Chapter 1

1.1 PROBLEM SUMMARY

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When we had surveyed the residential homes and commercial buildings with water meter system, we got to know that there are many parameters which are to be taken under consideration which are as follows:

1. Human negligence due to manual reading:

Due to manual reading taken by the concerned persons, there were chances of inaccurate reading and improper reading of time.

2. Inaccurate readings:

Due to manual meter reading, reading taken of meter according to proper time was not so accurate.

3. Absence of person residing in house:

We observed that due to any reason if no one is there at home, then the concerned person coming for reading the water meter is not able to access the meter and cannot take reading. Due to this, bill is just sent which may carry inaccurate readings.

4. Leakage in pipelines:

If there was leakage in the pipelines then manual analogue meters are not able to detect or read according to this issue. Nor it can inform us about this problem.

1.2 Aim and objectives of the project

Aim of this project is to make an approach for performing automated water meter reading to know the consumption of water from required place to the monitoring office. The smart metering approach proposed by us differs from existing commercial methods by making use of low cost IoT system. This will cover both meter reading in individual domestic or industrial consumers to perform meter reading and update to monitoring office portal database for billing and payment. This will reduce manual meter reading and billing for water distribution in metro cities and large urban areas.

1. Accuracy

2. No time lag

3. Automation in reading

4. Less manual intervention

5. Know leakage in pipelines

6. Know any leakage in taps or valves

7. All database stored in cloud system

8. IoT based circuit monitoring

1.3 Problem Specifications

Nowadays , water meters are being used in many places installed by municipal corporation to control wastage of water as well as to monitor usage of water in according to the requirements of people Based on the survey for payment of water charges in several cities, it has been found that the residential pipelines are monitored by means of an analogue water meter. But the readings from those water meters are manually obtained by means of a water monitoring staff . This reading method has many disadvantages, such as human negligence, slow and inaccurate processing of information. Thus, the precision in obtaining the information is reduced to a greater extend. By reading the water meter accurately on time, the water resources can be conserved effectively and efficiently. In our observation and research, an attempt is made by us to automate the domestic water end-use classification process using a IoT based circuit.

1. No Accuracy

2. Time lag

3. Manual reading

4. No automation

5. No reading of leakage in pipelines

6. No reading of any leakage in taps or valves

7. No previous database stored

1.4 Brief literature review and Prior Art Search about the project

1. Nayan Gupta and Deepali Shukla,”Design of Embedded based automated meter reading system for real time processing”, IEEE Students Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science (SCEECS), 5-6 March 2016, DOI: 10.1109/SCEECS.2016.7509328.

? Remarks: Aim of this project is to make an approach for performing automated water meter reading to know the consumption of water from required place using this embedded design.

2. Boulos, Paul F.Jacobsen, Laura B.Heath, J. Erick Kamojjala and Sri, “Real-time modeling of water distribution systems: A case study” ,Journal – American Water Works Association, 106(9), 2014, p. E391-

? Remarks: this project is to make an approach for designing automated water distribution system which can be implemented in urban areas.

3. Mduduzi John Mudumbe and Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz,”Smart water meter system for user-centric consumption measurement”, 2015 IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 22-24 July 2015, DOI: 10.1109/INDIN.2015.7281870.

? Remarks: this project is to make an approach for designing automated water meter system which can be implemented in urban areas and make it user centric using simple circuit design.

4. Tracy C. Britton, Rodney A. Stewart and Kelvin R. O’Halloran, “Smart metering: enabler for rapid and effective post meter leakage identification and water loss management”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 54(1), 2013, p. 166-176. E401

? Remarks: In this project is leakage detection can be possible in automated water meter system which can be implemented in urban areas and make it user centric using simple circuit design.

1.5 MATERIALS REQUIRED

? Power Supply

? WiFi Module

? Flow Sensor

? Leakage Sensor

? Breadboard

? Wires

? Digital Meters

? Arduino-uno

Chapter 2
2.1AEIOU SUMMARY

1. Activities:

? Data Analysis
? Meter Reading
? Offline Payment
? Analogue Display

2. Environment:

? Residential Homes
? Commercial Buildings
? Industries
? Municipal Water Distribution Office

3. Interaction:

? Customer with Meter Reader
? Meter Reader with Data Analyzer
? Municipal Helpline with Customer

4. Objects:

? Water Meter
? Datasheet
? Pipelines
? Analogue Circuit

5. User:

? Residential Homes
? Commercial Buildings
? Industries

2.2 IDEATION CANVAS

1. People:
? Schools
? Colleges
? Hospitals
? Municipal Officer
? Industries

2. Activities:
? Data Analysis
? Meter Reading
? Offline Payment
? Analogue Display
3. Situation/ Location:
? Residential Homes
? Commercial Buildings
? Industries
? Municipal Water Distribution Office

4. Props/ Possible Solutions:
? Using IoT based Circuit
? Using Leakage Sensor and Flow sensor
? Using IoT based Water Meter

2.3 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS

? Purpose:-

1. Accurate
2. Less Power Consumption
3. Less Cost

? People:-

1. Residential Homes
2. Commercial Buildings
3. Industries
4. Municipal Water Distribution Office

? Product Experience:-

1. High Accuracy

2. Consuming Low Power

3. Less Cost

? Product Function:-

1. Automation in Work

? Product Features:-

1. Monitoring

2. Data Analysis

3. District Meter in Area

? Components:-

1. Flow Sensor
2. Leakage Sensor
3. Breadboard
4. Wires
5. Digital Meters
6. Arduino uno

? Reject, Redesign, Retain

1. Validity 5 to 7 years

2. All features used

3. Some sensor need to redesign

2.4 Empathy Summary

? Input Through AEIOU Framework:-

1. Activities
2. Objects
3. Users

? Scouted Challanges:-

1. Manual Checking
2. Friction
3. Accuracy
4. Wastage of Water
5. Power Consumption
6. Cost

? Top 5 Problem On The Basis Of Desirability, Feasibility ; Viability:-

1. Flow rate is not known
2. Leakage Cannot be detected
3. Manual Reading
4. Inaccurate Reading
5. Time Consumption

? Choose exact problem from five possibilities or by combinations of them:

1. Manual Work

Chapter 3

3.1 Block Diagram

3.2 Circuit Diagram

3.3Components Used

• Flow Sensor
• Arduino uno
• ESP 8266 WiFi Module
• Barrel Connector
• Breadboard and Wires

Reference

CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION
What is a Malware?
A Malware is an executable code with any malicious functionality. Malware is generally any code that performs malicious activity, i.e. any software that does something that causes harm can be considered malware. Malware can be further classified into various types like virus, trojan, worm, rootkit etc. based on their origin & functionality.
What is Malware Analysis?
Malware analysis is the process of learning how malware functions and any potential repercussions of a given malware. Each type of malware gathers information about the infected device without the knowledge, or authorization of the user.
Why Malware Analysis?
• Malware analysis can be conducted with various objectives in mind.
• To understand the capabilities of the malware.
• Determine how the malware functions.
• Asses the intrusion damage.
• Identify indicators that will helps us determine other infected machine by the same malware and the level of infection in the network.
• Help us identify if the malware is exploiting any vulnerability or on how it is persisting on the system.
• Determine the nature & purpose of the malware.
• To understand who is targeting & how good they are.
• To understand what information did they steal.

CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction and Background of the Study
Ink is used in almost every aspect of human activity. Communicating in written form, writing letters and notes, duplicating or printing is its basic uses. In the ancient times, people utilized natural resources such as plants, animals, and minerals to derive natural dyes. Majority of these are vegetable dyes from plant sources – roots, berries, bark, leaves, flower and wood and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens (Barhanpurkar, Bhat, Kumar, and Purwar, 2015). However, since William Henry Perkin discovered the synthetic dye mauveine, there has been a surge in the production of synthetic dyes. This industry became a cause of serious concern because of the carcinogenic chemicals used during the manufacturing process, as well as the environmental pollution caused by its toxic by-products (Ratna and Padhi, 2012). In order to avoid these potential hazards, Trirat (2015), stated that finding a non-toxic alternative would be of great help.

Banana (Musa x paradisiaca) is a plant cultivated in Malaysia, Philippines, and other tropical countries. It is classified under the genus Musa – a member of the monocotyledonous family of Musaceae (Simmonds and Shepherd, 2008). Furthermore, as described by Ploetz, Kepler, Daniells and Nelson (2007), the fruit is elongated and curved; the flesh is white and soft; while the outer covering can be purple, green, yellow, or brown when over ripe.

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In the book written by Cumo (2015), he mentioned that banana is referred as ‘Kalpatharu’ in India which means “a virtuous plant”. This is due to the fact that this plant has multifaceted uses. Aside from being rich in potassium, it also has a low content value of salt, cholesterol and fat which provides a more balanced diet (Sampath Kumar, Bhowmik, Duraivel, and Umadevi, 2012). Many parts of the plant are also used in Pacific culture for medicinal purposes. According to Kapadia, Pudakalkatti, and Shivanaikar (2015), the alcoholic extract and bioactive compounds present in the banana peel have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. In addition to this, the study conducted by Panighari et al. (2017) in India, demonstrated antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of the banana pseudostem. The study made by Barhanpurkar, Bhat, Kumar, and Purwar (2015) also concluded that the sap of banana plant contain carbohydrates, lignin, tannin and alpha cellulose. Tannin is recognized as the most important component necessary for mordanting with natural dyes.

Another plant extract which could be used as an alternative ink is the gumamela. As mentioned by Salib (2014), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a flowering plants in the mallow family Malvaceae. Member species are noticeable because for their showy flowers. The leaves of gumamela are alternate, oval outline to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. Its flowers are huge, attracting, trumpet-shaped, and has five or more petals. Colors may vary from white to pink, red, orange, peach, yellow or purple, and the size may be 4-18 cm broad. Hibiscus is a hardy, flexible plant and in tropical conditions it can enhance the beauty of any garden
In the Philippines, gumamelas are used by the children in bubble-making as their past time. The flowers and leaves are squeezed until the sticky juices come out. (Gumamela: The Bubble Flower, 2017). According to Wee (2003), the sap of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is used as a shoe polisher or a shoe-blackening product in Jamaica thus, it is called as the “shoe flower”. The flower of the plant is worn by women to symbolize the civil status of a person in the Pacific Island. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in red flower includes highly concentrated of anthocyanins which have probability as an organic dyes for solar cells (Wong, Lim, and Chan, 2009).

With all of these information, the researchers proposed of using the sap of the banana and gumamela as an alternative ink base to prevent any adverse effects to the users and to be eco-friendly by avoiding the usage of toxic chemicals in such products.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the banana sap combined with gumamela extract as an ink base. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
Is banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink effective in terms of the following:
Color
Absorption
Stick Consistency
Will the quality of the ink be acceptable in terms of:
Color
Odor
Absorption
Rate of Evaporation
1.3 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study will determine the effectiveness of the banana sap and gumamela as an organic ink. Extraction of the banana pseudostem and gumamela flower will be utilized to get the banana sap and the juice of the gumamela. Chromatography will be administered to compare the synthetic and organic ink made by the researchers. The medicinal and nutritive property of the banana sap will not be discussed in detail because it is not related to the current study.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Nowadays, people are consciously concern about their health and the global environment, so they require safe and eco-friendly product (Cristea and Vilarem, 2008). There are other manufactured ink nowadays that come with quite an expensive price, but since the materials to be used in making our product are common and easy to find, less money will be spent with the natural alternative product.The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of combined banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) as an alternative ink. Additionally, this study could be of significant help to the following:
Teachers. This study will help the educators to encourage the future students to use biodegradable than standard inks to lessen the threat to today’s environment, which can have valuable impacts not only on our environment but also on human’s health.
Community. People in the community can truly understand and realize the benefits that they can get from using organic ink instead of the petroleum-based ink. This study may impart knowledge about the causes of health problems due to petroleum-based ink. In addition, no harmful chemicals were utilized in making the ink, therefore, it is non-toxic compared to commercially sold ink, which have tendencies in causing harm to one’s health and to the environment.
Future Researchers and Students. The findings of this research study will benefit the researchers by producing an alternative ink. This might help the future researchers by providing necessary information related to the study and this study may also serve as a reference to the next researchers who will study about the banana sap and gumamela as an ink. In conforming to the information of the research study, it will give them knowledge about the usage of banana sap as an ink base and this research may also serve as their background study while they are performing their research.

1.5.1 Null Hypothesis
1. There is no significant difference between the banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink and the commercial ink.

2. The usage of banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink results a good quality ink.

1.5.2 Alternative Hypothesis
1. There is a significant difference between the banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink and the commercial ink.

2. The usage of banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink results a good quality ink.

1.6 Definition of Terms
Monocotyledonous – a flowering plant with an embryo that carries a single cotyledon. It constitutes the smaller part in the two division of a flowering plants, and typically have a long narrow stalkless leaves with horizontal veins.

Pseudostem – is the part of the banana plant that looks like a trunk. It is formed by the tightly packed overlapping leaf sheaths. It is very fleshy and consists mostly of water, it is quite sturdy and can support a bunch that weighs 50 kg or more.

Sap – is the fluid, chiefly water with dissolved sugars and mineral salts, that circulates in the vascular system of a plant.

Musaceae – the family of banana plants (order Zingiberales). It has two genera which are named as Musa and Ensete, with about 50 species that are native to the regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia.

REFERENCES:
Barhanpurkar, Bhat, Kumar, , and Purwar (2015). Studies of Banana sap used as mordant for natural dye. International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes, 1(4), 56-57.

Cristea and Villarem (2008). Fashion and Textiles: Breakthrough in Research and Practice.

Cumo (2015). Foods that Changed History: How Foods Shaped Civilization from the Ancient World ot the Present. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p 10.

Gumamela: The Bubble Flower. (2017). Retrieved September 15, 2018 from http://www.atayala.com/home-and-spaces/2017-01-30/gumamela-the-bubble-flower
Kapadia, Pudakalkatt, and Shivanaikar (2015). Detection of antimicrobial property of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study. Contemp Clin Dent, 6(4), 496-499. Doi: 10.4103/0976-2376-23X.169864.

Panigrahi, Dey, Sahoo, and Dan (2017). Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of Musa paradisiaca pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat. Indian J Pharmacol, 49(1), 77-83. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.201026.

Ploetz, Kepler, Daniells, and Nelson (2007). Banana and plantain – an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars. In: CR Elevitch, ed. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agricultural Resources, Holualoa, Hawai’i. Retrieved August 30, 2018, from https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/sustainag/extn_pub/fruitpubs/Banana-plantain-overview.pdf
Ratna and Padhi (2012). Pollution due to synthetic dyes toxicity & carcinogenicity studies and remediation. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(3), 940-943. doi: 10.6088/ijes.2012030133002
Salib (2014). Polyphenols in Plants: Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation. Department of Chemistry of Tanning Materials, National Research Center: Dokki, Egypt. 231-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397934-6.00012-7
Kumar, Bhowmik, Duraivel, and Umadevi (2012). Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(3). Retrieved September 30, 2018, from www.phytojournal.com
Simmonds and Shepherd (2008). The taxonomy and origins of the cultivated bananas. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 55(359), 302–312. doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1955.tb00015.x
Trirat (2015). The Property of Screen Ink from Natural Mordant, Colorant, and Additive for Art. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6(11), 68-67.

Uma, Kalpana, Sathiamoorthy, and Kumar (2005). Evaluation of commercial cultivars of banana for their suitability to fibre industry. Plant Genetic Technology Newsletter, 142, 1-8. Retrieved August 29, 2018, from http://krishi.icar.gov.in/jspui/handle/123456789/2539
Wee (2003). Tropical Trees and Shrubs: A Selection for Urban Plantings. Singapore: Sun Tree Publishing Limited. 392Wong, Lim, and Chan, (2009). Antioxidant properties of hibiscus: Species variation, altitudinal change, coastal influence and floral colour change. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21(4), 307–315.

CHAPTER 1
1.0 Introduction
Disasters can be defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society (or community) to cope using only its own resources (UNISDR, 2009, p 9). Karonga is one of the districts in Malawi that does experience disasters yearly, especially flood hazards. People who are living in the valleys of north Rukuru River and those from Simion village (Ngerenge) are ones that are mostly affected. Floods have caused significant loss of life and property damage to these areas and this is a worrisome development to the government as a lot of resources are pumped in to assist the flood victims. Due to floods the security of the people is compromised and it’s a concern especially to the resource constrained Malawi Police Service who are the first respondents to flood victims. Although these floods have caused untold sufferings to the people, surprisingly people are still residing in these risky areas, thus it is of great interest to investigate the factors that make people to continue living in these disaster prone areas in Karonga district (Rappaport and Sachs 2003; Kahn 2005; Pielke, Jr. et al. 2008).

1.2 Background to the study
Malawi is prone to flash floods during the rainy seasons. In 2012, the country received heavy rains and storms in many parts of the country. This led to flash floods, and loss of lives, injuries and destruction of infrastructure, including roads, houses, school blocks and gardens. Almost ten districts were affected. In districts like Thyolo and Karonga heavy rains accompanied with strong winds blew off house roofs, and according to the Department of Disaster Management Affairs this affected 12,877 households throughout the country (IFRC).

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In 2015 the President Peter Mutharika declared a State of Emergency due to floods in these districts: Nsanje, Chikwawa, Phalombe, Zomba, Blantyre, Chiradzulu, Thyolo, Mulanje, Balaka, Machinga, Mangochi, Ntcheu, Salima, Rumphi and Karonga (OCHA 14/01/2015, GDACS 14/01/2015).
Karonga town and the surrounding areas are vulnerable to floods, in 1979–1980; floods damaged most of the old town and led to the relocation of the commercial centre to the current site. Between 2009 and 2016, Karonga experienced floods annually and sometimes more than once a year and in 2017 the district received heavy rains which led to floods, displacing 8000 household in the process. The worst affected areas were in traditional authorities Wasambo, Mwirang’ombe, Kyungu, Kilupula and Mwakaboko.
Several studies have been conducted in the district in relation to the phenomena, but none have tackled on why people continue to reside in floods prone areas. It is therefore against this background that the proposed study would take the discourse to investigate the factors that make people to continue living in floods prone areas in Karonga district.

1.3 Problem statement
Floods are the most common and widespread of all natural disasters, except fire. Most communities in Karonga do experience some kind of flooding during the rainy season. Since 2012 Karonga has been experiencing Floods which has led to loss of lives and destruction of property; for instance in 2017 four people were reported dead and three others were missing. Floods lead to economic losses to the victims as well as to the Malawi government.
The government of Malawi has been urging its people to move out of flood prone areas and relocate to safer places but this effort has always been met with resistance. People continue to live in these floods prone areas with some constructing new houses thereby putting their lives at risk. This trend derails the development of the country since a lot of resources are pumped in to assist the victims during floods.
According to Hagman (1984) disasters occur only when people are exposed and vulnerable to these natural phenomena. Despite government’s efforts the number of vulnerable people is generally increasing, it is therefore, against this background that the proposed study seeks to understand why people continue to live in flood prone areas, the case study of Karonga district.

1.4 Main Objective
To investigate the factors that makes people to continue living in flood prone areas
1.5 The specific objectives
To explore the factors that motivates people to continue living in flood prone areas
To identify the challenges that people living in flood prone areas experience
To assess existing policy options that are used in assisting people who live in flood prone areas.

1.6 Research Questions
Why do people choose to continue living in flood prone areas?
What are the challenges that people living in flood prone areas face?
Are there any policy options that are used in the provision of assistance to those living in flood prone areas, during floods?
1.7 Significance of the study
The findings from this study will be beneficial to the security sector actors in Malawi, citizens and all relevant stakeholders by way of enriching their understanding on reasons why people choose to continue living in flood prone areas. This may further assist policy makers to come up with better strategies that would ably assist those who still live in disaster prone areas. Since most studies have focused on risk reductions during flood induced disasters, this study will set a platform for other relevant academic studies to be conducted hence increase academic pool of knowledge.

CHAPTER 2
2.0 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 Introduction
This chapter will guide the study of an investigation into factors that make people to continue living in flood prone areas in Karonga district. The chapter discusses available literature that is related to the proposed study globally, Africa and in Malawi to understand the reasons why people continue to live in flood prone areas. The main purpose is to discover and learn on what has been written on the topic. Literature will also enable the researcher to appreciate how flood induced disasters has greatly affected the well-being of people.

2.2 Conceptual Framework
There are many definitions of a disaster; the definitions used seem dependent upon the discipline using the term. No definition of “disaster” is accepted universally. Cuny defined a disaster as: “a situation resulting from an environmental phenomenon or armed conflict that produced stress, personal injury, physical damage, and economic disruption of great magnitude.” Perez and Thompson in their series on Natural Disasters, define a disaster as: “the occurrence of widespread, severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property, with which the community cannot cope, and during which the affected society undergoes severe disruption.” Both of these definitions note that a disaster disrupts the society stricken by the event. It should be noted that it is the damage that results from the impact on society that constitutes the disaster, not the event that is the disaster.

All disasters are related to a specific hazard or combinations of hazards whether of a natural phenomenon or a result of human actions. A hazard is anything that may pose a danger; thus, has the potential to adversely affect human health, property, activity, and/or the environment. Often, a hazard can be described as contained energy. Hazards are classified as to type. The specific hazards to which we are exposed vary in space and time. They also may vary between different populations: what is recognized as a hazard in one community may not be so in another. A hazard that has not converted into an event cannot become a disaster.
However, the study will focus on the factors that make people to continue living in disaster prone areas and not necessarily on disasters as outlined above.

2.3 Theoretical Framework
The deviant place theory states that the greater the exposure that people make to dangerous places the more likely people will become victims. The presence of people in flood prone areas does not encourage floods disasters to happen but they are prone to these disasters because they continue to reside in these high risky areas where they have the greatest risk of coming into contact with flood hazards which induces disasters. This proposed study will base its findings on the theory of deviant place theory because victimization is primarily a function of where people live.

2.4 Empirical Evidence
Nina Gustafsson ; Ville Niskala conducted a study under the topic “Why do people live in high-risk rural areas?” In Tubu, Botswana and discovered that livelihood, belonging, services and nowhere to go. However there are many underlying social issues that the researcher did not find out.
A field study conducted by Samuel Gren ; Simon Helander in Sammar in the Philippines, however similar to the one conducted in Botswana outlined similar results. The study “Why do people live in high-risk areas?” discovered that people lived in these areas for a number of reasons ranging from social, economic and political. From analysis of gathered data, the following four categories explain why people live in high-risk areas; livelihood, family, community and insensibility to risk.
A study conducted by Askman Johan;Nilson, Olof and Becker, per (2018) in Akuressa, Sri Lanka “why people live in flood prone areas” discovered that people live in these areas because of a sense of place, difficulties relocating, being well-adapted to the situation and an overall good living situation.

These studies correlated in most of the results on why people live in disaster prone areas. These studies linked on livelihood and a sense of belonging. While those conducted in Botswana and Sri Lanka discovered other reasons as to why people live in high risky areas. In Botswana people live in these areas because they have nowhere to go. In Sri Lanka people live in these areas because they are well adapted and have difficulties to relocate.
Malawi is prone to disasters more especially during the rainy season. However there has been no any single study in Malawi on why people continue to live in flood prone areas. As discussed above reason as to why people reside in disaster prone areas may differ from place to place because of social, economic and political conditions. From this empirical evidence it can be deduced that indeed deviant place theory can be used as conceptual framework for this study that can explain why people continue to live in flood prone areas.

2.5 Conclusion
The study employs the deviant place theory as a construct to draw an understanding on what factors make people to continue living in disaster prone areas in Karonga district. The literature review has revealed that most of the findings were based on social factors, so it is the aim of this study to come up with economic and political factors on the reasons why people continue to live in flood prone areas in Karonga district. Several studies have been conducted in Karonga district but they all focused on disaster risk management none conducted a study on could be the contributing factors that make people to continue living in flood prone areas in the district. It is therefore the aim of this study to found out reasons so as to why people continue to live in flood prone areas so as to bridge the gap that has been there between the service providers and the flood victims.

CHAPTER 3
3.0 Methodology
3.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the methods which will be used to collect data. It is referred to methodology because the term implies how the study will be carried out. This chapter therefore looks at the research design, sample design, study area, data collection, and data analysis technique, validity of the research and then ethical considerations of the study.

3.2 Research Design
Study design is a plan or blue print of how a researcher intends to conduct his or her research (Burns and Grove, 2003). This is an exploratory study that will employ a qualitative approach. It is exploratory as the emphasis is to discover ideas and insights on why people continue to live in flood prone areas in Karonga. The use of qualitative approach will expose respondents to explain their feelings, attitudes and experiences on the proposed subject matter.
3.3 Sample design
In this proposed study, the researcher is targeting a total sample of 50 respondents. (30) Respondents from the affected villages, (5) community leaders, (5) members of the Malawi police service, (5) members from the Malawi defense forces, (2) officials from department of disaster management affairs (DoDMA) (2) members from the District Council office and (1) member from the department of climate change and meteorological services.
The study will adopt a non- probability purposive sampling method. Purposive sampling technique has been adopted because it will help the researcher to collect information from specific types of people and institutions who can provide desired information.

3.4 Data Collection techniques
Primary data will collected through unstructured interviews which will involve people from the affected villages, community leaders, Senior Police Officers from Karonga police station and Kapolo police post members of the Malawi police service, members from the Malawi defense forces, officials from the department of disaster management affairs (DoDMA), members from the District Council office and a member from the department of climate change and meteorological services. This will enable the researcher to directly interact with the respondents and collect rich information based on their knowledge concerning the phenomena.

3.5 Data Analysis
Data collected will be analyzed through content analysis which will involve summarizing key findings from the interviews. Microsoft excel package will also be used to come up with charts and graphs.3.6 Limitations
Since this research will be conducted for academic purposes, the main limitation of the study will be time to fully collect the required data as this would mean conflicts with work related activities. The other limitation would be that of communication in terms of language (Ngonde).
3.7 Documentary review
The researcher will also engage in relevant written and electronic materials available within our libraries, specifically Mzuzu University Library and the national library service. These will enable a researcher to have access to information which will be unavailable during data collection process and period.

3.8 Validity and Reliability
Pre-testing of the interview guide will be conducted within Karonga especially in the surrounding villages. This will assist the researcher to make some corrections on the questions that seem not to be clear or even not understood by the respondents.

3.9 Ethical Consideration
This research will involve human beings who have the right to privacy and protection from any harm. Permission will be sought from the department of governance, peace and security studies, the Malawi Police Service and all other institutions that are to be studied. Participants in the study will also be given an opportunity to give an informed consent to participate in the study. Any data collected which refers to individuals will be handled with anonymity and confidentiality.
3.10 Budget and Justification

Description Quantity Amount in Kwacha Reams at K4, 00.00 each 2 K8, 000.00 Ball point pens at K150. Each 10 K1, 500.00 File folders at K2, 00.00 each 4 K8, 000.00 Transport for data collection within Karonga K50, 000.00 Airtime K20, 000.00 Printing K25, 000.00 Total K112, 500.00 3.11 Conclusion
It is clear that not everyone would want to stay at their current location and there are some psychological biases and cognitive aspects that can explain how they rationalize the decision to live in flood prone areas. The findings of this field study will increase the knowledge and help policy makers to come up with new strategies of how best to assist those who reside in flood prone areas in Karonga as well as in Malawi as a whole.

References
IFRC. (2010). World Disasters Report. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Hagman, G. (1984). Prevention Better Than Cure. Geneva: Swedish Red Cross.

UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction). (2009). Terminology on disaster risk reduction. Geneva: UNISDR.

Biggs, J, E Nissen, T Craig, J Jackson and D P Robinson (2010), “Breaking up the hanging wall of a riftborder fault: the 2009 Karonga earthquakes, Malawi”, Geophysical Research Letters Vol 37,
L11305, pages 1–13 Physical Planning Department (2012), Karonga Urban Structure Plan, Report, Lilongwe, 61 pages
UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction). 2002. “Natural Disasters and Sustainable Development: Understanding the Links between Development, Environment and Natural Disasters.” Background Paper 5. Geneva.

Kgathi, D. L., Ngwenya, B. N., ; Wilk, J. (2007). Shocks and rural livelihoods in theOkavango Delta, Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 24(2), 289-308.

United Nations. (2016, October 04). Natural Hazards. Retrieved from Un-spider:http://www.un-spider.org/risks-and-disasters/natural-hazards/floodACTED. (2015, June 09). News. Retrieved from Climate change: The Philippines on the front line:http://www.acted.org/en/climate-change-philippines-front-line

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