By the time of Indus valley Civilization agriculture including civil life and trade developed broadly which lasted for around 7000 years. As a result, cities of India and Pakistan showed an improvement within the social organization with better civil facilities. Technological advances of farming spread when the Gangetic basin was changed into fields and the irrigation over the river Ganga leading to creations of new cities, towns and kingdoms in India. By Emperor Ashoka’s reign between 304-232 BCE he embraced Buddhism and by his effort to extend the message of Buddhism resulted to spread to Sri Lanka, and Myanmar and east and west Asia. Afterwards almost the entire South Asia and India were taken over by the Gupta Dynasty between 320 – 550 BCE that produced great Sanskrit epics, Hindu art, decimal system of notation and also contributed the science. After the decline of this dynasty the political unity in South Asia vanished.
With the influence of Tibet Bhutan was able to convert to Buddhism and also Islam emerged to South Asia from the west (Pakistan and Afghanistan). By this new era in India with the dominance of the authority of Brahmins led to religious movement of bhaktis that helped religious literature to rise. Kingdoms in this era expanded trade links between the Arabian Peninsula and South Asia by exporting trade goods and as well as religion. This was a reason to bring Islam to Afghanistan. After the Gupta the Mughal dynasty ruled India mostly the North in the early 16th till mid-18th century. It was prominent for its administrative organization and active rule over seven generations. The British India Company started in the 1600 where tensions between the nations raised for spice trade taking over Indian territory. However, with the rise of Mahatma Gandhi the cultivators gained power suffering rom Europe domination. Gandhi was able unite the nation with his theory. He was freedom fighter who fought against the British rule against India. His efforts made India gain Independence after the Khilafat Movement in 1947 where India became a one divided nation and Pakistan continued and became more Islamic. Afghanistan suffered for more than 30 years of war with an invasion of Soviets and the US. Sri Lanka and the Maldives both survived long-standing civil wars that caused a terrifying number of losses and damage to the countries. Bhutan has become democratic while slowly reducing limits on global communications among struggling to preserve its Buddhist heritage.

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