CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
BACKGORUND OF RESEARH
Quran is the last holy book that was sent down by Allah to the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W through Jibril A.S. The Quran is a useful source of reference used in life. It’s a guidance for individuals and the community, all classes of people living in any place or time and for the salvation of life in the world and the hereafter.
Muslims are always conscious of preserving the purity of the Qur’an. An effort to maintain the sanctity of Quran include the process of memorizing the Qur’an. Memorization of Quran was first implemented by Prophet Muhmmad S.A.W. Every time our Prophet Muhammad receives his revelation, he will continue to memorize it and then delivered to his companions and they are commanded to memorize and practice it.
The implementation of memorizing Quran was pursued by the establishment of Quranic Institute. In Malaysia, there were many Quranic Institute was established in order to maintain the purity of Quran. Moreover, this Quranic institute provide both religious and academic education. As a result, awareness among parents arise to send their children to this religious school as it was balance in the aspect of knowledge of dunya and akhirah. The religious education itself actually leave an impact to the student in Quranic institute.

This research focused on the student in Kolej Integrasi Tahfiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor. This college is one of the centre provide education in memorizing located in Sabak Bernam. This research study their developmental history and student entry requirement. This study also discussed the impact of learning on student emotions and morals. This study also to identify the method use in learning process in Quranic institute.

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1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Many Muslim aware on the importance responsibility of memorizing the Quran. because a muslim believe that deeds is a practices draw them closer to Allah S.W.T. The process of memorizing the Quran is not an easy task. It requires certain characteristic to facilitate the learning process.
Method of learning is a very important role in producing high quality student. Effective education is not only depending on the teachers and teaching methods alone. the aspects of students’ readiness and personality is the key element to the success and effectiveness of this education programme (Norlizah Che Hassan et.al, 2015). Characteristic of student become essential to ensure that the effectiveness of Tahfiz education in order to produce a quality student.

Truly, a title a memorizer of Quran is a very high status and in the sight of Allah SWT and honorable human side. this glory because it is a direct trust of Allah S.W.T on them to take responsibility for the care of memorization. After a person memorize the whole Quran, he shall preserve and maintain it so that memorizing is not lost from memory. The memorizer of quran will definitely try to imitate and practice the values of the Quran which then produce the Quranic personality.
Problem arise when learning system is not integrated among the Quranic Institution. Different institute used different method on their learning system. The used of correct and effective method of learning can produce a good performance and quality of Quran memorizer.
Some parents make tahfiz as an option when they are unable to control the behavior of children. Quranic Institution was chosen as an effort to restore the children who are facing moral problems or learning. Consequently, the perception of tahfiz and the atmosphere of the institution is quite diverse.
The problem presented is expected to be detailed and can find the best solution through an analysis of learning system and method of memorization used in the learning system. Further discussion on analysis about the impact of memorizing Quran towards student emotion and personality in producing good quality of Quran memorizer.

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
This study is important to know the process of teaching and learning in Kolej Integrasi Tahfiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor as a center of religious studies and Islamic centers that produce the successful memorization of the Quran. This makes a start in producing a successful of Quran memorizer in the world and the hereafter as well as other experts in the field. Importance of memorizing the Quran in maintaining the sanctity of the Quran and maintain a good reading. This study consists several methods of memorizing the Quran from a system and method implemented in Kolej Integrasi Tahfiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor to be practiced by all levels of society in general and particular to the Quran memorizer.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
To discover the developmental history and entry requirement of Kolej Integrasi Thafiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor.

To review the methodology of teaching and learning at the Kolej Integrasi Tahfiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor.

To identify the impact of Quran memorization towards student moral in term of purification of the soul
RESEARCH QUESTION
What is the developmental history at Kolej Integrasi Thafiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor?
What is the methodology of teaching and learning used in Kolej Integrasi Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor?
Did memorization of Quran practices give or leave an impact towards student moral.
SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
This research will be benefited to the Quranic institution. It can assist the Quranic institution to strengthen and improve system to produce the Quran memorizer with a great ability and quality. In addition, this study would be able to assist Quranic institution on determining student entry requirement through standardization of system. This is because we want to produce Quran memorizer that has good quality in personality also morality and has ability and skill to enter various field in the future.
In addition, memorizing Quran is seen as main stronghold of the youth who particularly stuck with immoral activities. Quran itself is a best healer and protector for every human being who practice it. In the same time, researchers make these writings as an inspiration for the Quran memorizer in diversifying their memorization techniques as well as help them to uphold the sanctity of the Qur’an.

This study also was carried out to ensure the reading and memorizing the Qur’an continue to bring fresh culture in society and propose alternative for the process of spiritual development, particularly in establishing the Quran reading for students of Kolej Integrasi Tahfiz Tunas Ilmuwan Selangor. These steps will not only added value of Quran memorier in terms of reading al-Qur’an but they can appreciate the value of practices contained therein.

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
In this section the study uses a methodology that appropriately to attain the objective. It is divided into three subsections: the research approach, data collection and data analyze.

Research approach
The study uses historical and ethnography approach. Historical approach used to get or know the background of the institute and study the history of how the institutions founded. This approach also to look at the conduct and performance of the institution in determining and selecting qualified student to enter the institution. The approach used also to identify the implemented system to produce a memorizer of the Quran. This study is a descriptive survey method to obtain an information. This study aims to determine the impact of memorizing Quran towards the morality, personality, emotion and behavior of students at KITTIS.

In addition, the second method is ethnography approach. The central aim of ethnography is to provide rich, holistic insights into people views and actions, as well as the nature of the location they inhabit, through the collection of detailed observations and interviews. The task of ethnographers is to document the culture, the perspectives and practices, of the people in these settings or places. This method is used to obtain information through a group or students at KITTIS and the teachers at the institute in greater depth. Both methods are suitable to use in order to achieve the objective of this study.

1.6.2 Location of research
This study focused on the institution itself and students who are studying in KITTIS. In addition, this study also involving the teachers and those who involved directly or indirectly in the learning process Memorization Quran. Several sets of questions unstructured been created specifically to collect data about institution establishment history, entry requirement and also memorizing methods used in teaching and learning process. Interviews and observations conducted in centers of memorizing Quran related to learning and teaching also daily activities to helping students memorize the whole Quran.

1.6.3 Data collection
In completing this study, two methods were used to obtain the relevant materials with the objectivity of the study. These methods are the method of observation and interviews. Through these methods, the findings will be compiled and analyzed precisely.

Observation: It is the way to collect the data by watching, listening and draw conclusion. Method is used to identify the approach and techniques used by the institute in order to produce Quran memorizer who can recite the Quran by memorizing more effectiveness.

Interview: This method used to collect the data about the historical institution, student entry requirement, method of teaching and learning, emotional and behavioral effect towards student in memorizing Quran. Interviews were conducted informally by using open-ended questions. It aims to explore the idea or feeling informants. This method also was used to interview the students and teachers at this institution for their views related to the techniques used in this institution.
1.6.4 Data Analysis
The data analysis can be started before data collection has been completed. Data analysis is more than conducting statistical analysis; it involves interpretation and presentation of data. Researchers have analysed data collected in the form of qualitative. Techniques by researcher’s analysis data were using content analysis patterns and analysis of the dilemma. First, researchers using content analyze when the data collected through observation, data the form of interviews.

For qualitative research, the researcher analyses the content of each interview and also active listening and examine the contents of the discussion in the interview to maintain the validity of the data. Content subsequently transcribed interview analysed manually. Quote the actual expressions of study participants and pledged support data in relation to the research questions without judging whether the response given is right or wrong. Next, the data subdivided into unit’s meaningful analysis. When a significant segment of data is detected, the segment will be categorized. This process continues until all the data has been segmented. Important content of the transcript interviews was recorded and categorized in an appropriate theme.

1.7 LITERATURE REVIEW
Memorization is known as important process in gaining knowledge. Memorize become essential in order to attain important event or point and prevent us from the loss of important information. Memorizing is one of the important methods used in exploring and understanding the knowledge of Qur’an. Memorizing Quran is a challenging task. It requires a neat preparation before they keep on memorizing. Memorizing requires discipline and motivation. Criteria and personality of memorizer could determine the level of person’s ability to go through memorizing process.

In fact, certain characteristic is needed to facilitate the learning process for those who are involved in memorizing the Quran. In learning process, effective education is not only depending on the teachers and teaching methods alone. Instead, the students’ readiness and personality itself is the key element to the success and effectiveness of this education programme (Blank & Alas, 2009) Thus, to ensure the effectiveness of learning process in Tahfiz education, the students characteristic and school entry requirement should be standardized in selecting students. These approaches will help the institution to select qualified students.

Research on Tahfiz student characteristic by Norlizah Che Hassan et.al (2015) stated four characteristics of Tahfiz students. The characteristics of student are the ability to recite Quran, the ability to memorize Quran, excel in academic and religious subject and have passion in Thafiz education include parents support. The ability of reciting and memorizing Quran closely related. Those who are able to recite the Quran will also able to memorize very well including the correct pronunciations along with tajweed. In the memorization of Quran, academic subject such as Mathematics, Science and Language should not be denied. This case has significant value in the birth of the Muslim community who have a creative thinking ability, critical and innovation in science but plus the power of appreciation and teaching of the Qur’an (Mohd Shahril, 2013). Without interest and passion in memorizing Quran, students will lack in motivation to complete the memorizing of 30 Chapters of the Quran within specified time. Some students who enrol in Tahfiz get a motivation and support from their parents. With the support dan encouragement provided by parents can help in raising the interest of student. (Mawardi, 2010) stated that there is relation between parents’ support and student interest with the children enrolment in Tahfiz schools.

Memorizing Quran is not an easy thing to be done by every Muslim. Quran memorization process requires the person to have some skills beforehand that was to recite Qur’an well, with proper smooth reading. Only then someone began to memorize the Quran. To produce a good and strong memorization and be able to remember all 30 chapters of the Quran, the Muslim individual must follow the specific rules to ensure his memorization is really stick well in his mind (Sedek Ariffin 2013).

Various method used in learning and memorizing process. Abdul Hafiz et.al (2015) expressing in his study that the best and most lasting effect in the process of memorizing the Quran is the guidance given by the teacher or lecturer at institutions. The guidance provided by this teacher will create a learning system that should be applied to students in a Tahfiz institution. The coordination of the curriculum in a tahfiz institution is not a guarantee in producing a good huffaz but he application and the value resulting from the guidance of teachers will produce huffaz with a great quality and skill.

Azmil Hashim (2013) in his study stated that education development center in Malaysia in memorizing Quran move with the bow itself by the emergence of private schools and public schools of memorizing Quran. Consequently, any state or Quranic institutions are free to use any of the curriculum and teaching methods from any country to taste and educational background of the individual teacher. This causes teachers to teach memorizer based on their experience without following certain rules. As a result, the study was not performed according to the method of teaching a specific and orderly.

Nowadays, world requires professional huffaz in terms of its intellectual intelligence, morals and superior self-esteem in addition to being viable to lead the world. The Quran’s allegations in education flows in Malaysia had a very positive impact on the personality and student academic excellence. Combining between Quranic and academic knowledge in an integrated manner greatly helps the student excellence not only in curriculum but in term of personality and morals (Anis Syahirah Fauzan et.al 2017). Salasiah et al. (2012) proved that spiritual practice influencing academic achievement and performance. A country needs a strong generation of mental and intellectual aspects that results from this spirituality practice.
The researcher believes that KITTIS has its own entry requirement in choosing qualified student. As well as method of memorize the Qur’an in addition to improve the academic quality of the students. Studies conducted by researchers previously stated various methods of memorization and the various methods in Islamic institutions in different ways. This demonstrates the diversity of methods in memorizing the Qur’an, including what is applied in KITTIS. Based on previous research, the researchers believe that through Quran memorizing practices by tahfiz student in KITTIS affect their moral and emotions.

1.8 CONCLUSION
In summary, the first chapter overall to see regarding the issues and objectives of the study. Starting from the problem until the methodology of the study, the researcher believes this study could be carried out successfully. To deepen this study, this chapter describes in detail the relevant topics of study with viewing previous studies in literature review topic.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 DESCRIPTION
Tripping means the interruption in electricity supply. An electric line is tripped if it starts carrying the fault current or it get broken or due several other reasons. It is a protective measure which essentially isolates the faulty lines from the rest of the healthy sections. So basically cascade tripping is a tripping of protective devices to isolate the part or parts of the system to avoid the damage to the load and the system equipment’s. Sometimes tripping of power grid takes place due to unbalanced condition is also called as cascade tripping.
Modern power systems experience many disturbances and majority of that are eliminated by relay protection and emergency control system. According to historical data , relay miss-operation is one of the contributing factor of 70% of major disturbances in the power system. With rapid growth of loads , transmission distances , HVDC and FACTs devices , the dynamic behaviors of power system are getting more and more complicated. A single fault is unlikely to destroy a modern power system , but information deficiency , hidden failures of relays , faults of other secondary system or human errors may be the cause of cascading events and the system, however strong may evolve in to power calamity. Cascading outages may happen in AC lines, DC lines, AC-DC line, sending area and receiving area as well.

1.2 INTRODUCTION OF PROBLEM DEFINATION

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When the load demand is larger than the power generated the frequency of the machine goes down. When the value of his frequency lowers than the nominal value of the frequency the grid trips and the loss of power occurs. These power failures are not1 normal, they sometimes lead to blackout conditions if there is no backup protection available.

In power grid when one of the component fails and then its load is shifted to nearby system. Those nearby systems may push to work beyond their capacity so they get overload and shift their load to another system. Cascade failure mainly seen in high voltage systems where a single paint failure on a completely loaded or somewhat overloaded system results into surges of spikes across the system.

Once power is generated it has to be supplied to somewhere else. If it is than the load demand it will cause voltage surge or if it is less it will cause voltage dips. For proper operation of system, synchronization must be kept with the load. Power grid can withstand a single event that is single generator failure or single transmission line failure. This is called as ‘N-e’ contingency planning. The system can collapse if several failures takes place in rapid succession.

1.3 DESCRIPTION OF WORK FOR THE PROBLEM SOLUTION

Most of power distribution or utility .companies relay on manual labor to perform the distribution tasks like interrupting the power to loads ; all parameter hourly checking .SCADA implementation in distribution reduce the manual labor operation ; cost. The PLC ; SCADA allows detecting the exact location of fault ; without waiting SCADA gives an alarm system to the operators for identifying ; prevent it.

Much attention has been given to the use of PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) in substation and distribution automation applications in recent years. Innovative engineers and technicians have been actively seeking new applications for PLCs in substations and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems.

PLCs have an important place in substation automation and their use in substation applications will grow. As the use of PLCs in substation automation applications increases and the demand for substation and distribution automation increases. Utility engineers are required to field more projects with fewer available resources.

Moreover the blackout condition can be prevented maintaining the balance of power supply and load demand. Proper amount of reactive power should be connected to the grid to maintain proper voltage level. By providing high supporting backup systems which can withstand the load of one blacked out area.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

There have been so many researches done in its theoretical ; application field which are briefly discussed in this chapter.
1 V.K. Mehta ,Rohit Mehta, PRINCIPLES OF POWER SYSTEM, presented in his book regarding requirements of distribution system and its objectives.
2 Nicholas Honeth, Substation Automation Systems, Royal Institute of Technology. Presented SCADA refers to a system that enables on electricity utility to remotely monitor, co-ordinate, control and operate transmission and distribution components, equipment and real-time mode from a remote location with acquisition at date for analysis and planning from one control location.

CHAPTER 3: BRIEF THEORY RELATED TO PROJECT WORK

3.1 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PLC BASED CONTROL SYSTEM

There are 5 generators as shown in the figure, which are interconnected with each other through tie line.
As shown in figure Generator 1, 2 and 3 are supplying the power to the substation 1 through grid and another generator 4 and 5 are supplying to the substation 2.
Load demand is balanced by using PLC through which cascade tripping and backup condition is possible.
If generator 1 load demand will increase then we have to share the load. So for that we are doing load sharing in which some amount of load will be shared on another generator 2.
If load demand is increasing out of capacity in that condition we have to do use load shading in which all over load will be disconnect from generator and generator will be safe.
During blackout, PLC gives a feedback signal to the generator 5 which as result acts as a backup system.
Power continuity in blackout condition is prevented by using Programmable Logic Controller.

3.2 LOAD SHARING

PLC compares the reference value of main alternator and connect to second alternator through relay according to reference voltage Designing an efficient and cost effective solution for replacing or changing the alternator that is Problem related to alternator when it was fail then it can be handle and control by PLC.
Flowchart Description:

1. Supply is provided to a single transformer under normal condition and remaining transformers are connected to each other in a parallel manner.

2. A current transformer measures the load current continuously and feeds it to the relay by converting it to a corresponding D.C value in order to compare with the reference value set by the user.

3. Whenever the load current increases above its rated value given to the PLC then PLC send high signal to relay The relay coil thus passes a tripping signal to the load which is
Connected of the slave transformer.

4. That effect load on both transformers is identical. The current transformer still measures the load current and compares it with the reference value.

5. When the load current decrees bellow the reference value given to PLC then one transformer get shut down and avoid overloading.

6. If the load value increases further beyond the capacity of two transformers, load will be cut-off from the main supply based on the priority level set by the user. This is done to Provide UN-interrupted power supply to higher priority loads.

3.3 LOAD SHADING

With a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) scheme, load shedding is initiated based on the total load versus the number of generators online and/or detection of under-frequency conditions. Each substation PLC is programmed to initiate a trip signal to the appropriate feeder breakers to shed a preset sequence of loads.
Adaptive load shedding techniques employ a power swing equation to shed the required amount of load. The power imbalance within the system can be obtained by using this equation.
Where ?P is the power imbalance, H is inertia constant of generator, f is nominal
frequency (Hz), and df /dt is the rate of change of frequency (Hz/s).
This equation can be applied to an isolated power system having only a single generator as well as to an interconnected power system
Where, S – load to be shed.
dv – change in voltage w.r.t time.
dq – change in power w.r.t time.

FAULT DETECTION

In this work, a fault detection and diagnostic module is described based on internal PLC program signal data which is acquired through OPC Server. The observed or real-time PLC signal data is compared with normal PLC signal data to find out possible faults or deviations. The data acquisition procedure and the techniques used have been explained in this paper.

BACK UP PROTECTION

According to the International Electro technical Vocabulary, backup protection is intended to operate when a power system fault is not cleared or an abnormal condition is not detected in the required time because of failure or inability of other protection to operate or failure of the appropriate circuit-breaker(s) to trip. The backup protection is, by definition, slower than the main protection. Back-up protection may be obtained automatically as an inherent feature of the main protection scheme, or separately by means of additional equipment.
Time graded schemes such as over current or distance protection schemes are examples of those providing inherent back-up protection; the faulty section is normally isolated discriminatively by the time grading, but if the appropriate relay fails or the circuit breaker fails to trip, the next relay in the grading sequence will complete its operation and trip the associated circuit breaker, thereby interrupting the fault circuit one section further back. In this way complete back-up cover is obtained; one more section is isolated than is desirable but this is inevitable in the event of the failure of a circuit breaker. Where the system interconnection is more complex, the above operation will be repeated so that all parallel in feeds are tripped.
If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes, automatic back-up protection is not obtained, and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection, which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed, and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure.

Such back-up protection is inherently slower than the main protection and, depending on the power system configuration, may be less discriminative. For the most important circuits the performance may not be good enough, even as a back-up protection, or, in some cases, not even possible, owing to the effect of multiple in feeds. In these cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed. These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the protective equipment, but either no remote back-up protection against circuit breaker failure or, at best, time delayed.
3.6. MAJOR BLACK OUTS WORLDWIDE

CHAPTER 4: SIMULATION ; RESULT ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 5: HARDWARE IMPLIMENTATION

LIST OF COMPONENTS

Relay Module
Energy Meter
Contactor
Current Transformer (C.T)
Toggle Switch
Lamp Load
Indicator
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS

5.2.1 Relay Module

This is an easy to use 4 channel relay board that works on 12V. Use it to control four 240V from PLC.
The board uses high quality relays which can handle a maximum of 7A/240V A.C. or 7A/24V D.C.

FIG-8-RELAY CARD

Energy Meter
This is used in the electrical control panels for measurement of power ; energy.
It has enabled with RS 485 communication port and has accuracy level class 1.0.

FIG-9-ENERGY METER

PLC(PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTOLLER)
They can be design for multiple arrangements of digital and analog I/O extended temperature ranges, resistance and vibrations and impact etc.
This function is discrete inputs are given a unique address and PLC instruction can test if the inputs state is on or off.

FIG-10-PLC (PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER)

FIG-11 -BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PLC

A Programmable Controller is a specialized computer. Since it is a computer, it has all the basic component parts that any other computer has; a Central Processing Unit, Memory, Input Interfacing and Output Interfacing. A typical programmable controller block diagram is shown above.

5.2.3.1 Selecting a PLC:
After the planning phase of the design, the equipment can be ordered. This decision is usually based upon the required inputs, outputs and functions of the controller. The first decision is the type of controller, mini, micro, or software based. This decision will depend upon the basic criteria listed below.
Number of logical inputs and outputs.
Memory – Often 1K and up. Need is dictated by size of ladder logic program. A ladder element will take only a few bytes, and will be specified in manufacturer’s documentation.
Number of special I/O modules – When doing some exotic applications, a large number of special add-on cards may be required.
Scan Time – Big programs or faster processes will require shorter can times. And, the shorter the scan time, the higher the cost. Typical values for this are 1 microsecond per simple ladder instruction
Communications – Serial and networked connections allow the PLC to be programmed and talk to other PLCs. The needs are determined by the application.
Software – Availability of programming software and other tools determines the programming and debugging ease.

The process of selecting a PLC can be broken into the steps listed below.
1. Understand the process to be controlled (Note: This is done using the design sheets in the previous chapter).
List the number and types of inputs and outputs.
Determine how the process is to be controlled.
Determine special needs such as distance between parts of the process.
2. If not already specified, a single vendor should be selected. Factors that might be considered are, (Note: Vendor research may be needed here.)
Manuals and documentation
Support while developing programs
The range of products available
Support while troubleshooting
Shipping times for emergency replacements
Training
The track record for the company
Business practices (billing, upgrades/obsolete products, etc.)
3. Plan the ladder logic for the controls. (Note: Use the standard design sheets.)
4. Count the program instructions and enter the values into the sheets

5.2.3.2 Pin configuration of ABB PLC:

This figure shows the various pins that are used by the ABB PLC. Each pin has its own importance.
1 – Location of DIN rail.
2 – Plate Fixture with Unit earthling.
3 – Lock for DIN rail mounting.
4 – Location for external dual connector.
5 – Location of the cable connectors of the CS31 Bus of the 24V DC power output for the inputs.
6 – Visualization set for the status of 8 inputs/6 outputs.
7 –location of the connector for the connection of input/output extensions.
8 – Location of
The serial port for programming or communication ASCII/MODBUS.
Connector for the central unit power supply cabling.
Connector for the output cabling.
9 – Location of the Potentiometers and the ON/OFF switch.
10 – Location of the connector for connection to a coupler.
11 – PLC status visualization area.
POWER: power ON
RUN: Program running.
ERR: Error(s) present.

Modbus Communication

It is a serial communication protocol with PLC. It is developed with industrial application as well as in power system too.
The main reason to use it is moves raw bits or words without placing many restrictions on vendors.
Modbus enables communicates many devices connected to the same network.

Indicator

Indicator consisting of a light to indicate whether power is ON or the lamp load is in operation.
Indicator is device for showing the operating condition of some system.

Lamp Load

The load capacity at a constant load is usually characterized in the technical data by the specification of a maximum output current whe the signal is at 1.
The specification for the lamp load allows fot the fact that the switch ON current on a filament lamp is n times greater then the rated current.

CHAPTER 6 : APPLICATION

There are many applications for PLCs in substation automation, distribution automation and SCADA systems. As utility engineers become more familiar with the capability of PLCs and PLC manufactures develop new substation specific products, the number and type of potential

Applications continue to increase.

• Analog and Discrete I/O
• Metering and station information management
• Protection and control
• Circuit breaker lockout
• Protective relay interface/interaction
• Dynamic protective relay setting for dynamic station topology
• Automatic switching

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