Topic: Family, Life & ExperiencesFamily Members

Last updated: March 3, 2019

Cell division is the process that cells go through so they can divide. Cell division basically mitosis.

Mitosis is a process where a single cell separates into two identical daughter cells. There are four basic stages of cell division. They are prophase , metaphase , anaphase, and telophase. There are other stages that are a part of cell division which is interphase and prometaphase which is late prophase. First is interphase and what happens is the DNA is in a non-condensed form called chromatin , so no separation within the cell has started. The nuclear membrane is together and the nucleolus is present.

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Next is prophase where chromatin starts to transform into coils like chromosomes. The centrioles in the cell are beginning to separate to opposite ends. After prophase is prometaphase which is late prophase and the chromosomes start to become visible and the nuclear envelope and nucleolus breaks down and disappears. The next stage is metaphase and the chromosomes move to the equator which is the metaphase plate and form and straight line. The chromosomes are connected to the microtubules and the centrosomes are at the opposite poles of the cell. The fifth stage is anaphase and the cell is shaped like a peanut.

The chromosomes of each pair of chromatids are separated and pulled towards the opposite end of the cell. Then the spindle poles are pushed part by microtubules make the cell transform and longer. The final stage is telophase. In telophase it begins once chromosomes stop dividing. The spindles are broken down into building blocks.

Two new nucleis forms and the nucleoli reappears. Lastly the chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin again. Cell division is important because it creates new cells, makes cells grow and repair damaged cells. In cell repair, injuries occurs to tissues.

1 “Substances called “growth factors” present in the extracellular matrix — the structures supporting cells — stimulate tissue repair.” (Dinh,2018) Cell growth is an important part of cell division because when the cells divide it is creating more cells which increases the growth in an organism. Also cell division is essential to cell reproduction because cell division is basically reproduction of cells. What is Cancer?Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells that grows very rapidly in a way that can’t be controlled. Cells are the basic building blocks of the body. Cancer starts when a normal cell changes and the cell can’t repair itself.

The cell becomes damaged then the damaged cell multiples and creates a tumor. According to , “Cancers are typically named for the organ or the cell where the cancer begins.” For example, cancer in the lungs is lung cancer or cancer in the male genitals is prostate cancer. Cancer can also originate from one part or organ of the body but travel to another part of the body. Cancer can be caused by many things.

Some of the risk factors of cancer are smoking, second hand smoking, obesity, alcohol abuse, family history, radiation and age. People often get cancer from risk factors that aren’t controllable. The most common symptoms of cancer are difficulty swallowing ,a lump felt under the skin, fatigue, changes in bowel, persistent cough, unexplained bleeding and bruises. This disease was first called cancer by a Hippocrates who was a Greek physician. 2 “He was called ” The Father of Medicine.” Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and carcinoma to describe non-ulcer forming and ulcer-forming tumors.” (Mandal, 2018) There was evidence of cancer found in mummies in Egypt at about 1600 B.

C. It was discovered that they had bone cancer.Abnormal cell division is what causes cancer.

A cancer cell is a result of abnormal cell division. The cells divide and create new cells and it continues uncontrollably. Gene mutation is a huge cause of cancer. Gene mutation is a permanent change in a DNA molecule. Gene mutations can cause a healthy cell to allow rapid growth, failure to stop uncontrollable cell growth, and makes mistakes when repairing DNA errors. Rapid growth is when the cells grow and divide into more cells that are mutated.

Failure to stop uncontrollable cell growth is when cancer cells loses the control that tells them to stop growing. Making mistakes when repairing DNA errors is when the DNA mutation can’t be fixed. Gene mutations can occur is two ways. The first way is that you are born with it, meaning you are born with genetic mutation that you inherited from your parents. The second way is that it occurs after birth. Most gene mutations occur after birth and that’s when humans are exposed to smoking, radiation, obesity, chemicals that cause cancer and viruses. Cancer that is already in a person’s hereditary gets cancer from their parents or it runs in the family. Also there might be a pattern in the types of cancers that runs in the family.

For example , lung cancer or leukemia can be a cancer that certain family members get. Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a form of cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. The cells in the breast begin to grow abnormally. Breast cancer can spread to different parts of the body as well. The most common types of breast cancer are invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma is when the cancer cells grow outside the ducts to other parts of the breast. Invasive lobular carcinoma is when cancer spreads from the lobules to the breast tissues. The other types of breast cancer are angiosarcoma, inflammatory breast cancer, male breast cancer, Paget’s disease of the breast , and recurrent breast cancer.

The cause of breast cancer is when some breast cells grow abnormally. When they grow abnormally and create more abnormal cells a lump forms. Breast cancer can be hereditary as well. 3 “Doctors estimate that about 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to gene mutations passed through generations of a family.” (Mayo Clinic, 2018) The symptoms of breast cancer are a breast lump appearing , change in size, shape or appearance in breast, inverted nipple, redness over breast, and peeling of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple.

Some risk factors are being a female, increasing age, family history, obesity, radiation exposure, inherited genes, and drinking alcohol. Ways to prevent breast cancer is exercising, maintain a healthy weight, limit alcohol drinking, become familiar with your breasts, and limit postmenopausal hormone therapy. Two of many treatments for breast cancer are surgery and radiation therapy.

The types of surgery are breast-conserving surgery, and mastectomy. The types of mastectomy simple , skin-sparing, nipple-sparing, modified radical, and double. Breast-conserving surgery is a surgery that only removes the part of the breast that contains cancer. Not everybody can get BCS because it depends on where the cancer is located in the breast. If you get BCS you will need radiation therapy , chemotherapy or hormone therapy. The risk factors of getting BCS is pain or tenderness in the breast, temporary swelling, change in shape of breast, hard scar tissue, and nerve pain in chest, armpit or arm. A mastectomy is when the entire breast is removed. Everybody can get a mastectomy because the whole breast is being removed instead of a part of it.

The risk factors of a mastectomy is bleeding, infection, pain, swelling, formation of hard scar tissue, shoulder pain , numbness and buildup of blood where the surgery was done. Radiation therapy is when they use radiation to kill cancer cells and to stop them from spreading. Majority of cancer patients do radiation therapy or chemotherapy. There are two types of radiation, external beam and internal radiation. External beam radiation comes from a machine, and internal radiation is when a radioactive source is put inside the body for a short period of time. 4″External beam radiation is the most common, and it entails a machine focusing the radiation on the part of the body affected by the cancer.

” (Libers,2018) The risk factors of radiation therapy is tiredness, skin reaction, and inflammation of tissues and organs. 5″Radiation therapy can also cause a decrease in the number of white blood cells, which help protect the body against infection.” (Shiel Jr., 2018)


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