothesis 3:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and EPS.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and EPS.

Hypothesis 4:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and lagged price earnings ratio.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and lagged price earnings ratio.

Hypothesis 5:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and lagged market price per share.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and lagged market price per share.

Hypothesis 6:
H0: There is no significant relationship between market price per share and lagged dividend per share.
H1: There is significant relationship between market price per share and lagged divided per share.

1.5 Rationale of Study
A number of studies on impact of dividends on stock price have been carried out in different parts of the world. Most of the earlier studies show the significant role of dividend policy on stock price. The corporate firms should follow the appropriate dividend policy to maximize the shareholders’ value. Dividend policy is considered as one of the important and critical variables affecting the share price. In the context of Nepal, very few studies {such as Pradhan (2003), Manandhar (1998), Rabindra Joshi, (2012)} have carried out by research scholars. There is a gap in the financial literature concerning the effect of dividends on stock prices particularly in commercial banking sector. This study will provide a deeper understanding on the true correlation between commercial bank’s dividend policy and stock price. The study will further investigate whether a company’s dividend policy is the best indicator of a less volatile stock, which can reassure them of a safe and stable investment.

So this study will fulfill the gap about the effect of dividend on stock price in Nepalese banking sector. The result of this study will be significantly useful to various groups that have directly or indirectly linked to capital market. Those groups are policy maker, financial analyst, researcher, investor and others.

1.6 Scope and limitations of the study
The limitations of the study are as follows:
1. This study is done based on quantitative data. But qualitative information like political situation, government rule, regulation and policies, NRB regulation etc. also have direct impact on market price per share.
2. The data are taken from secondary source.
3. Scope is limited
4. The dependent variable, market price per share used in this study is computed only on the basis of the year end closing price of the commercial banks. Inclusion of whole year average would have made the data for market price per share more reliable.
5. Some of the commercial banks are excluded because these companies have not listed on NEPSE and paid dividend
6. The finding of primary study is only based on limited person’s perception.
7. The study has not included some other important variables like, book to market price, profit after tax, liquidity and ROE that could affect share price.

1.7 Definition of terms
Dependent variable:
1. Market price per Share (MPS):
Market price per share is taken as dependent variable and it is defined as the closing price of the stock (at the end of the year). It is derived directly from the annual report of NEPSE. The share price in this study represent annually. In the previous studied researchers like Nazir, Nawaz, Anwar, & Ahmed (2010), Asghar, Shah, Hamid, & Suleman (2011), Hussainey, K., Mgbame, C.O., & chijoke-Mgbame, A.M. (2011) Rabindra Joshi(2015) Dr.NiharikaMaharshi and Sarika Malik(2015 use market price as a dependent variable to see the effect of dividend policy on stock market prices. Khan (2010) found that cash dividend retention ratio and return equity has significant positive relation with stock market prices.
2. Independent variable
a) Dividend Per Share (DPS)
In this study total dividend per share is taken as dependent variable. Total dividend per share refers to cash dividends and stock dividends paid to common stockholders are divided by the number of share outstanding. It is important variable that is used by Litner (1956), Gorden, Khan, Modigliani and Miller (1961)
b) Retained Earnings Per Share (REPS)
Retained earnings remaining income after distributing the dividend. Retained earnings per share is used as independent variable on this study. Retained earnings per share is calculated by deducting dividend per share with earning per share.
In context of Nepal, Bhattarai (1995) found that there was a negative relationship between MPS and stockholders’ required rate of return.
Control Variables
a) Size (SZ)
Size is one of the control variables of this study. It is the total assets of the commercial banks. A transformation using the base 10 logarithm is then applied to obtain a variable that reflects orders of magnitude (Hussainey et al., 2010). The figures were obtained directly from annual report. This variable has been used by (Smith and Watts, 1992; Kouki and Guizani, 2009; Chae et al., 2009).
b) Leverage
The total debt to total assets ratio is taken as leverage on this study. Total debt is sum total of current liabilities and long term debt. And total assets is sum total of current assets and fixed assets of company. Each year’s debt ratio is calculated by averaging the debt ratio of companies. This variable has been used by various researcher like Lev and Kunitzky (1974), Gaver, and Gaver, (1993), Gul, (1999), Kallapur and Trombley, (1999) and Habib et al. (2012).

1.8 Structure of the study
This study is divided in to five chapters.
First chapter
This contains the introduction which includes background of the study, statement of problem, rational of the study, hypothesis scope and limitation of the study and definition of terms.
Chapter II
It deals with the conceptual framework and review of literature that includes the conceptual framework, review of literature or empirical works, review of Nepalese studies and concluding remarks.
Chapter III
This chapter describes the research methodology employed in the study. It deals with research design, nature and sources of data, selection of enterprises, method of analysis
Chapter IV
It deals with the presentation and analysis of secondary data and primary data to indicate facts on dividend practices and impact on market value of companies. It is about the results drawn from the analysis of the collected and processed data.
Chapter V
This chapter includes summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. It presents the major findings and compares them with theory and other empirical and provides recommendation if it is necessary.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
Natural Kalsilite (KAlSiO4) occur mainly in K-rich, silica-undersaturated ultrasonic volcanic rock with high potassium and low silica and sodium content but also can be found in metamorphic rock known as a very rare occurrence as a metamorphic mineral. Although it may be common than it supposed, it is rather difficult to identify with assurance in thin section. Kalsilite can be categorized as a feldspathoid which is a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. The structure of the KAlSiO4 is a framework structure of linked (Si, Al) O4 tetrahedral. KAlSiO4 exist in several polymeric forms (Cellai et al., 1997) that are low kalsilite (Perrotta and Smith 1965) and high kalsilite (Kawahara et al.,1986).

Variety techniques had been used previously to synthesized kalsilite including cation exchange from nepheline (Dollase and Freeborn 1977; Stebbins et al. 1986; Sobrados and Gregorkiewitz 1993), solid-state synthesis from oxides or zeolite (Smith and Tuttle 1957; Dimitrijevic and Dondur 1995; Heller-Kallai and Lapides 2003; Kosanovi? et al. 1997), sol-gel methods using TEOS or SiO2 as a Si source (Hamilton and Henderson 1968; Bogdanoviciene et al. 2007), crystallization from molten salts (Sobrados and Gregorkiewitz 1993); and
hydrothermal methods from muscovite (Kopp et al. 1961; Andou and Kawahara 1984). However, many of these methods give poorly ordered kalsilite or give rise to secondary product.
The hydrothermal method is economical and convenient to prepare pure materials with fine particle size at low temperature compared to the other synthesis method ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2138/am.2009.3284”, “ISBN” : “0003-004X”, “ISSN” : “0003004X”, “abstract” : “Kalsilite (the low-temperature form, of KAlSiO4) is used as the precursor of leucite, an important component in porcelain-fused-to-metal, and ceramic-restoration systems, and it has also been proposed as a high-thermal expansion ceramic for bonding to metals. The present study reports the hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of pure kalsilite from kaolinite in subcritical conditions, as well as the characterization, of the intermediate products by means of XRD, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR, IR, SEM, and TEM. Effects of time, temperature, and pH on the reaction, products are analyzed. The experimental data indicate that pure kalsilite is obtained after hydrothermal treatment of kaolinite at 300 u00b0C for 12 h in 0.5 M KOH solution. Longer reaction times increase the cry stallinity of the structure, whereas lower reaction times give rise to the metastable ABW-type KAlSiO 4 polymorph. Lower temperatures are not sufficient to produce kalsilite, but zeolite W is obtained instead as the unique reaction product. Finally, the pH of the aqueous solution in contact with kaolinite is an important parameter for the synthesis of kalsilite, which must be u2265 13.70.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Becerro”, “given” : “Ana Isabel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Escudero”, “given” : “Alberto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mantovani”, “given” : “Marco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “American Mineralogist”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11-12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1672-1678”, “title” : “The hydrothermal conversion of kaolinite to kalsilite: Influence of time, temperature, and pH”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “94” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d4522fcd-a132-41be-b4bc-e15c1e97d499” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Becerro, Escudero, & Mantovani, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Becerro et al, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Becerro, Escudero, & Mantovani, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Becerro, Escudero, & Mantovani, 2009)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Becerro et al, 2009). However, high pressure (1000 bars), relatively high temperature (up to 600?C), long reaction times (15 days) and with consequent increase in the production used to obtain kalsilite via hydrothermal method. According to Bacerro et al. (2009), the present study reports a very simple and economical method to synthesize single phase of kalsilite from kaolinite in mild hydrothermal conditions.

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Kaolin can be categories as a clay mineral and it is one of the main group in clay mineral. Kaolin is a soft, lightweight, often chalk-like sedimentary that has an earthy door ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.14382/epitoanyag-jsbcm.2007.2”, “ISSN” : “0013970X”, “abstract” : “A kaolinit u00e9s a metakaolinit szerkezete A tanulmu00e1ny ru00f6viden ismerteti a kaolinit szerkeze-tu00e9t u00e9s a metakaolinit kialakulu00e1su00e1ra u00e9s szerkezetu00e9re vonatkozu00f3 fu0151bb elmu00e9leteket. A kaolinit szerkezete viszonylag ju00f3l ismert, de a kaolinitbu00f3l 400 u00baC fu00f6lu00f6tti hu0151mu00e9rsu00e9kleten kialakulu00f3 metakaolinitu00e9 mu00e9g nincs teljesen tisztu00e1zva.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Varga”, “given” : “Gabriel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Epitoanyag”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “59”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “6-9”, “title” : “The structure of kaolinite and metakaolinite”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b7234c6f-3297-47ca-9a57-a82eb6379f91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Varga, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Varga, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Varga, 2007)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Varga, 2007). In industry kaolin clay has been used widely especially in the production of cement, ceramic, porcelain and bricks due to the good physical properties and has stable chemical structure for ceramic production. The main constituent of kaolin is kaolinite that formed by rock weathering. It contains 10-95% of mineral kaolinite in kaolin clay. Kaolinite minerals can be found easily around the world and it undergoes hydrothermal action to change kaolinite minerals to kalsilite. Kaolin clay will be used as a raw material.

1.2 Problem Statement
In industrial, the popularity of kalsilite is increasing in time. It has been studied as the precursor of leucite, an important component in porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) and ceramic dental-restoration systems (Zhang et al., 2007). Other than that, kalsilite has also been proposed as a high-thermal expansion ceramic for bonding to metals (Bogdanoviciene et al., 2008). Despite the fact that kalisilite shows many advantage and benefit, these uses require the production of single phase kalsilite. However, the past research shows the synthesis of kalsilite from different method produce either poorly kalsilite or give rise to secondary product. Compared to other synthesis methods, the hydrothermal method is economical and convenient to prepare pure materials with a fine particle size at a lower temperature.
Yet, the hydrothermal synthesis of kalsilite from kaolinite use a high temperature and it is relatively take long reaction time for industrial production. Apart from that, hydrothermal method used stainless steel hydrothermal reactor which have a high cost. Therefore, the more efficient method to synthesize kalsilite is needed. In this study, kalsilite is synthesized from a metakaolin instead of kaolin under the condition at 120°C, 150°C and 180°C temperature by hydrothermal method and using the Teflon line autoclave to reduce the cost.

1.3 Objectives
The objectives of this study are:
To synthesis Kalsilite from metakaolin via hydrothermal method.

To evaluate the reaction of temperature and concentration of alkaline activator towards the development of Kalsilite Crystallization.

To characterize Kalsilite by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM).

1.4Scope of study
The throughout study of hydrothermally synthesis kalsilite from kaolin is done by using two basic steps. Firstly, the kaolin clay will be used as raw material and undergoes thermal treatment to obtain metastable phase of dehydrated kaolin called metakaolin. Then, metakaolin will react with an aqueous alkali medium that is Potassium hydroxide solution (KOH) to obtain Kalsilite via hydrothermal method. The effect of the reaction time, temperature and pH in the development of the kalsilite crystallization will be studied. Other than that, the characterization of the kalsilite product will be determine by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM).

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Clays and Clay mineral
Clays are a fine-grained mineral that naturally occur in rock or soil material that can be combine one or more clays mineral with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Clays are very abundant on the earth surface, they form rocks known as shales and are a major component in nearly all sedimentary rocks (Guggenheim, 2001). Clays composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. It can be considered as a plastic due to the water content and will become hard and non-plastic when dried or fired.

The term “clay mineral” refers to phyllosilicate minerals and to minerals which impart plasticity to clay and which harden upon drying or firing (Al-Ani and Sarapää ,2008). It can be found in the soils, in fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone, and siltstone and in fine-grained metamorphic slate and phyllite and clay mineral will be in the form in the presence of water. Clay mineral is in layer silicate that are formed usually as product of chemical weathering of other silicate minerals at the earth’s surface (Al-Ani and Sarapää ,2008).

Clay mineral have two different sheet that built of tetrahedral silicate sheet and octahedral silicate sheet also can be classified as 1:1 and 2:1. Whereas the 1:1 phyllosilicates consist of one tetrahedral silicate sheet and one octahedral silicate sheet while 2:1 phyllosilicate will be formed from an octahedral silicate sandwiches between two tetrahedral silicate sheets. Clay mineral can be divided into three main group that are kaolinite that can be classified as 1:1 phyllosilicate, illite can be classified as 2:1 phyllosilicate and lastly smectites or montmorillonite that classified as 2:1 phyllosilicate.

765175958850
Figure 2.1 Structure of 1:1-layer silicate (kaolinite) illustrating the
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Figure 2.2 Structure of 1:2 layer silicate (illite) illustrating the connection
between tetrahedral and octahedral sheets (Al-Ani ; Sarapäa,
2008)
There are many uses of clay that give benefits to people nowadays. One of the uses of clay is that it being used as drilling mud. The bentonite and other clays in the drilling of oil and water wells. The clay will turn into mud which then will seal the wall of the boreholes, lubricates the drill head and removes drill cuttings. Next, due to high absorbing properties clay used as filtering and will filter and purify animal, minerals, vegetable oils and greases. Lastly, clay also being used as contaminant removal where the Clay slurry have effectively been used to remove a range of contaminant, including heavy metals, and overall water clarification.

2.2 Overview on Kaolinite
The decomposition of potassium feldspars mainly formed kaolin clay. Kaolin is a natural component of the soil and can occur widely in ambient air (Programme, 2005). The physical properties of kaolin are soft, lightweight, white or greyish white in colored and powdery appearance. The Chinese word Kiu-ling named given to a hill near Jau-Chau Fu China give the idea to derived the word of “kaolin” where it was first mined (Sepulveda et al, 1983). Kaolin that commonly called china clay contain 10 – 95% of kaolinite mineral and usually consists mainly of kaolinite (85–95%). Kaolin also contain other element such as quartz and mica besides kaolinite but content differ from kaolinite. These kaolin minerals are typically formed under three environments: chemical weathering, hydrothermal alteration and sedimentary rock (Zhang et al., 2010; Johnson ; Arshad, 2014).

Kaolinite is the main component of kaolin clay and known as hydrous aluminum silicate. Kaolinite has a very good physical structure and stable chemical structure. The chemical structure of kaolinite is Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is made up of tiny sheets of triclinic crystals with pseudo hexagonal morphology (Programme, 2005). Kaolinite is forms at relatively low temperatures and pressure. It contains little or no surface adsorbed water in the structural units. Kaolinite can adsorb small molecular substance such as lecithin, quinoline and also protein, viruses and bacteria. The adsorbed material can be easily removed from the particles because adsorption is limited to the surface of the particles (Programme, 2005).
Kaolinite structure consist of tetrahedral silica sheet alternating with an octahedral alumina sheet which forming the 1:1 clay mineral layer. These sheets are arranged so that the tips of the silica tetrahedrons and the adjacent layers of the octahedral sheet form a common layer (Grim, 1968). In layer common, there will be two or three oxygen atoms shared by silicon and aluminium. The repeating 1:1 layer is attached to each other by hydrogen bonds (Johnson ; Sazmal, 2014). The structure of kaolinite is shown in the figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3 Schematic view of the structure of kaolinite ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.14382/epitoanyag-jsbcm.2007.2”, “ISSN” : “0013970X”, “abstract” : “A kaolinit u00e9s a metakaolinit szerkezete A tanulmu00e1ny ru00f6viden ismerteti a kaolinit szerkeze-tu00e9t u00e9s a metakaolinit kialakulu00e1su00e1ra u00e9s szerkezetu00e9re vonatkozu00f3 fu0151bb elmu00e9leteket. A kaolinit szerkezete viszonylag ju00f3l ismert, de a kaolinitbu00f3l 400 u00baC fu00f6lu00f6tti hu0151mu00e9rsu00e9kleten kialakulu00f3 metakaolinitu00e9 mu00e9g nincs teljesen tisztu00e1zva.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Varga”, “given” : “Gabriel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Epitoanyag”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “59”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “6-9”, “title” : “The structure of kaolinite and metakaolinite”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b7234c6f-3297-47ca-9a57-a82eb6379f91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Varga, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Varga, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Varga, 2007)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Varga, 2007)
The uses of kaolin as an aluminosilicate source in synthesis is widely known. Besides, kaolin has a variety of industrial application as large volume of kaolin clay used for the production of paper coating, cement, ceramics, bricks and porcelain. The largest market for kaolin is in paper coating because of its fine particle size, platy particles, good viscosity, white in color and good printing quality. Furthermore, kaolin also used in aqueous based paint and inks and as functional additive in polymers. Recently, a specially formulated spray contain kaolinite clay is used in fruit and vegetable production to repel the insects and prevent sun burn. The total world production is currently estimated to be 39 million tons per year as distributed in Table (2.1).

Table 2.1 The total world production of kaolin per year ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “M19/3232/2008/41”, “abstract” : “PHYSICAL u2013 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND INDUSTRIAL USES foru0161u0101 somu gru0101mata”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Al-Ani”, “given” : “T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sarapaa”, “given” : “O.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “1-91”, “title” : “Clay and clay mineralogy”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1a5cfbe1-2b74-4ec5-a0cc-5e13c721abb6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Al-Ani & Sarapaa, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Al-Ani & Sarapaa, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Al-Ani & Sarapaa, 2008)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Al-Ani ; Sarapaa, 2008)
Paper Filling and Coating 45%
Refractories 16%
Ceramics 15%
Fiberglass 6%
Cement 6%
Rubber and Plastics 5%
Paint 3%
Catalyst 2%
Others 2%
*Roskill Information Services, Ltd. The Economics of [email protected] 10th Edition

2.3 Overview of Kalsilite
2.3.1 Introduction to Kalsilite
Kalsilite is a well-known ceramic material ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1107/S2053229614002423”, “ISSN” : “20532296”, “PMID” : “24594712”, “abstract” : “The X-ray powder diffraction pattern that corresponds to the disordered state of kalsilite (potassium aluminium orthosilicate), KAlSiO4, is investigated. The directionality of (Al,Si)O4 tetrahedra within single six-membered tetrahedral ring building units (S6R) could not be defined. With equal probability for the directionality of each tetrahedra within one S6R free apex pointing up (U) or down (D), an undefined sequence of U and D directionalities is needed to describe the S6R building units. The extinction conditions of disordered kalsilite are also different compared to ordered kalsilite within the space group P63. In disordered kalsilite, h0l and hhl reflections with l = 2n + 1 are systematically absent.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kremenoviu0107”, “given” : “Aleksandar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuliu0107”, “given” : “Predrag”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Acta Crystallographica Section C: Structural Chemistry”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “256-259”, “title” : “Disordered kalsilite KAlSiO4”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “70” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=493385b4-95f8-4fef-888b-1798e5b277ea” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kremenoviu0107 & Vuliu0107, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kremenoviu0107 & Vuliu0107, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kremenoviu0107 & Vuliu0107, 2014)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kremenovi? ; Vuli?, 2014). It is relatively uncommon in natural rocks and occurs mainly undersaturated volcanic which usually accompanied by nepheline, leucite, olivine melilite, phlogopite and clinopyroxene. Kalsilite is microporous where it is having a framework structure of linked (Si, Al) O4 tetrahedra that based upon a tridymite type framework similar to nepheline ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/BF00357849”, “ISSN” : “0022-2461”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ota”, “given” : “T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takebayashi”, “given” : “T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takahashi”, “given” : “M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hikichi”, “given” : “Y.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Materials Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1996” }, “page” : “1431-1433”, “title” : “High thermal expansion KAISiO4 ceramic”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0a42a5b3-8179-4d43-a839-c109b8f99325” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ota, Takebayashi, Takahashi, & Hikichi, 1996)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ota et al, 1996)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ota, Takebayashi, Takahashi, & Hikichi, 1996)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ota, Takebayashi, Takahashi, & Hikichi, 1996)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ota et al, 1996). It contains strongly basic potassium active sites, low silica content and weakly soluble in methanol and oils.

Kalsilite that have chemical formula KAlSiO4 can exist in several polymorphic forms that are low kalsilite and high kalsilite due to its high temperature form. In low kalsilite, P63 kalsilite also known as simply as kalsilite is where there is a room temperature variant of stuffed tridymite derivative occurring mainly in K-rich silica undersaturated volcanic rocks. According to Perrotta and Smith (1965), the first structure refined was a volcanic kalsilite crystal with Na: K =0.02:0.98 and space group P63 (low kalsilite).

Then, high temperature polymorph KAlSiO4-01 with orthorhombic symmetry has different framework topology than tridymite and transform into KAlSiO4-02 at higher temperature (Bacerro and Mantovani, 2009). Figure 2.6 shows the average structure of kalsilite showing splitting of one atoms into three partially occupied sites, each with a site occupancy of 1/3. (Modified from Perrotta and Smith 1965 and Merlino 1984.)
1709964-152400

Figure 2.4 The average structure of kalsilite showing splitting of 1 atoms
into three partially occupied sites, each with a site occupancy
of 1/3, ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Xu”, “given” : “Nc”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1996” }, “page” : “1360-1370”, “title” : “Superstructures and domain structures kalsilite in natural and synthetic”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “81” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=25cc1139-5e13-4f5f-a21c-c6f0e762667b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Xu, 1996)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Xu, 1996)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Xu, 1996)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Xu, 1996)
The thermal expansions of ceramic materials are generally lower than that of metals but leucite and kalsilite with high thermal expansion coefficients were prepared by appropriate procedures in order to achieve thermal compatibility when bonding to substructures and as reinforcing agent in all ceramic restorations (Kosanovi? et al., 2008). The high thermal expansions are interpreted as being due to the effect of the rotation of the frame work (Si, Al) O4 tetrahedra from partially collapsed state towards fully expanded state and the untwisting of the collapsed frame work.

Kalsilite contain a random network of tetrahedral silica and alumina units with charge balancing alkali metals ions, which conventionally produces at high pH by condensing a source of alumina and silica with alkali silicate solution ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11705-010-0574-x”, “ISSN” : “16737369”, “abstract” : “The transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol over kalsilite-based heterogeneous catalysts was investigated. The kalsilite was synthesized from potassium silicate, potassium hydroxide, and aluminum nitrate aqueous solutions by controlling the pH value at 13. After calcination in air at 1200u00b0C, a very porous kalsilite (KAlSiO4) was obtained with surface pores ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 u03bcm. However, this kalsilite had relatively low catalytic activity for the transesterification reaction. A biodiesel yield of 54.4% and a kinematic viscosity of 7.06 cSt were obtained at a high reaction temperature of 180u00b0C in a batch reactor. The catalytic activity of kalsilite was significantly enhanced by introducing a small amount of lithium nitrate in the impregnation method. A biodiesel yield of 100% and a kinematic viscosity of 3.84 cSt were achieved at a temperature of only 120u00b0C over this lithium modified catalyst (2.3 wt-% Li). The test of this lithium modified catalyst in pellet form in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor showed that it maintained a stable catalytic performance with a biodiesel yield of 100% over the first 90 min. u00a9 2011 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wen”, “given” : “Guang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yan”, “given” : “Zifeng”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers of Chemical Engineering in China”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “325-329”, “title” : “Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel over kalsilite catalyst”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6d6222d9-3ab9-4309-83d5-9c41ec4e0612” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wen & Yan, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wen & Yan, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wen & Yan, 2011)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wen ; Yan, 2011). The presence of the alkali metal ion in the crystal structure of kalsilite prevent leaching of the ions from kalsilite even at relatively high temperature.

2.3.2 Previous Study of Kalsilite
There are a few of researchers have been reported studying the synthesis of kalsilite. One of them is Kopp et al (1961), hydrothermally converted shred muscovite that produce kalsilite and iron-rich mica at 1200 bars. Runs were made lasting for twenty-one days’ fourteen days, and twenty-nine days. A leak developed at some undetermined time during the first run of twenty-one days duration, where in the second run of fourteen days larger crystals of kalsilite were obtained. The final run of twenty-nine days duration was made to learn whether larger crystals of kalsilite could be grown’. The result shows the run produced more kalsilite crystal they were no larger than those produced in the preceding run. The x-ray and optical data indicates that the kalsilite obtained corresponds closely to the natural kalsilite described by bannister and Hey (1942). However, the use of muscovite as a starting material in the hydrothermal method needs a higher pressure (100 MPa), a higher temperature (nearly 600?), and longer reaction time.

Thus, Bacerro et al. (2009), hydrothermally synthesis of kalsilite using kaolinite instead of muscovite at 300°C for 12 hours in 0.5 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. When the hydrothermal reaction goes on for 12 hours, metastable ABW-type KAlSiO4 transforms completely into kalsilite. The result shows that longer reaction time increase the crystallinity of the structure, whereas lower reaction time give rise to a metastable ABW-type KAlSiO4 polymorph. The lower temperatures cannot form kalsilite, instead zeolite W will form as the unique reaction product.

87690800
Figure 2.5 Experimental (crosses) and fitted (solid line) X-ray diffraction
patterns of the product obtained after hydrothermal reaction of
kaolinite in a 0.5M KOH solution for 12 h (Bacerro et al., 2009).

Su et al. (2011), synthesized microline powder which prepared from syenite rich in potassium, aluminum and silicon via hydrothermal reaction at 240-280? for 2-8 hours in the hydrothermal reactor. The result showed the product had a single phase kalsilite without non-crystalline precursors or other polymorphic forms of KAlSiO4. In 2014, Su et al. study the synthesis of kalsilite from the microcline powder by an alkali-hydrothermal process to examine the influence of temperature time and the alkali concentration. The product obtained from the hydrothermal reaction that carried out within two hours are mixture of both kalsilite and metastable KAlSiO4 polymorph, but after two hours kalsilite is the predominant product. The diffraction peak of metastable KAlSiO4 weakens with increasing temperature, and when the reaction temperature is 280?, the metastable peak completely disappears.

2.3.3 Synthesis of Kalsilite
(a) Raw Material of Kalsilite
The preparation of the synthesis kalsilite need the chemical source of silica and alumina, but it is expensive. In order to reduce the cost, material such as clay minerals, muscovite, syenite are used as the starting materials. When the cheap raw materials used to synthesis kalsilite, its offer economic advantage over standard synthetic chemical. Kaolinite is one of the important industrial raw materials and has variety application in industry is used as the starting material for the synthesis of kalsilite as the main alumina and silica sources.

(b) Alkaline Activator
Alkaline activator is a chemical process where a powder aluminosilicate is mixed with an alkaline activator to produce a paste capable of setting and hardening within a reasonably short period time. A synthetic alkaline aluminosilicate material produces when a solid aluminosilicate reacts with a highly concentrated aqueous alkali hydroxide or silicate solution. According to Palomo and Fernàndez-Jiménez (2011), depending on the raw materials and processing conditions used, alkali activated binders may feature high compressive strength, low shrinkage, fast or slowing setting, acid resistance, fire resistance and low thermal conductivity. Figure 2.6 indicated the process occurs in alkaline activation.

170815025336500
Figure 2.6 Conceptual model for Alkaline Activation Process ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Alkaline activation is a chemical process in which a powdery aluminosilicate such as a fly ash is mixed with an alkaline activator to produce a paste capable of setting and hardening within a reasonably short period of time. The strength, shrinkage, acid and fire resistance of the resulting materials depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate used and the activation process variables. The alkaline activation of fly ash is consequently of great interest in the context of new and environmentally friendly binders with properties similar to or that improve on the characteristics of conventional materials.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Palomo”, “given” : “Angel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fernu00e1ndez-Jimu00e9nez”, “given” : “Ana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of World of Coal Ash ( u2026”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “1-14”, “title” : “Alkaline Activation, Procedure for Transforming Fly Ash into New Materials. Part 1: Applications”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba7f00b7-88ec-4243-a580-bd1929041975” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Palomo & Fernu00e1ndez-Jimu00e9nez, 2011)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Palomo & Fernu00e1ndez-
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Fernández-Jiménez, 2011)
(c) Metakaolinization of Kaolinite
Metakaolinization of kaolinite is a process to transform the kaolinite into an amorphous, highly reactive metastable phase by the loss of hydroxyl group in kaolinite also known as calcination process (Johnson ; Sazmal, 2014; Kovo ; Holmes, 2009). The temperature used for the calcination process is between 700?C and 1000?C where the reaction involved in the transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite as follow (Johnson ; Sazmal, 2014).

150876093980 Si2Al2O3(OH)4 Al2O3. 2SiO2 + 2H2O
In this reaction, four hydroxyl group transforms into water molecules, leaving two oxygen anions in the material. The dihydroxylation occurs based on two elementary processes: diffusion and first order. The diffusion process is where the transportation of water occurs, while the formation of water from two adjacent hydroxyl groups occurs in the first order process. After this process, the metakaolin will undergo hydrothermal synthesis in potassium hydroxide solution to produce kalsilite.

(d) Hydrothermal Synthesis
Hydrothermal synthesis of aluminosilicate kalsilite involves in a few steps. The mixture of metakaolin as a supplementary of aluminosilicate source is converted into microporous crystalline aluminosilicate, via an alkaline supersaturates solution that is potassium hydroxide solution. The solution is heated at 120°C, 150°C and 180°C in the Teflon bottle for 24 hours.

2.3.4 Industrial Applications of Kalsilite
Leucite Precursor
In industrial, the popularity of kalsilite is increasing in time. The demand of kalsilite is high due to the important uses of Kalsilite. One of the application of Kalsilite is as the precursor of leucite. It is the major component in the porcelain-fused-to-metal and ceramic dental restoration system. The fact is that the kalsilite has a high thermal expansion ceramic for bonding to metals and in application in diesel engines.

b) Catalyst
Kalsilite has been used as a catalyst additive in ammonia synthesis and hydrogen production from steam reforming and as a heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to biodiesel. However, kalsilite showed relatively low catalytic for the transesterification reaction (Wen ; Yan, 2011). So, it is enhanced by introducing a small amount of lithium nitrate by impregnation method.

c) Kalsilite Glass Ceramic
The production of Kalsilite glass ceramic composite used kalsilite as their starting material. Bioactive kalsilite composite material is produce for the application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. The preparation of micro fine kalsilite glass ceramic is by using traditional melt quenching method and mechanochemical synthesis. The material is expected to have good thermal, bioactive and mechanical properties (Kumar et al., 2015).

2.4 Hydrothermal Synthesis
2.4.1 History
A self-explanatory word, “hydro” meaning water and “thermal” meaning heat. The term Hydrothermal was first used in the mid-19th Century by Sir Roderick Murchison ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/C2009-0-20354-0”, “ISBN” : “9780123750907”, “ISSN” : “0884-2914”, “PMID” : “324438958”, “abstract” : “Thoroughly updated, this handbook remains the single source for understanding how aqueous solvents or mineralizers work under temperature and pressure to dissolve and recrystallize normally insoluble materials and decompose or recycle waste material. u00a9 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Byrappa”, “given” : “K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshimura”, “given” : “Masahiro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=79528235-a196-423a-aca3-4cc24b6ab1e2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Byrappa & Yoshimura, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Byrappa & Yoshimura, 2001)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Byrappa & Yoshimura, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Byrappa & Yoshimura, 2013)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Byrappa ; Yoshimura, 2001).
The term hydrothermal usually refers to any heterogeneous reaction in the presence of aqueous solvents or mineralizers under high pressure and temperature conditions to crystallize ceramic materials directly from solution. It will be quite impossible to simulate the natural conditions or processes responsible for the formation of rocks and minerals except under the hydrothermal conditions because in nature, minerals and mineral assemblages were formed at elevated temperature and pressure conditions in the presence of volatiles like water.
The first publication on hydrothermal research appeared in 1845 which reports the successful synthesis of tiny quartz crystal upon transformation freshly precipitated silicic acid in pain digester by Schafthaul.

Today, the hydrothermal technique is used in several branches of science and technology. There are different kinds of hydrothermal techniques such as hydrothermal synthesis, hydrothermal growth, hydrothermal alteration, hydrothermal treatment, hydrothermal dehydration, hydrothermal decomposition, hydrothermal extraction, hydrothermal sintering, and so on (Byrappa and Yoshimura 2001).

2.4.2Definition and Concept
Various scientist had proposed different definitions for hydrothermal method in literature. Morey and Niggli (1913) defined that in the hydrothermal method the reactants are subjected to the action of water, at temperatures generally above the critical temperature of water (~370°C) in closed bombs, and therefore, under the corresponding high pressures developed by such conditions (Byrappa and Yoshimura 2001). In 1985, Rebenau defined hydrothermal synthesis as the heterogeneous reactions in aqueous media above 100°C and one bar. Roy (1994) declares that hydrothermal synthesis involves water as a catalyst and occasionally as a component of solid phases in the synthesis at elevated temperature (;100°C) and pressure (greater than a few atmospheres). Byrappa (1992) in the other hand, defined hydrothermal synthesis as any heterogeneous reaction in an aqueous media carried out above room temperature and at pressure greater than one atm. According to Yoshimura (1994), reactions occurring under the conditions of high-temperature–high-pressure (;100°C, ;1 atm) in aqueous solutions in a closed system. In 2001, K. Byrappa purposed to defined hydrothermal reaction as “any heterogeneous chemical reaction in the presence of a solvent (whether aqueous or non-aqueous) above room temperature and at pressure greater than one Atm in a closed system”.

The majority of scientists think of hydrothermal synthesis as taking place above 100°C temperature and above 1 Atm, however there is no definite lower limit for temperature and pressure conditions. Upper limits of hydrothermal synthesis extend to over 1000ºC and 500 MPa pressure yet, mild conditions are preferred for commercial processes where temperatures are less than 350ºC and pressures less than approximately 50 MPa. The transition from mild to severe conditions is determined mostly by corrosion and strength limits of the materials of construction that comprise the hydrothermal reaction vessels (Suchanek and Riman, 2006).

Hydrothermal synthesis is used as one of the methods in synthesizing kalsilite as this method is economical, effective and convenient to prepare pure materials with fine particle size at low temperature. Hydrothermal synthesis can be classified into two groups: subcritical and supercritical synthetic reaction which is based on their reaction temperature. Subcritical synthetic reaction involves a range temperature of 100-240? while the temperature for the supercritical synthetic reaction could reach up to 1000?C (Johnson et al., 2014). This technique is successfully closes the gap between materials processing at low ambient pressure and high to ultrahigh pressure in a temperature range between 100°C and about 1600°C (Byrappa and Yoshimura 2001).

2.4.3 Advantages and disadvantages of Hydrothermal Synthesis
Hydrothermal synthesis offers many advantages over conventional and non-conventional synthesis methods. The respective cost for instrumentation, energy and precursors are far less for hydrothermal method compared to the advanced method that can prepare large variety of forms and chemical compounds. Based on the environmental perspective, hydrothermal methods are more environmentally friendly than other synthesis methods, which can be attributed in part to energy conserving low processing temperatures, absence of milling, ability to recycle waste, and safe and convenient disposal of waste that cannot be recycled ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.45.184”, “ISBN” : “978-3-908158-01-1”, “ISSN” : “00027812”, “abstract” : “This paper briefly reviews hydrothermal synthesis of ceramic powders and shows how understanding the underlying physico-chemical processes occurring in the aqueous solution can be used for engineering hydrothermal crystallization processes. Our overview covers the current status of hydrothermal technology for inorganic powders with respect to types of materials prepared, ability to control the process, and use in commercial manufacturing. General discussion is supported with specific examples derived from our own research (hydroxyapatite, PZT, 2 O 3 , ZnO, carbon nanotubes). Hydrothermal crystallization processes afford excellent control of morphology (e.g., spherical, cubic, fibrous, and plate-like) size (from a couple of nanometers to tens of microns), and degree of agglomeration. These characteristics can be controlled in wide ranges using thermodynamic variables, such as reaction temperature, types and concentrations of the reactants, in addition to non-thermodynamic (kinetic) variables, such as stirring speed. Moreover, the chemical composition of the powders can be easily controlled from the perspective of stoichiometry and formation of solid solutions. Finally, hydrothermal technology affords the ability to achieve cost effective scale-up and commercial production.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suchanek”, “given” : “Wojciech L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Riman”, “given” : “Richard E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Advances in Science and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “184-193”, “title” : “Hydrothermal Synthesis of Advanced Ceramic Powders”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “45” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7de4173-7bdd-4ebb-9408-ef793eb9943c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Suchanek & Riman, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Suchanek & Riman, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Suchanek & Riman, 2006)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Suchanek ; Riman, 2006). This is where the different chemical can be recovered and recycled because the synthesis run in a closed system. The low reaction temperatures also avoid other problems encountered with high temperature processes, for example poor stoichiometry control due to volatilization of components like Pb volatilization in Pb-based ceramics.

Hydrothermal processing can take place in a wide variety of combinations of aqueous and solvent mixture-based systems. Hydrothermal processing with liquids allows for automation of a wide range of unit operations such as charging, transportation, mixing and product separation. Besides, liquids give a possibility for acceleration of diffusion, adsorption, reaction rate and crystallization which relative to solid state processes, especially under hydrothermal condition.

All forms of ceramics can be prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, which are powders, fibers, and single crystals, monolithic ceramic bodies, and coatings on metals, polymers, and ceramics (Suchanek and Riman, 2006). In the production of ceramic powder, the time reduced and the energy consumed take place via hydrothermal synthesis since high temperature calcination, mixing, and milling steps are either not necessary or minimized. Moreover, the ability to precipitate already crystallized powders directly from solution regulates the rate and uniformity of nucleation, growth and aging. This shows the improved control of size and morphology of crystallites and significantly reduced aggregation levels, that is not possible with many other synthesis processes.

The purity of hydrothermally synthesized powders significantly exceeds the purity of the starting materials as the hydrothermal crystallization is a self-purifying process. The growing crystals or crystallites tend to reject impurities present in the growth environment during the self-purifying process. The impurities are subsequently removed from the system together with the crystallizing solution, which does not take place during other synthesis routes, such as high temperature calcination (Suchanek and Riman, 2006).

A major advantage of hydrothermal synthesis is that other processes like microwave, electrochemistry, ultrasound, mechano-chemistry, optical radiation and hot-pressing can be hybridized with hydrothermal synthesis to gain advantages such as enhancement of reaction kinetics and increase ability to make new materials. A great amount of studies has been done to enhance hydrothermal synthesis by hybridizing this method with many other processes. This facile method does not need any seed, catalyst, harmful and expansive surfactant or template thus it is promising for large-scale and low-cost production with high-quality crystals (Byrappa and Yoshimura 2001).

It is no doubt that hydrothermal synthesis gives many benefits since it was developed last few decades. Despite that, there must be some disadvantage of this synthesis. Firstly, the cost to set up the equipment used for the hydrothermal synthesis like autoclave, liners, valves, pressure tubing, control equipment is relatively high. Then, the fact that high pressure is applied along the hydrothermal process, there are safety issues that are emerge during the reaction process. For this case, there is requirement for a stringent safety regime to be applied during the reaction process such as appropriate shielding and utilization of buster disks.

However, the main disadvantage of this hydrothermal synthesis is the black box nature of the apparatus, since the closed autoclaves do not normally allow one to observe directly the crystallization process (Byrappa and Yoshimura 2001). The application for the transparent windows of corrosion-resistant materials such as alumina is possible yet the cost will be high as it has to be frequently replaced. Moreover, the inert metal or autoclave liners for the inner wall is needed as the presence of the alkaline or acidic mineralizers are potentially caused temperature corrosion problems.

2.5 Factors Effect the Synthesis of Kalsilite
2.5.1 Crystallization time and temperature
Crystallization temperature strongly affect the nucleation and crystal growth as rising the temperature will increase both of nucleation rate and the linear growth rate (Feijin et al., 1994). Normally, longer crystallization time will increase the crystallinity of the structure. Bacerro et al (2009) state that lower crystallization temperature is not sufficient to produce kalsilite. He also said that longer reaction time will increase the crystallinity of the structure whereas shorter reaction times give rise to the metastable KAlSiO4 polymorph with ABW zeolite-type unit cell. When the kaolinite submitted to hydrothermal reaction in 0.5 M KOH at 200? for 24, 48 and 120 hours, the result indicate that kalsilite crystallized in the first stage a very likely as a metastable phase. However longer reaction times give rise to the crystallization if zeolite W. While, the hydrothermal treatment of kaolinite in KOH solution at 300? produces pure kalsilite with full Si–Al ordering after only 12 hours of reaction.

2.5.2 Alkalinity
The important key for kalsilite formation is the pH of the alkaline synthesis solution as the OH anions play role as mobilizing agent. The role of the mobilizing agent is to bring the Si and Al oxides or hydroxides into the solution at an adequate rate. Bacerro et al. (2009) stated that the synthesis of kalsilite was reached using large excess of KOH that is 10 times more KOH than amount required based on the stoichiometry of the reaction which must be pH more than 13.70. On the report of Bacerro et al. (2009), zeolite W is formed when the concentration of KOH solution decreased to 0.33 M and 0.15 M but formed kalsilite at 0.5 M. The formation of different product very likely by the effect of the pH which increase from pH = 13.18 (0.15 M KOH), to pH=13.52 (0.33 M KOH) and to pH=13.70 (0.5 M KOH). Generally, increasing the alkalinity leads to an increase in kalsilite content of the reaction product.

2.6 Characterization Technique
characterization of kalsilite are done by using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

2.6.1 X-ray Diffraction
X-ray diffraction is a rapid analytical technique used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide on unit cell dimension. The scattering of X-rays from atoms produce a diffraction pattern that contains information about the atomic arrangement in crystal. Amorphous materials like glass do not have periodic array with long-range order so they do not produce any significant peak in diffraction pattern.

The basic concept for XRD is the property of electromagnetic radiation. The x-ray of a fixed wavelength will bombard to a crystal at certain incident angle. When the wavelength of scattered x-ray interface constructively, an intense reflected x-ray produced. The general relationship between wavelength of incident x-rays, angle of incident and spacing between crystal lattice planes of atom known as Bragg’s Law. Constructive interference occurs when the differences in the travel path of the incident X-rays is equal to an integer multiple of the wavelength.
n? = 2dsin?
where:
?: is the wavelength of the x-ray,
d: is the spacing of the crystal layers (path difference),
?: is the incident angle (the angle between incident ray and the scatter plane), and
n: is an integer.

2.6.2 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) represent the high-performance method used to examine and analyses the microstructure morphology and chemical composition characterization of the materials. Although it only capable of determining only morphology of a specimen and not internal structure but it also important tool in structural assessment. It is defined by: easiness to prepare samples to be tested, large diversity of information reached good resolution associated with high field depth, large and continuous range of magnifying, etc. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This paper presents a study performed on type I Portland cement with respect to the cement hydration processes performed at various time intervals. The methods used concern X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy applied to define materials and to understand the changes occurring in mineral compounds (alite, belite, celite and brownmillerite) during their modification into hydrated mineral compounds (tobermorite, portlandite and etringite).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Elena”, “given” : “Jumate”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lucia”, “given” : “Manea Daniela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “35-42”, “title” : “Application of X-Ray Diffraction ( XRD ) and Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM ) Methods to the Portland Cement Hydration Processes”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2(15)” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6ac10bc6-6e63-4523-8f03-0f314c4d15f8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Elena & Lucia, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Elena & Lucia, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Elena & Lucia, 2012)” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Elena & Lucia, 2012).

The main SEM component include the source of electron, column down, electron detector, sample chamber, computer and display to view the image. Figure 2.7 shows the example of field-emission SEM image of kalsilite, taken at low accelerating voltage. The scanning electron microscopy works by scanning the focused electron beam over a surface to create an image. The focused electron beam form when the electron produced at the top of microscope’s column accelerated down and passed through combination of lenses. Various of signal that can be used to obtain information about the surface topography and compositional produce when the electron in the beam interact with the sample. SEM uses an electron beam instead of beam of photons to image sample for higher magnification.

1325991-152400

Figure 2.7 Hexagonal particles of kalsilite obtained after 12 h treatment of
kaolinite in 0.5 M KOH solution at 300°C (Bacerro et al., 2009).

2.6.3 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is the most modern infrared spectrometers that operates on a different principle. It is a non-destructive technique that can provides a precise measurement method in determining the absorption spectrum for a compound. FTIR can provide information such as it can identify unknown materials, determine the quality or consistency of a sample and can determine the number of components in a mixture. In FTIR, the IR radiation will pass through the sample. Some of the infrared radiation is absorbed by the sample and some will be transmitted. The resulting spectrum show the absorption peaks which correspond to the frequencies of vibrations between the bonds of the atom making up the material (Lampman et al., 2010).
The process of the FTIR is firstly, Infrared energy is emitted from a glowing black-body source. The beam passes through an aperture which controls the amount of energy presented to the sample and to the detector. Then, the beam enters the interferometer where the “spectral encoding” takes place. The resulting interferogram signal then exits the interferometer. The beam enters the sample compartment where it is transmitted through or reflected off of the surface of the sample, depending on the type of analysis being accomplished. This is where specific frequencies of energy, which are uniquely characteristic of the sample, are absorbed. Next, beam finally passes to the detector for final measurement. The detectors used are specially designed to measure the special interferogram signal. Lastly, the measured signal is digitized and sent to the computer where the Fourier transformation takes place. Figure 2.8 below shows the schematic diagram of FTIR.

right4070350
Figure 2.8 Schematic diagram of Fourier Transform Infrared
spectrophotometer (Lampman et al., 2010).
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Chemicals and Materials
In this experiment, several materials are used for the synthesis of Kalsilite, the raw material that being used are the commercial kaolin clay. The kaolin clay is provided by Sibelco Malaysia Sdn Bhd. The other material used are potassium hydroxide pallet (KOH) and distilled water.
3.2 Metakaolinization
Metakaolinization is dihydroxylation process where it is based on a novel metakaolinization technique used by Johnson et al. (2014). This process transforms the kaolin clay into an amorphous but highly reactive metakaolin. To produce metakaolin, 500 g of kaolin was heated in the furnace at 800°C for four hours. Firstly, the furnace heated to 800°. Next, the crucible with refined kaolin loaded into the furnace after the temperature reached 800°C. The crucible is taken out after four hours of the thermal treatment. The sample cooled to room temperature inside the desiccator. The product obtained then characterized by using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy for the structural and chemical composition.

3.3 Alkaline Activator Preparation
Alkaline activator used are potassium hydroxide (KOH). The volume of KOH is fixed to 150 mL with concentration of 0.5 M. To produce 0.5 M of KOH solution, 4.21 gram of KOH powder mixed with 150 mL of distilled water in 250 mL beaker. To study the effect of pH on the synthesis of kalsilite, different concentration of KOH solution was prepared according to 0.25 M, and 0.75 M with the same volume fixed to 150 mL by adding different amount of KOH powder.
3.4 Hydrothermal Synthesis
The metakaolin obtain by calcination of kaolinite was used as a combine source of alumina and silica and as a starting material. In the hydrothermal synthesis, KOH solution prepared earlier, 1.0 g of metakaolin and stirred for five minutes. Then, the solution transferred to Teflon bottle. The solution was heated at 120°C, 150°C and 180°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the teflon bottle taken out, product obtain clean by using distilled water and dried at 60°C in air (Becerro et al, 2009). The dried product was weighed and keep in plastic bag for characterization with SEM, XRD and FTIR.

3.5 Characterization Technique
3.5.1 Chemical Characterization of Kalsilite by using FTIR spectroscopy
The characteristic of kalsilite can be observed by using Perlin Elmer 1000 FTIR spectrometer. Firstly, the sample was grinded gently to avoid the large particle from disturbing the analysis before the sample placed in the FTIR spectrometer. The wavenumber that being used is from 1400-400 cm-1 range with resolution of 2 cm-1 in transmission rate by average four scan. The grinder sample was pressed on the disk, which already being dried in the oven at 60°C.

8032753962400
Photo 3.1 FTIR instrument located in laboratory of the Faculty of Science
and Natural Resources.

3.5.2 Chemical Characterization of Kalsilite by using XRD
X-ray Diffraction can be used in order to have pattern of metakaolinite sample and synthetic kalsilite that form. The percentage crystallinity can be calculated by the sum of the peak of height of unknown material divided by the sum of height if the standard solution.

% crystallinity = sum of the peak of height of the unknown material x 100(sum of height of the standard solution)
3.5.3 Chemical Characterization of Kalsilite by using SEM
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the morphology of the product. Photo 3.2 is the SEM instrument located in laboratory of the Faculty of Science and Natural Resources.

Photo 3.2 SEM instrument located in laboratory of the Faculty of Science
And Natural Resources.

3.6 Flow chart of the metakaolin and hydrothermal Synthesis for
23977602813050002413635142494000 Kalsilite
24472905251450002427605405765000-201737centerThe teflon line autoclave heated in the furnace at 120°C, 150°C and 180°C for 24 hours for hydrothermal process
0The teflon line autoclave heated in the furnace at 120°C, 150°C and 180°C for 24 hours for hydrothermal process
2427936647857400center6385478Then, the product is filtered and clean by using distilled water.

0Then, the product is filtered and clean by using distilled water.

center3525079For hydrothermal synthesis, 150 ml KOH solution and 1.0 g of metakaolin was mixed together and stirred for five minutes.

0For hydrothermal synthesis, 150 ml KOH solution and 1.0 g of metakaolin was mixed together and stirred for five minutes.

-2044707452995The product is dry and store in desiccator.

The product is dry and store in desiccator.

-1854207524750Cool the sample to room temperature inside desiccator. The weighed obtained and the sample was characterized using FTIR and XRD
Cool the sample to room temperature inside desiccator. The weighed obtained and the sample was characterized using FTIR and XRD
center2128520500 g of kaolin treated in the furnace (800°C, four hours) for metakaolinization
by Johnson et al. (2014)
500 g of kaolin treated in the furnace (800°C, four hours) for metakaolinization
by Johnson et al. (2014)

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